Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Jenkins Kemnitz Tortora Test Bank

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Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Jenkins Kemnitz Tortora Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0470227589

ISBN-10: 0470227583


Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Jenkins Kemnitz Tortora Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0470227589

ISBN-10: 0470227583


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Chapter 17

1. Which of the following is NOT a function of a hormone?
  A) Regulates chemical composition and volume of the internal environment
  B) Regulates metabolism
  C) Regulates glandular secretions
  D) Produces electrolytes
  E) Controls growth and development
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  easy


2. When a hormone is present in excessive levels, the number of target-cell receptors may decrease. This is called:
  A) Receptor recognition D) Up regulation
  B) Circulating hormone E) Down regulation
  C) Paracrine    
  Ans:  E     Difficulty:  medium


3. These are lipid soluble hormones derived from cholesterol.
  A) Steroids D) Amine hormones
  B) Thyroid hormones E) Peptide hormones
  C) Nitric Oxide    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium


4. Which of the following is a major eicosanoid?
  A) Prostaglandins D) Both prostaglandins and leukotrienes
  B) Leukotrienes E) All of the above
  C) Glycoproteins    
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium


5. What is a major difference in the action of a water soluble hormone versus a lipid soluble hormone?
  A) How they diffuse through blood
  B) How the mRNA is transcribed
  C) The use of a second messenger
  D) Only one type needs a hormone receptor
  E) Lipid hormones are not found in the bloodstream
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


6. When one hormone’s action is opposing the action of another hormone it is called:
  A) Synergistic effects D) Circulating
  B) Permissive effects E) Local
  C) Antagonistic effects    
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  easy


7. Which of the following is NOT a way hormone secretion is regulated.
  A) Signals from the nervous system
  B) Chemical changes in the blood
  C) Signals from the peripheral nervous system
  D) The action of other hormones
  E) Both signals from the nervous system and chemical changes in the blood
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


8. What controls the anterior pituitary gland?
  A) Chemical signals from the blood D) Action potentials from the thalamus
  B) The peripheral nervous system E) Chemical changes in CSF
  C) Action of hypothalamic hormones    
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  easy


9. Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates growth?
  A) Human growth hormone D) Follicle stimulating hormone
  B) Prolactin E) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  C) Thyrotropin    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  easy


10. Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates milk production?
  A) Leutinizing hormone D) Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  B) Prolactin E) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  C) Thyrotropin    
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  easy


11. Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates Cortisol production?
  A) Leutinizing hormone D) Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  B) Prolactin E) Adrenocorticotropic hormone
  C) Insulin like growth factors    
  Ans:  E     Difficulty:  easy


12. Which of the following anterior pituitary hormones stimulates sex cell production?
  A) Leutinizing hormone D) Melanocyte stimulating hormone
  B) TSH E) Growth hormone
  C) Corticotropin    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium


13. How many hormones do the five types of anterior pituitary cells secrete?
  A)  5    B)  7    C)  10    D)  12    E)  unlimited
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  medium


14. Which type of anterior pituitary cell secretes human growth hormone?
  A) Thyrotrophs D) Lactotrophs
  B) Gonadotrophs E) Corticotrophs
  C) Somatotrophs    
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


15. The amount of ADH that is secreted varies with
  A) Blood osmotic pressure D) Blood levels of glucose
  B) Blood calcium levels E) All of the above
  C) Oxygen content of blood    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  hard


16. Which of the following hormones opposes the action of parathyroid hormone?
  A) Thyroid stimulating hormone D) Calcitonin
  B) Testosterone E) Calcitriol
  C) Insulin    
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium


17. Which of the following is NOT a means of synthesizing and secreting T3 and T4.
  A) Iodide trapping D) Hydrolysis of calcium
  B) Oxidation of iodide E) Iodination of tyrosine
  C) Coupling of T1 and T2    
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium


18. Parathyroid hormone is the major regulator of which ions in the blood?
  A)  Calcium    B)  Sodium    C)  Potassium    D)  Chloride    E)  Manganese
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  easy


19. Complete loss of the Aldosterone will lead to death due to:
  A) Decreased heart rate D) No oxygen to the brain
  B) Decreased airway dilation E) Kidney failure
  C) Dehydration    
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  hard


20. Which of the following is NOT a glucocorticoid effect?
  A) Protein and fat breakdown D) Reduction of inflammation
  B) Glucose formation E) Increase in blood cell production
  C) Immune suppression    
  Ans:  E     Difficulty:  easy


21. Which blood glucose lowering hormone is produced by the pancreatic islet cells?
  A) Insulin D) Thyroid hormones
  B) Plasma proteins E) Calcitonin
  C) Blood clotting factors    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  easy


22. Which hormone increases metabolic rate?
  A) Insulin D) Thyroid hormone
  B) Adrenocorticotropic hormone E) Calcitonin
  C) Glucagon    
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  easy


23. Which hormone is stimulated by decreasing levels of blood glucose?
  A) Insulin D) Parathyroid hormone
  B) Leutinizing hormone E) Calcitonin
  C) Glucagon    
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  easy


24. ____________ is an amine hormone derived from serotonin.
  A)  Melatonin    B)  Melanin    C)  Glucose    D)  Glucocorticoid    E)  Eicosanoid
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  easy


Use the following to answer questions 25-28:



