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A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 6th Edition Santrock Test Bank

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A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 6th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0071316439

ISBN-10: 0071316434

 

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A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development 6th Edition Santrock Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0071316439

ISBN-10: 0071316434

 

 

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Chapter 13: Moral Development, Values, and Religion

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

  1. Changes in thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding standards of right and wrong are termed:
  2. moral development.
  3. conscience development.
  4. religious devotion.
  5. spiritual awakening

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Which dimension of moral development regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict?
  2. intrapersonal
  3. interpersonal
  4. community
  5. cultural

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. When children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world that are out of the control of people, they are displaying:
  2. relativistic justice.
  3. autonomous morality.
  4. heteronomous morality.
  5. homonomous morality.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Mack’s brother suggests they change the rules of the game they are playing. Mack protests and insists that rule changing is not allowed. Mack is:
  2. meting out immanent justice.
  3. an autonomous thinker.
  4. a heteronomous thinker.
  5. a type A personality.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Abby slows down when she sees a police car on the road, because she doesn’t want to get a speeding ticket. What stage of Kohlberg’s morality does this demonstrate?
  2. postconventional
  3. conventional
  4. heteronomous
  5. autonomous

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. During what age period do children transition between Piaget’s heteronomous and autonomous morality?
  2. 4 to 7 years
  3. 7 to 10 years
  4. 10 to 14 years
  5. 14 to 17 years

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. When children become aware that rules and laws are created by people, and can judge action, by considering the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences, they are displaying:
  2. immanent justice.
  3. homonomous morality.
  4. heteronomous morality.
  5. autonomous morality.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Carter spills his orange juice while playing at the table. He refutes his punishment by insisting that the incident was an accident. Carter is displaying:
  2. autonomous morality.
  3. heteronomous morality.
  4. immanent justice.
  5. punishment of intent.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Jessica knocks over a vase containing flowers but blames her infant sister for the mess. Jessica believes:
  2. that punishment is dependent on the amount of damage.
  3. in autonomous morality.
  4. that punishment is dependent on the intent of the perpetrator.
  5. in immanent justice.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Young children believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is a belief in:
  2. immanent justice.
  3. moral justice.
  4. concrete imperatives.
  5. authoritative control.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Ellie’s mom bumps into her, and Ellie’s juice is spilled as a result. Ellie is surprised when she receives no punishment. Ellie believes in:
  2. immanent justice.
  3. intent dependent justice.
  4. social understanding.
  5. autonomous reasoning.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Trenton suggests a rule change to a game he and his friends are playing. His friends agree, and they play with the new rules. Trenton and his friends are able to engage in:
  2. heteronomous reasoning.
  3. autonomous reasoning.
  4. relativistic morality.
  5. immanent justice.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Cassidy’s mother is angry when she discovers writing on the bedroom door. Cassidy replies, “I’m not doing it now.” Cassidy is a(n):
  2. postconventional thinker.
  3. deceitful child.
  4. heteronomous thinker.
  5. autonomous thinker.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. According to Piaget, parent-child relations are less likely to foster moral development than peer relations, because:
  2. parents are inconsistent in delivering consequences for broken rules.
  3. peers are less likely to allow negotiation and reasoning about broken rules.
  4. parents hand down rules and punishment in an authoritarian way.
  5. peers settle disagreements by instituting clear and immediate social sanctions.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. What main method did Kohlberg use to evaluate moral reasoning?
  2. interviews about personal moral behavior
  3. interviews about moral dilemma stories
  4. multisetting observation
  5. standardized testing

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Taetem is interviewed while participating in a protest. Taetem states that she has the right to express her opinion, as does anyone else, and that this protest increases her personal power. Which moral level does Taetem’s statement reflect?
  2. postconventional
  3. conventional
  4. unconventional
  5. preconventional

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Many people involved in the civil rights protests of the 1960s were stage 4 moral thinkers. Which of the following statements MOST likely represents their reasoning?
  2. “The government is interfering with my right to happiness.”
  3. “Somebody has to point out that what the government is doing is illegal.”
  4. “It is time to show that some laws just aren’t good for society.”
  5. “The harm of these government policies can’t be justified by any law.”

