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Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition McKinley OLoughlin Bidle Test Bank

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Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition McKinley OLoughlin Bidle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078024283

ISBN-10: 0078024285

Description

Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition McKinley OLoughlin Bidle Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078024283

ISBN-10: 0078024285

 

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Chapter 23

Respiratory System

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The depth and rate of respiration influence blood levels of hydrogen ion.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M01.01 Describe the major functions of the respiratory system.
HAPS Topic: Module M01 General functions of the respiratory system.
Learning Objective: 23.01.01 State the functions of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.01
Topic: General functions of the respiratory system

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which is not part of the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
    A. Alveoli
    B.  Trachea
    C.  Larynx
    D.  Nasal cavity
    E.  Bronchi

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.02 Describe and distinguish between the conducting and respiratory zones of the respiratory tract.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.02 Distinguish between the structural organization and the functional organization of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

  1. Which is not a function of the respiratory system?
    A. Sound reception
    B.  Gas exchange
    C.  Odor detection
    D.  Air passage

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M01.01 Describe the major functions of the respiratory system.
HAPS Topic: Module M01 General functions of the respiratory system.
Learning Objective: 23.01.01 State the functions of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.01
Topic: General functions of the respiratory system

  1. The terms “upper respiratory system” and “lower respiratory system” are ___________ categorizations of the respiratory system.
    A. structural
    B.  functional
    C.  outdated

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.01 Describe and distinguish between the upper and lower respiratory tracts.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.02 Distinguish between the structural organization and the functional organization of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

  1. Which region(s) of the pharynx is lined by pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium?
    A. Oropharynx
    B.  Nasopharynx
    C.  Laryngopharynx
    D.  Oropharynx and nasopharynx
    E.  Oropharynx, nasopharynx, and laryngopharynx

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.07 Describe the changes in epithelial and connective tissue seen in various portions of the air passageways and relate these changes to function.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.03 Describe the structure of the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length.
Learning Objective: 23.02.04 Compare the three regions of the pharynx, and describe their associated structures.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

 

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. The epithelial lining of the oropharynx and the superior larynx (vocal cords) is nonkeratinized stratified squamous.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.07 Describe the changes in epithelial and connective tissue seen in various portions of the air passageways and relate these changes to function.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.03 Describe the structure of the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Terminal bronchioles of the lower respiratory system are lined with

  1. keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
    B. simple cuboidal epithelium.
    C. pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium.
    D. stratified columnar epithelium.
    E. nonkeratinized stratified squamous.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.07 Describe the changes in epithelial and connective tissue seen in various portions of the air passageways and relate these changes to function.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.03 Describe the structure of the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. In general, respiratory zone structures are lined with a thicker mucosa than conducting zone structures.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.07 Describe the changes in epithelial and connective tissue seen in various portions of the air passageways and relate these changes to function.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.03 Describe the structure of the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Exposure to irritants causes mucus production to

  1. increase.
    B. decrease.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.04 Explain the function of mucus produced by the mucous membrane.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. Mucous secretions of the respiratory tract include antimicrobial substances such as lysozyme and defensins.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.04 Explain the function of mucus produced by the mucous membrane.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Mucin _______ the viscosity of mucus, facilitating the ______ of dust and dirt particles.
    A.

increases; trapping

decreases; flushing

increases; diluting

decreases; exocytosis

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.04 Explain the function of mucus produced by the mucous membrane.
Section: 23.01
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

  1. Several things happen to inhaled air in a process called conditioning. Select the exception.
    A. The air is cooled.
    B.  The air is humidified.
    C.  The air is cleansed.
    D.  The air is moistened.
    E.  The air becomes turbulent.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.01 Describe the structure and function of the nose.
Section: 23.02
Topic: General functions of the respiratory system

  1. The nose contains a single septal cartilage.  How many alar cartilages are in the nose?
    A. One
    B.  Two
    C.  Three
    D.  Four

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.01 Describe the structure and function of the nose.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

True / False Questions

  1. Another name for the nasal septum is the turbinate.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

Olfactory receptors located in the superior region of the nasal cavity are stimulated when airborne molecules are inhaled and dissolved in the mucous covering.

TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. The region of the nasal cavity immediately internal to the nostrils is the _________; it contains coarse guard hairs.
    A. choanae
    B.  olfactory region
    C.  vestibule
    D.  respiratory region
    E.  nasopharynx

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

An air passage (valley) beneath a turbinate within the nasal cavity is referred to as a

  1. vestibule.
    B. concha.
    C. vibrissa.
    D. meatus.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

Which bone does not contain a paranasal sinus?

