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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

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Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1305105423

ISBN-10: 1305105427

 

Description

Abnormal Child Psychology 6th Edition Mash Wolfe Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1305105423

ISBN-10: 1305105427

 

 

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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

Chapter 5

1. Evolutionary degeneracy theory attributed the intellectual and social problems of children with intellectual disability to ____.​

a.​cold parenting
b.​regression to an earlier period in the development of humankind
c.​degeneration of societal values
d.​genetic abnormalities

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

2. During the eugenics movement, persons with intellectual disability were considered ____.​

a.​relatively harmless
b.​a threat to society
c.​the missing evolutionary link
d.​amusing individuals

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

3. Subaverage intellectual functioning is defined as an IQ approximately ____.​

a.​one standard deviation below the mean
b.​two standard deviations below the mean
c.​a mental age of less than 10 years
d.​a mental age of less than 15 years

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

4. To be diagnosed with intellectual disability, a person must exhibit ____.​

a.​subaverage intellectual functioning
b.​genetic anomalies
c.​deficits in adaptive functioning
d.​subaverage intellectual functioning and deficits in adaptive functioning

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

5. IQ scores among individuals without intellectual disability are ____.​

a.​stable throughout the life span
b.​stable only after age 12
c.​relatively stable with the exception of infancy
d.​not at all stable

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

6. In comparison to the IQ scores of normally developing children, those of infants and children with developmental delays or intellectual disability are ____.​

a.​more stable
b.​less stable
c.​equally stable
d.​unmeasurable

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

7. The ____ refers to the phenomenon that IQ scores have risen sharply since the beginning of IQ testing.​

a.​Flynn Effect
b.​Foster Effect
c.​IQ Effect
d.​Scoring Effect

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

8. The rising of IQ scores is due to ____.​

a.​more testing
b.​rising cost of living
c.​medical advances
d.​decreased need for manual labor

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

9. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy in IQ scores between blacks and whites in North America is ____.​

a.​genetic dissimilarities
b.​test bias
c.​economic and social inequalities
d.​poor attitude

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

10. ​To be labeled with intellectual disability, below average intellectual and adaptive abilities must be ____.

a.​due to chromosomal abnormalities
b.​due to genetic anomalies
c.​present before age 12
d.​present before age 18

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

11. DSM-5 criteria for intellectual disability consist of subaverage intellectual functioning of ____ or below and impairment in ________.​

a.​70; adaptive functioning
b.​50; self-help skills
c.​80; communication
d.​65; academic skills

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Functioning
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

12. In the DSM-5, the level of disability, reflecting a child’s degree of difficulty, is based upon the ____.​

a.​number of deficits in adaptive functioning
b.​extent of cognitive impairment
c.​extent of support needed
d.​number of social deficits

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

13. The majority of individuals with intellectual disabilities have ____ impairment.​

a.​mild
b.​moderate
c.​severe
d.​profound

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

14. The ____ category of intellectual disability is overrepresented in minority groups.​

a.​mild
b.​moderate
c.​severe
d.​profound

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

15. Individuals with mild intellectual disability can usually acquire academic skills up to approximately the _______ grade level.​

a.​second
b.​sixth
c.​tenth
d.​twelfth

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

16. Many persons with Down syndrome function at the ____ level of disability.​

a.​mild
b.​moderate
c.​severe
d.​profound

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

17. The more severe forms of intellectual disability are more likely due to ____ causes than is mild intellectual disability.​

a.​cultural
b.​familial
c.​idiopathic
d.​organic

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

18. Persons with profound intellectual disability ____.​

a.​have intelligence the equivalent of a sixth grade education
b.​lag behind peers in school but develop some language skills
c.​have a need for support for all daily physical care
d.​have the ability to eat and dress with reminders

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

19. The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (AAIDD) categorizes persons with intellectual disability according to ____.​

a.​number of deficits in adaptive functioning
b.​extent of cognitive impairment
c.​extent of support needed
d.​number of social deficits

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

20. The prevalence estimate for intellectual disability in children and adults is about ____ of the entire population.​

a.​0.4%
b.​1%
c.​4%
d.​5%

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

21. If a true male excess of intellectual disability exists, and the higher prevalence rate is not due to identification and referral patterns, it is likely due to ____.​

a.​testosterone
b.​fetal alcohol syndrome
c.​fragile-X syndrome
d.​Klinefelter’s syndrome