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. At which stage of Kohlberg’s theory does a person understand that values and laws are relative, and that standards may vary person to person?
  2. heteronomous morality
  3. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  4. social systems morality
  5. social contract or utility and individual rights

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. A person arrested for robbery states, “I stole the documents, and I am willing to pay my dues, but at least now the public is safer having this important safety information that the company was concealing.” Which moral level does this statement reflect?
  2. conventional
  3. unconventional
  4. preconventional
  5. postconventional

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Brent espouses the Libertarian political platform, which holds that laws should only exist to preserve and protect fundamental human rights. This demonstrates which of Kohlberg’s moral stages?
  2. heteronomous morality
  3. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  4. social contract or utility and individual rights
  5. universal ethical principles

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Allan is visiting a country where it is illegal to give money to panhandlers, but he feels such pangs of conscience that he ignores the law and gives freely to the impoverished children begging for food. Which moral stage does this demonstrate?
  2. individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
  3. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  4. social systems morality
  5. universal ethical principles

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

22.When presented with Kohlberg’s well-known Heinz dilemma, McKenzie’s response is, “It is against the law to steal. The husband should find another way to get the drug.” McKenzie is in which stage of moral development?

  1. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  2. individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
  3. social systems morality
  4. universal ethical principles

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409-411

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. “What goes around comes around.” This characterizes Kohlberg’s:
  2. social contract or utility and individual rights.
  3. social systems morality.
  4. universal ethical principles.
  5. individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 410

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Hector became a police officer, because he believes that members of society prosper from understanding social order, law, justice, and duty. On what moral level does he reason?
  2. preconventional
  3. conventional
  4. postconventional
  5. heteronomous

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 410

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. At school, Drew behaves in morally acceptable ways primarily to win the approval of his teachers. Which stage of conventional reasoning does this demonstrate?
  2. mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity
  3. heteronomous morality
  4. individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange
  5. universal ethical principles

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 410

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Piaget and Kohlberg agree that:
  2. peer relations challenges children to advance their moral reasoning..
  3. biological processes must mature for morality to develop.
  4. children learn morality through consequences of behavior.
  5. morality is a critical period that must be reached by childhood.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 411

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Moral “lessons” slightly beyond children’s cognitive levels will motivate them to restructure their moral thought and promote advanced moral reasoning. This statement is closely tied to the concept(s) of:
  2. social observational learning
  3. dishabituation and habituation
  4. disequilibrium and equilibrium
  5. rewards and punishments in behaviorism

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 411

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Narvaez and Hill (2010) report that a higher level of __________ was linked to open mindedness, a growth mindset, and higher moral judgment.
  2. autonomous reasoning
  3. heteronomous reasoning
  4. multicultural experience
  5. universal reasoning

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Which of the following did Kohlberg believe is MOST influential in an individual’s moral development?
  2. direct instruction
  3. parent-child relationships
  4. peer interactions
  5. socioeconomic status

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

.

  1. Which of the following statements represents a criticism of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development?
  2. Too much emphasis on the influence of environment in moral development.
  3. Too much emphasis on the biological underpinnings of moral development.
  4. Action, not thought, is demonstrative of moral level.
  5. Thought, not action, is demonstrative of moral level.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of reasoning level and action mismatch criticism in Kohlberg’s theory?
  2. Adults admonish children to not do things that they themselves do, like smoking.
  3. Many terrorists believe that their behavior is justified.
  4. Some individuals are able to view themselves as a part of the universe rather than only of humanity.
  5. In the Heinz dilemma, many individuals choose to let the spouse die rather than steal the needed medicine.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of Kohlberg’s theory as it applies across cultures?
  2. Support for Kohlberg’s first four stages was shown across most cultures, with more diversity at stages 5 and 6.
  3. Support for Kohlberg’s last two stages was shown across most cultures, with more diversity at stages 1–4.
  4. None of Kohlberg’s stages hold up across cultures.
  5. All of Kohlberg’s stages are similarly represented across cultures.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. How is Kohlberg’s theory culturally biased?
  2. Many people in non-Western cultures do not achieve the higher stages of moral development.
  3. Kohlberg’s scoring system does not recognize the higher-level moral reasoning of certain cultures.
  4. Some cultures do not recognize the idea of morality but, rather, think in terms of individual survival.
  5. Kohlberg’s theory is not culturally biased. It captures the essence of moral thinking in all cultures.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412-413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. The justice perspective on moral behavior focuses on:
  2. universal ethics.
  3. laws and punishment.
  4. interpersonal communication, relationships, and connectedness.
  5. the rights of the individual.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 412-413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

35.Control over one’s body, privacy, and choice of friends are examples of __________ issues.