  1. Sphenoid bone
    B. Frontal bone
    C. Ethmoid bone
    D. Mandible
    E. Maxilla

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.03 Describe the structure and function of the four paired paranasal sinuses.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

  1. What structures are used by both the respiratory and digestive systems?
    A. Oropharynx and laryngopharynx
    B.  Laryngopharynx and larynx
    C.  Nasal cavity and nasopharynx
    D.  Paranasal sinuses
    E.  Laryngopharynx and esophagus

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.04 Compare the three regions of the pharynx, and describe their associated structures.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

Which statement is false regarding the oropharynx?

  1. It houses the paired palatine tonsils.
    B. It is located posterior to the oral cavity.
    C. It houses the lingual tonsils.
    D. It houses the pharyngeal tonsil.
    E. It extends from the soft palate to the level of the hyoid bone.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.04 Compare the three regions of the pharynx, and describe their associated structures.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

  1. Into what region of the pharynx do auditory tubes open?
    A. Oropharynx
    B.  Nasopharynx
    C.  Laryngopharynx

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.04 Compare the three regions of the pharynx, and describe their associated structures.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

Food is normally prevented from entering the nasopharynx by the

  1. elevation of the epiglottis.
    B. elevation of the soft palate.
    C. depression of the hard palate.
    D. closure of the nasal conchae.
    E. constriction of the esophagus.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.04 Compare the three regions of the pharynx, and describe their associated structures.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

  1. What structure is also known as the “voice box”?
    A. Larynx
    B.  Pharynx
    C.  Esophagus
    D.  Bronchus
    E.  Trachea

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. What connects the pharynx to the trachea?
    A. Esophagus
    B.  Bronchi
    C.  Alveolar ducts
    D.  Larynx
    E.  Nasal cavity

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. What structure prevents food and drink from entering the trachea, conducts air, and produces sound?
    A. Esophagus
    B.  Bronchi
    C.  Pharynx
    D.  Nasal cavity
    E.  Larynx

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. The larynx is supported by nine pieces of cartilage. Which cartilages occur in pairs?
    A. Thyroid and corniculate
    B.  Corniculate and cricoid
    C.  Cricoid, corniculate, and arytenoid
    D.  Corniculate, cuneiform, and arytenoid
    E.  Arytenoid and epiglottis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

The male voice tends to be in a lower range than a female’s voice because men have

  1. more taut vestibular folds.
    B. more air to push through the rima glottidis.
    C. wider arytenoid cartilages.
    D. shorter and fatter vestibular ligaments.
    E. longer and thicker vocal folds.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.02 Explain how the larynx functions in sound production.
Section: 23.03
Topic: General functions of the respiratory system

  1. Pitch refers to the ________ of sound waves; pitch is determined by the tension produced by ________ laryngeal muscles.
    A.

frequency; intrinsic

frequency; extrinsic

loudness; intrinsic

loudness; extrinsic

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.02 Explain how the larynx functions in sound production.
Section: 23.03
Topic: General functions of the respiratory system

 

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. At the inferior end of the trachea is an internal ridge of mucosal covered cartilage that initiates a cough reflex when it is stimulated; this structure is the __________.
    carina

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.04 Explain the structure and function of the tracheal cartilages.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. What structure connects the larynx to the primary bronchi?
    A. Trachea
    B.  Pharynx
    C.  Esophagus
    D.  Bronchioles
    E.  Alveolar ducts

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. Tracheal cartilages provide for _______ on the ________ aspect of the trachea.
    A.

flexibility; anterior

flexibility; posterior

rigidity; anterior

rigidity; posterior

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.04 Explain the structure and function of the tracheal cartilages.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. What prevents the trachea from collapsing?
    A.The internal air pressure within the trachea
    B. The surrounding muscles
    C. The internal epithelium
    D. The C-shaped cartilaginous rings

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.04 Explain the structure and function of the tracheal cartilages.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

Which statement is true regarding the location of the trachea?