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

22. Intellectual disability is more prevalent among ____.​

a.​lower SES
b.​rural families
c.​higher SES
d.​middle children

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

23. The suggestion that children with intellectual disability demonstrate the same behaviors and underlying processes as typically developing children who are at the same level of cognitive functioning is referred to as the ____.​

a.​difference hypothesis
b.​developmental hypothesis
c.​similar sequence hypothesis
d.​similar structure hypothesis

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

24. The ____ argues that cognitive development of children with intellectual disability differs from that of children without intellectual disability in more ways than merely differences in developmental rate and upper limit.​

a.​developmental difference
b.​developmental viewpoint
c.​disparity hypothesis
d.​difference viewpoint

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

25. In general, children with Down syndrome display ____.​

a.​progressive loss of adaptive functioning skills from birth on
b.​declining IQ but increasing social skills
c.​significant gains in adaptive behaviors up to age 6, followed by a leveling off or decline
d.​a surge in abilities from ages 10 to 15

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

26. The observation that children with Down syndrome may alternate between periods of gain and functioning and periods of little or no advance is the ____.​

a.​functioning difference hypothesis
b.​variance hypothesis
c.​variance observation
d.​slowing and stability hypothesis

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

27. Children with Down syndrome display considerable delay in ____.​

a.​expressive language development
b.​receptive language development
c.​expressive and receptive language development
d.​neither expressive nor receptive language development

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

28. ____ is critical to regulating social interaction and providing a foundation for early self/other understanding.​

a.​Expressive language
b.​Receptive language
c.​Internal state language
d.​Secure attachment

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

29. In the “strange situation” attachment assessment technique, children with Down syndrome ____.​

a.​display significant distress upon separation
b.​readily reach for strangers for comfort
c.​show few distress signals despite an apparent need for contact with their caregivers
d.​angrily turn away from their caregivers upon reunion

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

30. When toddlers with Down syndrome begin to recognize themselves in a mirror, they often ____.​

a.​cry
b.​smile and laugh
c.​strike out
d.​appear confused

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

31. Children with mild to moderate intellectual disability learn symbolic play ____.​

a.​in much the same manner as other children
b.​in a different manner than other children
c.​only to a very small degree
d.​in a different manner than other children and only to a very small degree

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

32. When mainstreamed into a regular classroom, children with intellectual disability ____.​

a.​are accepted readily by other children
b.​are targeted and abused by other children
c.​are often aggressive toward other children
d.​end up being socially isolated because other children do not play with them

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

33. Which psychiatric diagnosis is least common among children with intellectual disability?​

a.​schizophrenia
b.​pica
c.​anxiety disorders
d.​mood disorders

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

34. Generally, the emotional and behavioral problems of children with intellectual disability ____.​

a.​constitute major psychiatric disorders
b.​are considered part of the spectrum of problems coexisting with intellectual disability
c.​often are not severe enough to require intervention
d.​have prevalence rates comparable to those of the general population

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

35. Children with intellectual disability have a greater chance of having ____.​

a.​cystic fibrosis
b.​narcolepsy
c.​sensory impairment
d.​schizophrenia

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

36. Which statement regarding the causes of intellectual disability is false?​

a.​The causes of mild intellectual disability are better understood than the causes of moderate to severe intellectual disability.
b.​There are over 1,000 different known organic causes of intellectual disability.
c.​Scientists cannot account for the cause of intellectual disability in the majority of cases.
d.​A genetic cause is known for almost three quarters of individuals with moderate intellectual disability.