  1. moral
  2. social conventional
  3. personal
  4. autonomous

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. The care perspective on moral behavior emphasizes:
  2. connectedness, interpersonal communication, and relationships.
  3. the rights of the individual.
  4. that individuals stand alone and independently make moral decisions.
  5. social customs and conventions.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. According to Carol Gilligan, when interpreting moral dilemmas, girls more often employ:
  2. a justice perspective.
  3. a care perspective.
  4. autonomous reasoning.
  5. social conventional rigors.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Carol Gilligan criticized Kohlberg’s theory for:
  2. emphasizing relationships and concern for others.
  3. discounting the justice perspective and female reasoning patterns.
  4. discounting the care perspective and female reasoning patterns.
  5. minimizing cultural traditions and practices.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Carol Gilligan’s work on moral development has been criticized because:
  2. the theory is not testable.
  3. her predictions are only valid for females.
  4. the “distinctive voice” concept is true only of females in middle age.
  5. girls use both moral orientations, caring and justice, as needed.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. In England, people drive on the left side of the road. This is an example of a:
  2. social convention.
  3. cultural tradition.
  4. moral rule.
  5. justice concept.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. It is unacceptable to lie, steal, cheat, or hurt someone. These are examples of:
  2. social conventions.
  3. cultural traditions.
  4. moral rules.
  5. justice concepts.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. The effectiveness of reward and punishment for engendering moral behavior depends on the:
  2. characteristics of the authority figure.
  3. consistency and timing of administration.
  4. gender of the child.
  5. emotional IQ of the child.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Some individuals would not cheat on a math test but would cheat to win an athletic competition. This is an example of how:
  2. moral thought can beget immoral behavior.
  3. moral behavior is often dependent on situation.
  4. people revert to autonomous reasoning in stressful situations.
  5. rewards and punishments of moral behavior have no effect.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Walter Mischel purports that self-control is strongly influenced by:
  2. religious participation.
  3. biological underpinnings.
  4. cognitive factors.
  5. temperament.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

  1. Which theory of morality emphasizes the distinction between individuals’ ability to perform moral behavior and actual moral behavior in specific situations?
  2. justice perspective
  3. psychoanalytic
  4. social convention
  5. social cognitive

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. 46. Situation-specific ethical behavior is known as:
  2. autonomous reasoning.
  3. moral competence.
  4. moral performance.
  5. heteronomous reasoning.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. According to Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, what is the foundation of moral behavior?
  2. guilt and the desire to avoid feeling guilty
  3. cognitive factors
  4. self-regulation and self-worth
  5. rewards and punishment

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. According to Kochanska and her colleagues (2002), young children:
  2. do not feel guilt.
  3. are aware of right and wrong.
  4. indicate pleasure following doing something wrong.
  5. do not have the capacity to show empathy toward others.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Kierra is tempted to cheat on a test but chooses not to. According to psychoanalytic theory, what keeps Kierra from cheating?
  2. self-punitive guilt
  3. empathy for others that won’t score as well
  4. warnings and lessons from caregivers
  5. extrinsic and intrinsic rewards

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. What is the moral branch of the personality in psychoanalytic theory?
  2. superego
  3. ego
  4. id
  5. conscience

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. What are the two main components of the superego?
  2. ego and id
  3. ego ideal and conscience
  4. guilt and motivation to avoid feeling guilty
  5. sexual attraction and sexual repression

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Clarissa resists peer pressure to smoke a cigarette. She feels proud of herself for maintaining her personal and family standards of behavior. According to psychoanalytic theory, she is being rewarded by her:
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. ego ideal.
  5. conscience.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Mia yields to peer pressure to smoke a cigarette. She feels guilty and worthless for not living up to her personal and family standards of behavior. According to psychoanalytic theory, she is being punished by her:
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. ego ideal.
  5. conscience.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Maya experiences a deep emotional reaction when she speaks to Stephanie about the death of Stephanie’s son. Maya imagines herself in Stephanie’s situation and feels:
  2. empathy.
  3. sympathy.
  4. conscience.
  5. guilt.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. An experimenter pretends to hurt her knee in front of a child to see how the child reacts to another’s emotional response. This experimenter is studying:
  2. temptation.
  3. delay of gratification.
  4. empathy.
  5. conscience.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. In the contemporary perspective on moral development, what contributes to children’s moral development?
  2. parents’ modeled standards and behaviors
  3. biological predisposition
  4. rewarding positive feelings and punishing negative feelings
  5. extrinsic rewards and punishments