  1. It lies superior to the esophagus, inferior to the larynx, and superior to the primary bronchi of the lungs.
    B. It lies posterior to the esophagus, inferior to the larynx, and superior to the primary bronchi of the lungs.
    C. It lies anterior to the esophagus, inferior to the larynx, and inferior to the primary bronchi of the lungs.
    D. It lies anterior to the esophagus, inferior to the larynx, and superior to the primary bronchi of the lungs.
    E. It lies superior to the esophagus, superior to the larynx, and superior to the primary bronchi of the lungs.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. How long is the average trachea?
    A. 12-14 inches
    B.  12-14 cm
    C.  12-14 mm

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. What type of tissue lines the trachea?
    A. Cuboidal epithelium
    B.  Simple squamous epithelium
    C.  Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
    D.  Stratified squamous nonkeratinized epithelium
    E.  Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

Foreign particles

  1. are more likely to lodge in the right primary bronchus.
    B. are more likely to lodge in the left primary bronchus.
    C. lodge equally often in each of the two primary bronchi.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.05 Describe the structural subdivisions of the bronchial tree.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

Which statement is true regarding secondary bronchi?

  1. The right lung has two secondary bronchi and the left lung has three secondary bronchi.
    B. The left lung has two secondary bronchi and the right lung has three secondary bronchi.
    C. Each lung has two secondary bronchi.
    D. Each lung has three secondary bronchi.
    E. Each lung has four secondary bronchi.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.05 Describe the structural subdivisions of the bronchial tree.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Another name for the tertiary bronchi is the _________ bronchi.
    segmental

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04a For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.05 Describe the structural subdivisions of the bronchial tree.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. Relaxation of the smooth muscle within the walls of bronchioles leads to _______________.
    bronchodilation

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.06 Explain the processes of bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

 

True / False Questions

  1. Bronchoconstriction results from relaxation of smooth muscle in the walls of airways.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.06 Explain the processes of bronchoconstriction and bronchodilation.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Which do not belong to the respiratory zone of the respiratory system?

  1. Respiratory bronchioles
    B. Alveolar ducts
    C. Terminal bronchioles
    D. Pulmonary alveoli
    E. Alveolar sacs

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.01.03 Describe the structure of the mucous membrane that lines the respiratory tract and the structural changes observed along its length.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. Alveoli abut each other, causing them to appear _________ in cross section.
    A. enlarged
    B.  polygonal
    C.  stratified
    D.  circular
    E.  columnar

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

The most common cell making up the alveolar wall is the

  1. alveolar type II cell.
    B. alveolar type I cell.
    C. alveolar macrophage.
    D. dust cell.
    E. septal cell.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06a For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.08 List three types of cells found in alveoli and describe the function of each.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

The alveolar cell that secretes pulmonary surfactant is the

  1. alveolar type II cell.
    B. alveolar type I cell.
    C. alveolar macrophage.
    D. dust cell.
    E. squamous alveolar cell.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.08 List three types of cells found in alveoli and describe the function of each.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

Phagocytic cells of the alveolus are the

  1. alveolar type II cells.
    B. alveolar type I cells.
    C. alveolar macrophages.
    D. septal cells.
    E. squamous alveolar cells.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.08 List three types of cells found in alveoli and describe the function of each.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Which is not part of the respiratory membrane?

  1. Capillary endothelium
    B. Fused basement membrane
    C. Plasma membrane of Type I cell
    D. Plasma membrane of Type II cell

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.09 Explain the structure of the respiratory membrane.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Short Answer Questions

  1. List, in order, the structures of the respiratory membrane that carbon dioxide must cross to move from the blood into an air sac of the lung.

 

The carbon dioxide must pass through the pulmonary capillary endothelium, then the fused basement membrane, then the squamous cell of the alveolar wall.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.09 Explain the structure of the respiratory membrane.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

  1. Which is not correct about the left lung?
    A. It is slightly smaller than the right lung.
    B.  It has a cardiac impression.
    C.  It has a cardiac notch.
    D.  It has 2 lobes and 1 fissure.
    E.  It has an esophageal depression.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.02 Compare and contrast the right versus left lung.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

Each lung consists of a number of segments called

  1. alveolar segments.
    B. bronchopulmonary segments.
    C. mesothelial segments.
    D. pleural segments.
    E. systemic segments.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.01 Describe the location and general structure of the lungs.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

The hilum of the lung

  1. is an indented area through which the bronchi, pulmonary vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerves pass.
    B. is the point of exit of exhaled air.
    C. is the point of entrance for inhaled air.
    D. is an elevated area through which the trachea, pulmonary vessels, and nerves pass.
    E. serves to anchor all pulmonary structures to the mediastinum.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.01 Describe the location and general structure of the lungs.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