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

37. As viewed from the two-group approach, the ____ group is usually associated with mild forms of disability.​

a.​organic
b.​single
c.​natural
d.​familial

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

38. ______ factors are implicated in mild forms of intellectual disability.​

a.​Genetic
b.​Environmental
c.​Genetic and environmental
d.​Situational

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

39. The proportion of variance in a trait attributable to genetic influences is called ____.​

a.​genotype
b.​phenotype
c.​heritability
d.​attribution

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

40. The gene-environment interaction is referred to as ____.​

a.​genotype
b.​phenotype
c.​heritability
d.​attribution

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

41. The evidence points to a heritability of intelligence of approximately ____.​

a.​0%
b.​10%
c.​50%
d.​75%

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

42. One cause of severe intellectual disability responsible for phenylketonuria (PKU) is ____.​

a.​chromosomal abnormalities
b.​single gene abnormalities
c.​environmental deprivation
d.​perinatal insult

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

43. ____ is the most common form of intellectual disability resulting from chromosomal abnormalities.​

a.​Klinefelter’s syndrome
b.​Fragile-X syndrome
c.​Down syndrome
d.​Prader-Willi syndrome

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

44. ____ is associated with intellectual disability and is a disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome.​

a.​Klinefelter’s syndrome
b.​Turner’s syndrome
c.​Fragile-X syndrome
d.​Prader-Willi syndrome

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

45. Down syndrome occurs more often with older mothers than younger mothers because_______.​

a.​chromosomal nondisjunction increases with maternal age
b.​women’s ova become generally less healthy with age
c.​older women are generally less healthy than younger women
d.​younger mothers do not carry genes containing chromosome issues

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

46. ____ is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability.​

a.​Down syndrome
b.​Fragile-X syndrome
c.​Prader-Willi syndrome
d.​Phenylketonuria

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

47. Lindsay and her sister were born into a socially disadvantaged family. Lindsay was adopted into a more privileged home. Lindsay’s IQ score is likely to be:​

a.​higher then her sister’s score
b.​the same as her sister’s score
c.​lower then her sister’s score
d.​one standard deviation lower than her sister’s score

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

48. Which cause of intellectual disability is associated with an involuntary urge to eat?​

a.​Down syndrome
b.​Fragile-X syndrome
c.​Prader-Willi syndrome
d.​Angelman syndrome

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

49. Both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes are ____.​

a.​inherited conditions
b.​associated with an involuntary urge to eat
c.​believed to be spontaneous genetic birth defects that occur around the time of conception
d.​none of these

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

50. Phenylketonuria is a(n) ____ that can cause intellectual disability if untreated.​

a.​chromosomal abnormality
b.​environmental toxin
c.inborn error of metabolism
d.​infection

 

ANSWER:  c
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

51. Which of the following is not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome?​

a.​central nervous system dysfunction
b.​abnormalities in facial features
c.​growth retardation below the tenth percentile
d.​non-teratogenic cause

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

52. In addition to intellectual difficulties, children with fetal alcohol syndrome often have difficulties that resemble ____.

a.​autism
b.​ADHD
c.​oppositional defiant disorder
d.​schizophrenia

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

53. On average, the IQ of children with fetal alcohol syndrome is in the ____ range of intellectual disability.​

a.mild
b.​moderate
c.​severe
d.​profound

 

ANSWER:  a
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

54. What is most likely to be of concern to the father of a child with intellectual disability?​

a.​how to raise the child properly
b.​what effect the child will have on his personal relationship with his wife
c.​what restrictions the child will place on his role in the family
d.​how to feel close to the child

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

55. _______ teaches children to use verbal cues to process information, to keep themselves on task, and to remind themselves how to approach a new task.​

a.​Strategic training
b.​Self-instructional training
c.​Metacognitive training
d.​Social skill training

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

56. Self-instructional training programs are most beneficial for ____.​

children with no language skills

a.​children with severe intellectual disability
b.​children whose parents are also mentally retarded
c.​children with no language skills
d.​children with some language proficiency, but who have trouble understanding and following directions

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

57. Education of children with intellectual disability has been plagued by the fact that ____.​

a.​it is difficult to teach the children specific cognitive skills
b.​the children lack the metacognitive capabilities needed to apply skills to new situations
c.​families are usually reluctant to seek services after diagnosis
d.​schools are unwilling to mainstream children with intellectual disability into regular classrooms

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

58. Which statement regarding the adjustment of families of children with intellectual disability is false?​

a.​Most parents of children with intellectual disability come to see their child as a positive contributor to their family and quality of life.
b.​Families of children with intellectual disability experience higher-than-average levels of stress.
c.​Parents of children with intellectual disability experience higher-than-average depressive symptoms.
d.​Family involvement has not been shown to be as beneficial as residential care.