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 416

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. One-year-old Skylar cries when she sees her cousin David fall down and get hurt. Skylar is exhibiting:
  2. global sympathy.
  3. global empathy.
  4. local sympathy.
  5. local empathy.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 416

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Which of the following theories hypothesizes a possible personality core of moral reasoning?
  2. moral exemplar
  3. psychoanalytic
  4. social cognitive
  5. Kohlberg’s

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 417-418

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Sydney feels great pressure from his parents to get good grades, but he doesn’t like math or history, and he thinks those teachers are boring and don’t care about students. His best friend recently cheated on a math test and received a passing grade. Sydney could be at risk for which of the following?
  2. academic probation
  3. depression
  4. cheating
  5. high blood pressure

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 419

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Kara let the cat out. Her mother calmly explains, “It’s too cold for the cat to stay outside tonight, and it takes a long time to look for him and get him back in. Please try to be more careful when you open the door next time.” Kara will likely react by:
  2. becoming angry and physically aggressive.
  3. becoming anxious and worried that she will upset her mother again.
  4. understanding that letting the cat out is not good for the cat or her mother.
  5. running to her room, screaming and crying.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Diego is with his son when he discovers a lost wallet. He wants his son to grow up to be a moral person so he:
  2. says, “Wow, I bet the owner is very worried about this wallet. What should we do with it?” They turn in the wallet and talk about the situation on the way home.
  3. exclaims, “Finders-keepers, losers-weepers!”
  4. gives it to the manager of the store without discussing it with his son.
  5. throws it into the trashcan.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Ross Thompson (2006) asserts that children are moral:
  2. exemplars.
  3. apprentices.
  4. characters.
  5. learners.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. According to Narvaez, sustaining classroom environments focus on all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. community connections.
  3. ethics.
  4. punishment and reinforcement.
  5. social engagement.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. John Dewey believed that a school’s classroom rules and moral orientation of the teachers and administrators create a moral atmosphere and, in turn, a:
  2. moral education.
  3. hidden curriculum.
  4. values clarification opportunity.
  5. relativistic moral code.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Proponents of __________ believe that certain behaviors are wrong, and that every school should have an explicit moral code that teaches students what is right and wrong.
  2. a values clarification program
  3. a hidden curriculum
  4. character education
  5. the social cognitive theory of morality

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. How many U.S. states currently have mandates to include character education in school curriculum?
  2. 10
  3. 24
  4. 30
  5. 40

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. A recent emphasis within character education includes helping others and being sensitive to the feelings of others. This involves adopting a(n) __________ perspective.
  2. care
  3. justice
  4. “eye for an eye”
  5. cognitive moral

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

68.. Students are more likely to cheat under which of the following conditions?

  1. when teachers closely monitor testing
  2. when student scores are kept private
  3. when consequences for cheating are clear
  4. when students know their peers are cheating

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 420

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. According to Lawrence Walker’s work on moral development, Mother Teresa would be considered an:
  2. cosmic perspective-taker.
  3. social-conventional thinker.
  4. empathic example.
  5. moral exemplar.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. An approach to moral instruction that encourages students to define their own principles and recognize the standards of others is called:
  2. the hidden curriculum.
  3. social convention identification.
  4. moral education.
  5. values clarification.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Layton Jr. High is offering a course in which students discuss concepts such as democracy, trust, justice, and community. This is an example of:
  2. cognitive moral education.
  3. character education.
  4. observational moral education.
  5. hidden curriculum.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. In which setting would cognitive moral education be MOST effective in advancing moral thinking?
  2. authoritarian school
  3. democratic school
  4. prison work camp
  5. functional skills unit for developmentally delayed children

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Melissa and Andrea went to Peru with their parents to help build a school for local villagers. They participated in:
  2. empathic service.
  3. service learning.
  4. cognitive moral education.
  5. the hidden curriculum.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Derek went to Peru with his parents to help build a school for local villagers. What is a likely outcome of this experience for Derek?
  2. He is concerned about choosing a career that will secure a steady income.
  3. He prefers to spend more time alone.
  4. He gets better grades, sets more goals, and has higher self-esteem.
  5. He renounces his parents’ financial comfort and sleeps on the floor.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Service learning will generate positive outcomes for youth when:
  2. students are assigned challenging projects.
  3. they have opportunities to reflect about their participation.
  4. they work in single sex groups.
  5. engage in activities focused on helping at-risk youth.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Martina participates in a group that discusses social responsibility and the experiences of others. Adults coach the group about ethical decision making and promote caring behaviors. This is an example of:
  2. an integrative approach to moral education.
  3. service learning.
  4. establishing community standards.
  5. cognitive moral education.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 422