  1. Which of the two lungs is larger and wider?
    A. The left lung
    B.  The right lung

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.02 Compare and contrast the right versus left lung.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. The bronchial circulation is a component of the pulmonary circulation.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.03 Distinguish between the two types of blood circulation through the lungs.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Bronchial arteries carry _________ blood to the tissues of the lung.
    A. oxygenated
    B.  deoxygenated

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.03 Distinguish between the two types of blood circulation through the lungs.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Parasympathetic innervation to the lungs is from the ________ nerves.
    vagusor  
    10th cranial  or  
    tenth cranial  or  
    CN X

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.04 Describe the innervation of lung structures by the autonomic nervous system.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Activation of sympathetic nerves that innervate lung tissue results in

  1. bronchoconstriction.
    B. bronchodilation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.04 Describe the innervation of lung structures by the autonomic nervous system.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

  1. On each side of the chest, the _________ pleura lines the internal thoracic wall and the __________ pleura tightly covers the lung.
    A. thoracic; pulmonary
    B.  parietal; visceral
    C.  visceral; parietal
    D.  fibrous; serous
    E.  respiratory; pleural

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.05 Describe the pleural membranes and pleural cavity.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
 

  1. The potential space between the serous membranes surrounding each lung is known as the pleural _________.
    cavity

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.05 Describe the pleural membranes and pleural cavity.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

Multiple Choice Questions

The main function of serous fluid is to

  1. lubricate and reduce friction between pleural membranes around the lung.
    B. improve adhesion of the lungs to the thoracic wall.
    C. facilitate the diffusion of oxygen across the respiratory membrane.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.06 Explain the function of serous fluid in the pleural cavity.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

Foreign particles that are not filtered out by the respiratory epithelium are

  1. dissolved by enzymes in the alveoli.
    B. coughed up during normal daily activities.
    C. collected by lymph nodes.
    D. carried away in blood.
    E. stored in nearby pulmonary alcoves.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M02.06c For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.03 Distinguish between the two types of blood circulation through the lungs.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

The lungs remain inflated because

  1. intrapulmonary pressure is less than intrapleural pressure.
    B. intrapleural pressure is less than intrapulmonary pressure.
    C. intrapleural pressure is exactly equal to intrapulmonary pressure.
    D. intrapleural pressure is exactly equal to atmospheric pressure.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.03 Define and state relative values for atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, intrapleural pressure, and transpulmonary pressure.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.04.07 Explain the anatomic properties that keep lungs inflated.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. The chest wall is anatomically configured to contract inwardly, so that when the thorax is opened surgically its walls collapse.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.06 Describe the forces that tend to collapse the lungs and those that normally oppose or prevent collapse.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.04.07 Explain the anatomic properties that keep lungs inflated.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Organize the items listed into the proper sequence of events for gas exchange.
    a: O2 is transported to cells by circulatory system.
    b: O2 is drawn into the lungs during inhalation.
    c: Cells use O2 and generate CO2.
    d: CO2 is exhaled.
    e: The circulatory system transports CO2 to the lungs.
    A.  a, b, c, d, e
    B.  b, a, c, d, e
    C.  b, a, c, e, d
    D.  c, e, d, a, b
    E.  e, d, c, b, a

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.01 Define pulmonary ventilation, inspiration, and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.01 Give an overview of the process of pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Which answer places the following events in proper order for pulmonary ventilation?
a: Thoracic cavity volume changes.
b: Brainstem nuclei stimulate skeletal muscles to contract.
c: Air flows down its pressure gradient.
d: Dimensional changes in the thorax lead to pressure changes within the lung.

  1. b, a, d, c
    B. d, c, b, a
    C. b, d, c, a
    D. a, c, d, b
    E. c, a, d, b

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.01 Give an overview of the process of pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

  1. You may have noticed that after a large meal you have had some difficulty breathing. Which explanation is most accurate with regard to this situation?
    A.

The food presses on the bronchi, making air flow difficult.