 

ANSWER:  d
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

59. Research investigating the effectiveness of residential care for children with intellectual disability indicates that ____.​

a.​residential care is not an effective treatment option
b.​family involvement is crucial to children’s adaptation to and benefit from residential care
c.​contact with family serves to confuse the child and disrupts the child’s progress
d.​residential care is the most effective treatment option

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

60. Children with Down syndrome have strong ____.​

a.​sensory motor coordination
b.​visual short-term memories
c.​muscle tone
d.​expressive language ability

 

ANSWER:  b
DIFFICULTY:  Easy
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

61. Provide examples of adaptive behaviors as outlined in the text.​

ANSWER:  Personal activities of daily living such as eating, dressing, mobility, and toileting. Instrumental activities of daily living such as preparing meals, taking medication, using the telephone, managing money, using transportation, and doing housekeeping activities.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

62. Discuss three reasons why IQ scores have been rising.​

ANSWER:  In attempting to explain the Flynn effect, scientists have considered the rising standards of living, better schooling, better nutrition, medical advances, more stimulating environments, even the influence of computer games and complex toys. Additionally, relatively permissive and child-focused parenting style has emerged during recent decades, which may have given children greater facility with language and stronger overall cognitive capacity. Moreover, there are unprecedented cultural differences between successive generations—daily life and occupational experiences are far more complex today than in the past.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Intelligence and Intellectual Disability
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

63. Describe the categories of intellectual disability based on the level of needed supports.​

ANSWER:  As a group, children with mild intellectual disability typically develop social and communication skills during the preschool years (aged 0–5 years), perhaps with modest delays in expressive language. They usually have minimal or no sensorimotor impairment and engage with peers readily. During their adult years, they usually achieve social and vocational skills adequate for minimum self-support, but may need supervision, guidance, and assistance, especially when under unusual social or economic stress. Persons with moderate intellectual disability constitute about 10% of individuals with ID. Children and adolescents at this level of impairment are more intellectually and adaptively impaired than someone with mild intellectual disability, and usually they are identified during the preschool years, when they show delays in reaching early developmental milestones. Because their social judgment and decision-making abilities are limited, children and youth with moderate ID often require supportive services to function on a daily basis. Those with severe intellectual disability constitute approximately 4% of persons with ID. Most of these individuals suffer one or more organic causes of impairment, such as genetic defects, and are identified at a very young age because they have substantial delays in development and visible physical features or anomalies. Most persons functioning at the severe level of intellectual disability require some special assistance throughout their lives. Persons with profound intellectual disability constitute approximately 2% of those with ID. Such individuals typically are identified in infancy because of marked delays in development and biological anomalies such as asymmetrical facial features. Persons with profound intellectual disability require lifelong care and assistance.​
DIFFICULTY:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
REFERENCES:  Moderate
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

64. Discuss the different reasons why more males than females are diagnosed with intellectual disability.​

ANSWER:  Similar to racial differences in the diagnosis of intellectual disability, gender differences in ID may be an artifact of identification and referral patterns rather than true differences in prevalence (Einfeld et al., 2010). If a true male excess of intellectual disability does exist, researchers suspect this may be due to the occurrence of X-linked genetic disorders such as fragile-X syndrome (discussed later in the chapter), which affect males more often than females (Handen, 2007).​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

65. Discuss the connection between SES and intellectual disability.​

ANSWER:  This link is found primarily among children in the mild intellectual disability range; children with more severe levels are identified almost equally in different racial and economic groups. Whether or not signs of organic etiology are present, diagnoses of mild intellectual disability increase sharply from near zero among children from higher SES categories to about 2.5% in the lowest SES category (APA, 2000). These figures indicate that SES factors play a suspected role both in the cause of intellectual disability and in the identification and labeling of persons with intellectual disability.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Features of Intellectual Disabilities
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

66. Discuss the developmental-versus-difference controversy regarding the development of children with intellectual disability.​

ANSWER:  Simply stated, the developmental-versus-difference controversy is this: Do all children regardless of intellectual impairments—progress through the same developmental milestones in a similar sequence, but at different rates? Or do children with intellectual disability develop in a different, less sequential, and less organized fashion?​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