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. Rena contributes 10 percent of her income to her church every month. Some argue that Rena receives benefits from this action even if the rewards are intangible. They argue the concept of:
  2. altruism.
  3. reciprocity.
  4. sympathy.
  5. guilt avoidance.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Children aged 3 years and younger share MOST often for:
  2. adult encouragement and praise.
  3. anticipated reciprocation.
  4. non-empathetic reasons such as fun or out of imitation.
  5. altruistic reasons.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Four-year-old Bennett shares a favorite toy. According to William Damon (1988), Bennett is MOST likely motivated by a sense of:
  2. equality.
  3. obligation.
  4. moral duty.
  5. benevolence.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. To a 6-year-old child, being fair would MOST likely mean giving:
  2. an equal amount to all.
  3. more to her/himself than to others.
  4. more to those who are disadvantaged.
  5. more to those who work the hardest.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Hank is angered when his younger brother receives the same amount of allowance as he. “I do twice as many chores as he does!” Hank expects fairness according to:
  2. age.
  3. equality.
  4. benevolence.
  5. merit.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. At an Easter egg hunt, the small children are allowed to start hunting a few minutes before the older children begin. This is an example of fairness according to:
  2. benevolence.
  3. equality.
  4. merit.
  5. altruism.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. A child’s motivation to share is MOST heavily influenced by the:
  2. desire to obey adult authority figures.
  3. give-and-take of peer requests and arguments.
  4. saliency of the item in dispute.
  5. feelings of shame, guilt, and empathy.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Amelia is very grateful that her friend took the time to pick her up from the airport with her favorite coffee drink. Amelia’s feelings are an example of:
  2. gratitude.
  3. forgiveness.
  4. empathy.
  5. altruism.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 425

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Volunteerism in older adults is associated with all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. decreased anxiety.
  3. decreased depression.
  4. positive affect.
  5. decreased immune system functioning.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 425

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Which of the following regarding forgiveness is NOT true?
  2. Individuals are more likely to forgive family members than non-family members.
  3. Individuals are especially swayed by peer pressure in their willingness to forgive others.
  4. Women are more likely to forgive than men.
  5. Individuals are more likely to forgive those who are dead than those who are alive.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 425

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Although finances are tight, William contributes 10 percent of his income to his church monthly. This is an act of:
  2. reciprocity.
  3. sympathy.
  4. empathy.
  5. altruism.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 425

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. A recent large-scale U.S. study revealed which of the following regarding volunteering?
  2. Volunteerism decreases with age.
  3. Older adults who volunteer have higher levels of stress hormones.
  4. Helping others is linked with a reduced mortality rate.
  5. Volunteering increases depressive and anxiety symptoms.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 425

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Age-inappropriate actions and attitudes that violate family expectations, societal norms, and personal or property rights of others describe:
  2. a conduct disorder.
  3. juvenile delinquency.
  4. power assertion.
  5. ego-destruction.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 426

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of children show serious conduct problems?
  2. 2 %
  3. 5 %
  4. 8 %
  5. 12 %

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 426

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. What percentage of juvenile delinquency cases involves males?
  2. 90%
  3. 65%
  4. 80%
  5. 40%

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 426

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Thirteen-year-old Rilie sneaks out of the house often. She and her friends destroy property, drink alcohol, and smoke cigarettes. Rilie’s therapist has diagnosed her with:
  2. explosive anger disorder.
  3. difficult temperament.
  4. attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  5. conduct disorder.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 426-427

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Eight-year-old Max regularly displays antisocial behavior and destroys property. His early onset antisocial behavior is associated with which of the following outcomes?
  2. more mental health and relationship problems in emerging adulthood
  3. reduced signs of juvenile delinquency
  4. decreased risk for being a victim of violence
  5. increased risk for being a victim of violence

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 427

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. A mayoral candidate advocates that juvenile offenders be treated as adults in the criminal justice system. Does research support or refute this idea?
  2. Support. Juveniles treated as adults are likely to reform.
  3. Support. Other teens are deterred from crime when they see juveniles punished harshly.
  4. Refute. Juveniles are more likely to be repeat offenders when penalized as adults.
  5. No clear evidence has been gathered to support or refute his idea.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 427