25. This gland secretes hGH, TSH and FSH among other hormones.
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  I    E)  D
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  medium


26. The hormones from this gland help regulate metabolism.
  A)  C    B)  D    C)  A    D)  G    E)  I
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium


27. This gland’s hormones help regulate blood calcium levels.
  A)  B    B)  A    C)  H    D)  D    E)  I
  Ans:  E     Difficulty:  medium


28. This gland produces stress-reducing steroid hormones.
  A)  D    B)  G    C)  H    D)  I    E)  F
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


Use the following to answer questions 29-30:



29. Which step represents the synthesis of TGB?
  A)  1    B)  2    C)  4    D)  6    E)  7
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  medium


30. Which step represents coupling of T1 and T2?
  A)  3    B)  4    C)  5    D)  6    E)  7
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


Use the following to answer questions 31-32:



31. Which level secretes mainly aldosterone?
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium


32. Which layer secretes androgens?
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


Use the following to answer questions 33-35:



33. Which cell secretes glucagon?
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  medium


34. Which cell secretes the blood glucose-reducing hormone?
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  Ans:  C     Difficulty:  medium


35. Which cell secretes somatostatin?
  A)  A    B)  B    C)  C    D)  D    E)  E
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium


36. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of action of lipid soluble vs. water soluble hormones.
  Ans: Upon reaching their targets, lipid soluble hormones diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer of the target cell membrane and bind to receptors in the cytosol or nucleus. The activated receptor turns a gene on or off, thus regulating synthesis of a protein. Water soluble hormones bind to membrane receptors, activating a G protein, which activates adenylate cyclase, which converts ATP to the second messenger cAMP, which activates a protein kinase to regulate enzyme action.
  Difficulty:  medium


37. Describe the role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of the pituitary gland.
  Ans: The hypothalamus is the integrating center for much sensory input. It secretes releasing and inhibiting hormones which diffuse into the hypophyseal portal system to regulate secretion of all hormones from the anterior pituitary gland. It also contains receptors that monitor blood osmotic pressure and neural input from reproductive structures. Integration of this input leads to production of ADH and OT by neurosecretory cells. These hormones are then transported through the hypothalamohypophyseal tract to be secreted by exocytosis from the posterior pituitary in response to nerve impulses.
  Difficulty:  medium


38. Enuresis, or bedwetting, may be caused by psychological, anatomical or physiological factors. In the latter case, vasopressin is often prescribed and is a very effective treatment. What is vasopressin? How can it prevent enuresis?
  Ans: Vasopressin is also called antidiuretic hormone or ADH. In addition to its vasoconstrictive effects, ADH causes the kidneys to reabsorb more water. Someone who does not make enough ADH may not be able to contain all of the urine produced while they are sleeping. If they are not awakened by the pressure in their urinary bladder, they may wet the bed instead of getting up and going to the toilet. Since vasopressin helps the body reabsorb more water, a person’s bladder should not get so full that they end up wetting the bed while sleeping.
  Difficulty:  medium


39. What is a goiter? Using the appropriate negative feedback loops in your answer, explain how goiters can develop in both hyposecretion and hypersecretion disorders. In these hyposecretion and hypersecretion disorders, would you expect the levels of other hormones involved in the loops to be high or low? Why?
  Ans: A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Hyposecretion goiters are usually due to insufficient iodide in the diet. Resulting low levels of thyroid hormones cause increased TRH and TSH until adequate thyroid activity is restored. Graves’ disease causes hyperthyroidism by mimicking TSH. Thyroid enlargement occurs, and production of thyroid hormones increases. TRH and natural TSH remain low due to negative feedback, but false TSH pushes thyroid activity.
  Difficulty:  medium


40. Describe and explain the similarities between starvation and diabetes mellitus.
  Ans: A starving person is lacking energy providing nutrient sources, and so, must use structural components of the body as energy sources. The diabetic consumes adequate nutrients, but due to the lack of insulin, is unable to move glucose into cells, and so, cannot use the nutrients. In both cases, energy generation is dependent on non glucose sources, such as fatty acids and amino acids. Mobilization and metabolism of fats and proteins for energy production purposes leads to ketoacidosis, weight loss, and hunger.
  Difficulty:  hard


41. Which gland secretes the hormone melatonin?
  A)  pituitary    B)  hypothalamus    C)  thyroid    D)  adrenal    E)  pineal
  Ans:  E     Difficulty:  easy


42. Which hormone contributes to the setting of the body’s biological clock, which is controlled by the hypothalamus?
  A)  calcitonin    B)  aldosterone    C)  calcitrol    D)  melatonin    E)  glucagons
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium


43. The primary androgen produced by the male is:
  A)  estrogen    B)  testosterone    C)  aldosterone    D)  inhibin    E)  progesterone
  Ans:  B     Difficulty:  medium


44. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are secreted by the:
  A) adrenal medulla D) thyroid
  B) adrenal cortex E) parathyroid
  C) renal cortex    
  Ans:  A     Difficulty:  medium


45. Which of the following is NOT an effect of the glucocorticoids?
  A) protein breakdown
  B) glucose formation
  C) breakdown of triglycerides
  D) increases reabsorption of Na + from the urine into the blood
  E) anti-inflammatory effects
  Ans:  D     Difficulty:  medium