67. Explain how learned helplessness may arise in a child with intellectual disability.​

ANSWER:  This learned helplessness may be unwittingly condoned by adults. When they are told a child is “retarded,” adults are less likely to urge that child to persist after failure than they are to urge a normal child at the same level of cognitive development.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

68. Discuss why some children with Down syndrome have problems developing secure attachments.​

ANSWER:  A significant number of these children may have problems in developing a secure attachment because they express less emotion than other children.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

69. What considerations would you have to take into account when diagnosing ADHD in a child with intellectual disability?​

ANSWER:  The diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) requires the presence of behavioral disturbance that is inappropriate for an individual’s developmental level. Attention spans, distractibility, and on-task behaviors vary considerably among individuals with profound intellectual disability. An individual with profound intellectual disability must be compared with other children with profound intellectual disability for the purpose of diagnosing any other psychiatric disturbance.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

70. Distinguish between organic and cultural-familial intellectual disability. In your answer be sure to contrast the characteristics (e.g., degree of severity, minority and socioeconomic group representation) associated with each.​

ANSWER:  The causes in the organic group have a clear biological basis and are usually associated with severe and profound intellectual disability, whereas causes in the cultural–familial group have no clear organic basis and are usually associated with mild intellectual disability The relative importance of the environment also stands out in the two-group distinction. The socioeconomic background of the organic group is about the same as that for the general population, which fits with the notion that severe forms of intellectual disability can affect anyone, regardless of SES. The familial group is overrepresented by those of lower SES and social disadvantage and is significantly related to a family history of intellectual disability. This fits with the assertion that an impoverished social environment can influence intellectual growth and ability in subtle, yet crucial, ways.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Developmental Course and Adult Outcomes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

71. Discuss two conditions that can arise from chromosomal abnormalities.​

ANSWER:  The most common disorder that results from a chromosome abnormality is Down syndrome. These abnormalities also can occur in the number of sex chromosomes, resulting in intellectual disability syndromes such as Klinefelter’s (XXY, a disorder in which males have an extra X chromosome) and Turner’s (XO, a disorder in which women are missing a second X chromosome).​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Understand

 

72. Explain how intellectual disability may result from PKU.​

ANSWER:  One of the best understood examples of a single gene condition is phenylketonuria (PKU), a rare disorder occurring in approximately 1 in 15,000 individuals (Waisbren, 2011). Unlike chromosomal abnormalities that cause Down syndrome, the cause of PKU is a recessive gene transmitted by typical Mendelian mechanisms.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Causes
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

73. Describe how you would use shaping to teach a non-verbal child to say “hungry.”​

ANSWER:  Shaping is a procedure that begins by forming a list of responses (such as “he,” “ha,” “hu”) that were progressively more similar to the target response (in this case, the word hungry). After an individual mastered the first sound, she would be reinforced only for attempts at the next sound on the list, and so on, until the desired sound or word was gradually shaped.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply

 

74. What are the critical periods in the family life cycle in which parent training is the most beneficial? Why is parent training most beneficial during these periods?

ANSWER:  There are three critical, but not exclusive, periods during the family life cycle in which parent training and family counseling are most beneficial. The first occurs during the child’s infancy and toddlerhood, when parents are coming to terms with the child’s disability and may need assistance in learning ways to provide adequate stimulation of early language formation and similar developmental skills. A second critical time is during the preschool and school years, when parents often want to know more about the best way to teach their child basic academic and social skills. Intensive programs, which demand a considerable amount of the parents’ time, are usually best suited for the preschool years, when the family is most focused on child developmental issues (Brown et al., 2008). Finally, parental concerns resurface during the child’s emergence into young adulthood. At this age, the child is no longer eligible for funded schooling, and new issues of housing, employment, relationships, and financial planning associated with independent living become concerns.​
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Analyze

 

75. Describe self-instructional training used with children with intellectual disability.

ANSWER:  Self-instructional training is most beneficial for children who have developed some language proficiency but still have difficulty understanding and following directions. Self-instructional training teaches children to use verbal cues, initially taught by the therapist or teacher, to process information, to keep themselves on task.
DIFFICULTY:  Moderate
REFERENCES:  Prevention, Education, and Treatment
KEYWORDS:  Bloom’s: Apply