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Which of the following family characteristics is NOT linked to juvenile delinquency?
  2. lack of parental monitoring of adolescents
  3. having an older sibling who is a high achiever
  4. having delinquent peers
  5. interparental conflict

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 428

Learning Goal 4: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Which of the following cognitive factors is NOT linked with juvenile delinquency?
  2. low self-control
  3. low intelligence
  4. lack of sustained attention
  5. low self-esteem

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 429

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Juvenile delinquency is negatively correlated with:
  2. income.
  3. number of children in the house.
  4. age of the mother.
  5. age of the offender.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 429

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Externalizing disorder involves can include all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. self-reported antisocial behavior.
  3. ADHD.
  4. oppositional defiant disorder.
  5. conduct disorder

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 429

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. A feeling of connectedness to a sacred other such as God, nature, or a higher power is:
  2. conscience.
  3. morality.
  4. spirituality.
  5. a care perspective.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 430

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Beliefs and attitudes about the way things should be according to what is important to an individual are:
  2. values.
  3. schemas.
  4. scripts.
  5. priority concepts.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 430

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Research shows that over the last several years, college-aged students are placing more value on:
  2. family relationships.
  3. environmental issues.
  4. self-fulfillment and material gain.
  5. global aide and travel.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 430

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Jimmy feels motivated to seek out the religion in which he can believe. What age group is Jimmy MOST likely in?
  2. childhood
  3. adolescence
  4. early adulthood
  5. middle adulthood

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 431

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Natalie participates in community service, does not use drugs, and gets good grades. Natalie is likely:
  2. at-risk for an internalizing mental disorder.
  3. socially awkward.
  4. religious.
  5. agnostic.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 431

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. In which religion is 12 year-old Jana MOST likely to believe?
  2. her parents’ religion
  3. her best friend’s religion
  4. the dominant religion in the area
  5. She is unlikely to believe in any religion until early adulthood.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 431

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Most people adopt the religious teachings of their upbringing. If a religious change or awakening does occur, it is MOST likely to happen during:
  2. a mid-life crisis.
  3. early adulthood.
  4. adolescence.
  5. late adulthood.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 431

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. When adolescents begin to examine the more abstract features of religion, in which stage of religious thought are they functioning?
  2. preoperational
  3. concrete operational
  4. formal operational
  5. postformal

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 432

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Recent studies show which of the following about the religiousness of college students?
  2. upward trend in religious interest
  3. downtrend in religious interest
  4. upward trend in ultraconservative religions
  5. downtrend in “alternative” community-based religions

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 432

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Which of the following is true of adolescents’ religious involvement?
  2. Low religious involvement is correlated with stronger family relationships.
  3. Lack of religious involvement triples the chance of an adolescent engaging in delinquent behaviors.
  4. Religious adolescents have lower grades due to over-involvement with church activities.
  5. Religious adolescents are almost three times as likely to engage in community service.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 433

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Daria frequently attends a church youth group, participates in community charity events, and attends church services with her family. Which of the following MOST likely describes Daria?
  2. She has a strong sense of spiritual well being.
  3. She often suffers from depression.
  4. She frequently engages in risk-taking behaviors.
  5. She often feels detached and unable to cope with challenging situations.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 433

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. In a recent study of adolescents, what was negatively correlated to school truancy and depression?
  2. specific religious denominations
  3. higher stage of religious thought
  4. personal conservatism
  5. personal devotion to any religion

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 433

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

111. Which of the following is NOT a finding of the studies on religion in adulthood?

  1. Over 90% of Americans say they believe in God.
  2. Approximately 70 percent of Americans consider themselves religious.
  3. A large majority of people attend religious services two or more times monthly.
  4. Females show more interest in religion than males.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 434

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Approximately what percentage of Americans said that they pray everyday (Pew Research Center, 2008)?
  2. 45 %
  3. 58 %
  4. 75 %
  5. 90 %

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 434

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. At 85 years old, Darlene is content. She has things to do, meets plenty of people, and is in good health. Which of the following is MOST likely true?
  2. Darlene practices her religious faith.
  3. Darlene receives psychotherapy to help her deal with issues of aging.
  4. Darlene never married.
  5. Darlene resides in a nursing home.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 434

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Some studies show a positive link between religion and health. Which of the following is NOT part of the evidence that shows a positive association between religious participation and health?
  2. increased chance for longevity
  3. lowered rates of diabetes
  4. lowered blood pressure and hypertension
  5. lower risk of depression