  1. The large quantity of food retards pulmonary blood flow.
    C.Oxygen to the lungs is restricted due to fullness in the stomach.
    D. A full stomach impedes contraction of the diaphragm, limiting inhalation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.02 Explain how pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

  1. These muscles increase thoracic cavity dimensions by elevating the first and second ribs during forced inhalation.
    A. External intercostals
    B.  Scalenes
    C.  Transversus thoracis
    D.  Internal intercostals
    E.  Serratus posterior inferior

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.04 Distinguish between quiet and forced breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

  1. These muscles extend from a superior rib inferomedially to the adjacent inferior rib. They elevate the ribs upon contraction, thereby increasing the transverse dimensions of the thoracic cavity during inhalation.
    A. External intercostals
    B.  Scalenes
    C.  Transversus thoracis
    D.  Internal intercostals
    E.  Serratus posterior inferior

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.02 Explain how pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

  1. Contraction of these muscles depresses the ribs, but only during forced exhalation.
    A. External intercostals
    B.  Scalenes
    C.  Transversus thoracis
    D.  Internal intercostals
    E.  Serratus posterior inferior

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.04 Distinguish between quiet and forced breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

  1. According to Boyle’s law, the pressure of a gas _________ if the volume of its container increases.
    A. increases
    B.  decreases
    C.  remains the same

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.03 State the relationship between pressure and volume as described by Boyle’s law.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Air flows out of the body during expiration because

  1. intrapulmonary pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
    B. intrapleural pressure is greater than intrapulmonary pressure.
    C. atmospheric pressure is greater than intrapulmonary pressure.
    D. intrapleural pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.

 

Bloom’s Level: 5. Evaluate
HAPS Objective: M03.03 Define and state relative values for atmospheric pressure, intrapulmonary pressure, intrapleural pressure, and transpulmonary pressure.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.02 Explain how pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

The involuntary, rhythmic activities that deliver and remove respiratory gases are regulated in the

  1. brainstem.
    B. midbrain.
    C. cerebellum.
    D. cerebral nuclei.
    E. occipital lobe of the brain.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.01 Describe the locations and functions of the brainstem respiratory centers.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.05 Describe the anatomic structures involved in quiet breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

  1. What is the name of the column of neurons within the medulla that initiates neural impulses for inspiration and expiration?
    A. Pontine respiratory center
    B.  Ventral respiratory group
    C.  Dorsal respiratory group
    D.  Phrenic nucleus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.01 Describe the locations and functions of the brainstem respiratory centers.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.05 Describe the anatomic structures involved in quiet breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

  1. At rest, a normal person breathes about _____ times per minute.
    A. 8
    B.  12
    C.  26
    D.  32
    E.  50

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.06 Explain the physiologic events associated with quiet breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

  1. Also known as the pneumotaxic center, this area allows for smooth transitions between inspiration and expiration.
    A. Dorsal respiratory group
    B.  Ventral respiratory group
    C.  Pontine respiratory center
    D.  Medullary respiratory center
    E.  Carotid body

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.01 Describe the locations and functions of the brainstem respiratory centers.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.05 Describe the anatomic structures involved in quiet breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

When central chemoreceptors detect a drop in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid,

  1. medullary respiratory centers trigger an increase in rate and depth of breathing.
    B. medullary respiratory centers trigger a decrease in rate and depth of breathing.
    C. pontine respiratory centers trigger a decrease in rate and depth of breathing.
    D. the vagus and phrenic nerves stimulate decreased production of the catalyst carbonic anhydrase.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.02 List and describe the major chemical and neural stimuli to the respiratory centers.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.07 Explain the different reflexes that alter breathing rate and depth.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

  1. The carotid bodies contain _________ chemoreceptors that respond to changes in ________________.
    A. peripheral; blood concentrations of H+ and O2
    B.  central; blood concentrations of H+, but not CO2 and O2
    C.  peripheral; cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of H+
    D.  central; cerebrospinal concentrations of CO2
    E.  peripheral; concentrations of carbon, dust, and pollution in the lungs

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.03 Compare and contrast the central and peripheral chemoreceptors.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.07 Explain the different reflexes that alter breathing rate and depth.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

  1. Where would you find the trachealis muscle?
    A. Between the esophagus and the diaphragm
    B.  Between the trachea and the diaphragm
    C.  Superior to the larynx
    D.  Between the esophagus and the trachea
    E.  Between the larynx and the pharynx

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. Breathing muscles such as the diaphragm are controlled by neurons of the _________ nervous system.
    A. somatic
    B.  autonomic
    C.  enteric

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.08 Distinguish between nervous system control of breathing and nervous system control of anatomic structures of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

Which type of receptor initiates the inhalation (or Hering-Breuer) reflex?