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 434

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. An older adult is highly involved in the church and feels that religion plays an important role in leading a meaningful and contented life. This older adult is MOST likely a(n):
  2. non-Latino White American.
  3. Asian American.
  4. African American.
  5. Latino.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Application

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 435

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Compared to middle adulthood, religious interests __________ in late adulthood.
  2. increase for men and decrease for women
  3. increase for women and decrease for men
  4. decrease for both men and women
  5. increase for both men and women

Answer: d

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 435

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. According to Victor Frankl, the three MOST distinct human qualities are freedom, responsibility, and:
  2. meaning.
  3. spirituality.
  4. religion.
  5. faith.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback: Page: 437

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

Short Answer

 

  1. List the three domains of moral development.

Answer:

  1. Thought
  2. Behavior
  3. Feelings

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. List and define the two dimensions of moral development.

Answer:

Intrapersonal: regulates a person’s activities when he/she is not engaged in social interaction.

Interpersonal: regulates social interactions and arbitrates conflict.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 408

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Briefly discuss the two broad types of moral reasoning development identified by Piaget.

Answer:

  1. Heteronomous morality: occurs at approximately 4 to 7 years of age; justice and rules are perceived as unchangeable properties of the world removed from the control of people.
  2. Autonomous morality: occurs at approximately 10 years of age and older; rules and laws are created by people; in judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well as the consequences.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 408-409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Define the concept of immanent justice.

Answer:

If a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Moderate

Feedback: Page: 409

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. List and briefly describe Kohlberg’s six stages of moral development.

Answer:

Stage 1. Heteronomous morality: moral thinking is tied to punishment.

Stage 2. Individualism, instrumental purpose, and exchange: it is okay to pursue one’s own interests, but others must be allowed to do the same. If one is nice, others will be nice.

Stage 3. Mutual interpersonal expectations, relationships, and interpersonal conformity: individuals value trust, caring, and loyalty as a basis of moral judgments.

Stage 4. Social systems morality: moral judgments are based on understanding of the social order, law, justice, and duty.

Stage 5. Social contract or utility and individual rights: values, rights, and principles undergird or transcend the law. Validity of the law is examined in terms of degree to which they preserve and protect fundamental human rights and values.

Stage 6. Universal ethical principles: moral standards based on universal human rights. One will follow conscience over law even at personal risk.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 409-410

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. Identify three criticisms of Kohlberg’s theory of moral development.

Answer:

  1. Too much emphasis on moral thought and not enough emphasis on moral behavior.
  2. Quality of the research is questionable (male biased).
  3. Inadequate consideration of role of culture(culturally biased).
  4. Underestimation of the contribution of family relationships to moral development.
  5. Underestimation of the care perspective.
  6. Kohlberg’s moral dilemmas are outside of everyday occurrences.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 412

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. How does Kohlberg’s theory of moral development differ from Gilligan’s theory?

Answer:

Kohlberg’s theory is a justice perspective. Focus is on the rights of the individual. Gilligan’s theory is a care perspective. Focus is on an individual’s connectedness with others.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Evaluation

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 412-413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Contrast justice and care perspectives.

Answer:

Justice perspective: focuses on rights of the individual; individuals stand alone and independently make moral decisions.

Care perspective: people are viewed in terms of their connectedness with others; emphasis is on communication, relationships with others, and concern for others.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 412-413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Compare and contrast the concepts of social conventional reasoning and moral reasoning. Give an example of each.

Answer:

Social conventional reasoning: focuses on thoughts about social consensus and convention. Social rules are created to control behavioral irregularities and maintain the social system. Conventional rules are arbitrary and subject to individual judgment. Social conventional judgments are concepts of social organization.

Example: How to use utensils at the dinner table; in the United States, people drive on the right side of the road.

Moral reasoning: emphasizes ethical issues. Moral rules are not arbitrary and not created by social consensus. Moral rules are obligatory, widely accepted, and somewhat impersonal. Moral judgments involve concepts of justice.

Example: Lying, cheating, stealing, physically harming others, and so on.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 412-413

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Describe how reinforcement, punishment, and imitation invoke moral reasoning.

Answer:

When individuals are reinforced for behavior that is consistent with laws and social conventions, they are likely to repeat that behavior.

When individuals are punished for immoral behaviors, those behaviors can be eliminated, but at the expense of sanctioning punishment by its very use.

(The effectiveness of reward and punishment depends on the consistency and timing with which they are administered.)

When individuals are provided with moral models, they are more likely to adopt their actions depending on the characteristics of the model and the cognitive skills of the observer.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

Difficulty Level: Basic

Feedback Page: 413-414

Learning Goal: 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Explain the social cognitive theory of morality.

Answer:

The social cognitive theory of morality emphasizes a distinction between an individual’s moral competence (ability to perform moral behaviors) and moral performance (performing moral behaviors in specific situations).

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Contrast moral competence and moral performance.

Answer:

Moral competence: ability to perform moral behaviors.

Moral performance: actual performance of moral behaviors in specific situations.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 414

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Explain moral behavior in terms of psychoanalytic theory.

Answer:

Guilt is the foundation of moral behavior. The superego is the moral branch of the personality and has two components, the ego ideal and the conscience. The ego ideal rewards moral behavior by conveying a sense of pride and personal value. The conscience punishes for immoral behavior with guilt.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 415

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Describe empathy and what is required to feel empathy. Describe global empathy.

Answer:

Empathy means reacting to another’s feelings with an emotional response similar to the other’s feelings. It requires the ability to take another’s perspective.

Global empathy is displayed by infants who have not developed clear boundaries between the feelings and needs of the self and those of another.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 415-416

Learning Goal 1: Discuss theory and research on moral thought, behavior, feeling, and personality

 

  1. Describe service learning, and list three possible benefits of participating in such a project.

Answer:

Service learning is a form of education that promotes social responsibility and service to the community. A key feature is that service learning benefits both the volunteer and the recipients of the help.

Benefits:

  1. improve grades
  2. set more goals
  3. improve self-esteem
  4. develop a sense of being able to make a difference
  5. become less alienated
  6. reflect on society’s political organization and moral order

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 421

Learning Goal 2: Explain how parents and schools influence moral development

 

  1. What is altruism, and what circumstances are MOST likely to evoke altruism?

Answer:

Altruism is an unselfish interest in helping another person. It is most likely evoked by empathy for an individual in need or a close relationship between the benefactor and the recipient.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 423

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. Describe three notions of fairness.

Answer:

Equality: everyone is treated the same.

Merit: extra rewards are given for hard work, talented performance, or other laudatory behavior.

Benevolence: special consideration is given to individuals in a disadvantaged condition.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 424

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. List 3 causes of delinquency.

Answer:

Restricted identity development

Feelings that they cannot live up to the demands placed upon them

Lower-SES

Lack of quality schooling

Disorganized neighborhoods

Lack of parental monitoring

Associating with deviant peers

Having a delinquent older sibling

Hostile sibling relationships

Low self-control

Low self-esteem

Low intelligence

Lack of sustained attention

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 426

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. List two antecedents or warning signs of possible conduct problems in children.

Answer:

  1. Authority conflict.
  2. Covert acts (lying, cheating, etc.).
  3. Overt acts (minor aggression, etc.).

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 427

Learning Goal 3: Describe the development of prosocial and antisocial behavior

 

  1. List three positive outcomes linked with religiosity in adolescence.

Answer:

  1. Less likely to use drugs.
  2. Better grades.
  3. Higher socially acceptable behavior.
  4. Exposure to more positive role models.
  5. Lower rates of delinquent behavior.
  6. More caring for other people.
  7. Participation in community service.
  8. Answers to questions about the meaning, purpose, and direction of life.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 433

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. List two benefits of religiosity in adulthood.

Answer:

  1. Greater happiness.
  2. Better health.
  3. Longer life.
  4. Lower drug use.
  5. More social connections.
  6. More hope and motivation during difficult situations.
  7. Higher self-esteem.
  8. Sense of meaning in life.
  9. Stronger immune system.
  10. Lower incidence of depression.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 434

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life

 

  1. List Roy Baumeister’s four main needs for meaning.

Answer:

  1. Need for purpose. Goals and fulfillment lend meaning to life.
  2. Need for values. Values can lend a sense of goodness to life and justify certain courses of action.
  3. Need for efficacy. Individuals need to believe that they can make a difference and feel in control of their lives.
  4. Need for self-worth. Self-worth can be pursued individually or in relation to one’s connection with others.

Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

Difficulty Level: Difficult

Feedback: Page: 437

Learning Goal 4: Characterize the development of values, religion, spirituality, and meaning in life