  1. Central chemoreceptors
    B. Baroreceptors
    C. Peripheral chemoreceptors
    D. Proprioceptors

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.02 List and describe the major chemical and neural stimuli to the respiratory centers.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.07 Explain the different reflexes that alter breathing rate and depth.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

True / False Questions

  1. The phrenic and intercostal nerves are made up primarily of autonomic nerves for smooth muscle control.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.02 Identify the muscles used during quiet inspiration, during forced inspiration, and during forced expiration, as well as the nerves responsible for stimulating those muscles.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.08 Distinguish between nervous system control of breathing and nervous system control of anatomic structures of the respiratory system.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

Suppose that following an automobile accident, a broken rib penetrates into the pleural cavity, causing air to accumulate in the space between the visceral and parietal pleura. This condition is known as a

  1. pneumothorax.
    B. tension hemothorax.
    C. hemothorax.
    D. cystic fibrosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M02.04c For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: State the function of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.07 Explain the anatomic properties that keep lungs inflated.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. __________ is the amount of air that moves into and out of the lungs with each breath.
    Airflow

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M03.05 Explain how each of the following affect pulmonary ventilation: bronchiolar smooth muscle contractions, lung and thoracic wall compliance and recoil, and pulmonary surfactant and alveolar surface tension.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.09 Define airflow.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

  1. Airflow is ________ related to the pressure gradient and __________ related to resistance.
    A.

directly; directly

directly; inversely

inversely; inversely

inversely; directly

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.05 Explain how each of the following affect pulmonary ventilation: bronchiolar smooth muscle contractions, lung and thoracic wall compliance and recoil, and pulmonary surfactant and alveolar surface tension.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.10 Explain how pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

True / False Questions

  1. Histamine release results in increased airway resistance and decreased airflow.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.05 Explain how each of the following affect pulmonary ventilation: bronchiolar smooth muscle contractions, lung and thoracic wall compliance and recoil, and pulmonary surfactant and alveolar surface tension.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.10 Explain how pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

  1. If all else remains equal, an increase in the difference between atmospheric and alveolar pressure results in an increase in airflow.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.10 Explain how pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions

Pulmonary fibrosis

  1. decreases elasticity, thereby increasing resistance and decreasing airflow.
    B. increases elasticity, thereby increasing resistance and decreasing airflow.
    C. decreases elasticity, thereby decreasing both resistance and airflow.
    D. increases elasticity, thereby decreasing resistance and increasing airflow.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M03.05 Explain how each of the following affect pulmonary ventilation: bronchiolar smooth muscle contractions, lung and thoracic wall compliance and recoil, and pulmonary surfactant and alveolar surface tension.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.10 Explain how pressure gradients and resistance determine airflow.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

During expiration, relaxation of the diaphragm and external intercostals

  1. increases the volume of the thoracic cavity.
    B. increases the pressure in the thoracic cavity.
    C. expands the rib cage.
    D. flattens the floor of the thoracic cavity.
    E. stimulates the phrenic nerve.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.01 Give an overview of the process of pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

  1. Two individuals of the same size (same dead space) have a pulmonary ventilation rate of 6 L/min, but one is breathing 10 breaths/min and the other is breathing 15 breaths/min.  How do their alveolar ventilation rates compare?
    A. The slower breather has a greater alveolar ventilation rate.
    B.  The faster breather has a greater alveolar ventilation rate.
    C.  Their alveolar ventilation rates are equivalent.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
HAPS Objective: M04.02 Define and calculate values for minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation.
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.11 Distinguish between pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation, and discuss the significance of each.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

An increase in dead space results in

  1. increases in both alveolar and pulmonary ventilation.
    B. decreases in both alveolar and pulmonary ventilation.
    C. a decrease in alveolar ventilation but no change in pulmonary ventilation.
    D. an increase in alveolar ventilation but a decrease in pulmonary ventilation.
    E. a decrease in alveolar ventilation but an increase in pulmonary ventilation.
    F. an increase in alveolar ventilation but no change in pulmonary ventilation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
HAPS Objective: M04.02 Define and calculate values for minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation.
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.11 Distinguish between pulmonary ventilation and alveolar ventilation, and discuss the significance of each.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

A buildup of fluid in the lungs caused by pneumonia leads to an increase in the

  1. physiologic dead space.
    B. anatomic dead space.
    C. residual volume.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M04.03 Define anatomical dead space and explain the effect of anatomical dead space on alveolar ventilation and on the composition of alveolar and expired air.
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.12 Explain the relationship between anatomic dead space and physiologic dead space.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Fill in the Blank Questions
 

  1. The amount of air left in the lungs even after the most forceful expiration is referred to as the _________ volume.
    residual

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.13 Define the four different respiratory volume measurements.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions

The amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inspiration is the

  1. inspiratory reserve volume.
    B. inspiratory capacity.
    C. residual volume.
    D. functional residual capacity.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.13 Define the four different respiratory volume measurements.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Pulmonary air volumes and capacities

 

The expiratory reserve volume plus the residual volume equals the

  1. tidal volume.
    B. functional residual capacity.
    C. inspiratory reserve volume.
    D. vital capacity.
    E. forced expiratory volume.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.14 Explain the four respiratory capacities that are calculated from the volume measurements.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Pulmonary air volumes and capacities

 

True / False Questions

  1. Inspiratory capacity is greater than inspiratory reserve volume.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.14 Explain the four respiratory capacities that are calculated from the volume measurements.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Pulmonary air volumes and capacities

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

The percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled during a specific time period is known as the

  1. tidal volume.
    B. alveolar ventilation.
    C. forced expiratory volume.
    D. maximal lung capacity rate.
    E. pulmonary minute ventilation.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.15 Give the meaning of forced expiratory volume (FEV) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV).
Section: 23.05
Topic: Pulmonary air volumes and capacities

Maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) is the greatest amount of air that can be

  1. inspired and then expelled in 1 minute.
    B. expired in 1 second.
    C. held within the lungs for over 30 seconds.
    D. inspired in one breath (regardless of dead space).

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M04.01 Define, identify, and determine values for the respiratory volumes (IRV, TV, ERV, and RV) and the respiratory capacities (IC, FRC, VC, and TLC).
HAPS Topic: Module M04 Pulmonary air volumes & capacities.
Learning Objective: 23.05.15 Give the meaning of forced expiratory volume (FEV) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV).
Section: 23.05
Topic: Pulmonary air volumes and capacities

 

  1. Compared to its partial pressure at sea level, what would be the partial pressure of oxygen at an altitude with an atmospheric pressure of only 380 mm Hg (recall that sea level atmospheric pressure is 760 mm Hg)?
    A.Po2 would be half as much as it would be at sea level.
    B. Po2 would be twice as much as it would be at sea level.
    C.

Po2 would be one-fourth as much as it would be at sea level.

Po2 would be three-quarters as much as it would be at sea level.

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M05.01 State Dalton’s Law and Henry’s Law, and relate both laws to the events of external and internal respiration and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.01 Define partial pressure and the movement of gases relative to a partial pressure gradient.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

True / False Questions

  1. When a partial pressure gradient exists for a gas, it will move from the area of its lower partial pressure to the area of higher partial pressure.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.01 State Dalton’s Law and Henry’s Law, and relate both laws to the events of external and internal respiration and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.01 Define partial pressure and the movement of gases relative to a partial pressure gradient.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

Compared to its partial pressure in the atmosphere, oxygen’s partial pressure in the alveoli is

  1. higher.
    B. lower.
    C. equivalent.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M05.01 State Dalton’s Law and Henry’s Law, and relate both laws to the events of external and internal respiration and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.02 Describe the partial pressures that are relevant to gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

  1. Which of the following has the highest partial pressure of carbon dioxide?
    A. The alveoli of the lungs
    B.  The blood circulating in systemic arteries
    C.  The systemic cells

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M05.03a With respect to internal respiration: Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.02 Describe the partial pressures that are relevant to gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Because oxygen has a low solubility coefficient in water,

  1. it is easily dissolved in water and requires only a slight partial pressure gradient to enter the water.
    B. it is easily dissolved in water and the partial pressure gradient is irrelevant to its solubilty.
    C. it is not easily dissolved in water and requires a steep partial pressure gradient to enter the water.
    D. it is impossible to dissolve oxygen into water unless the partial pressure gradient is very minor.

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
HAPS Objective: M05.01 State Dalton’s Law and Henry’s Law, and relate both laws to the events of external and internal respiration and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.03 Explain the laws that govern gas solubility.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the air in the alveoli and blood in the lungs is called

  1. ventilation.
    B. systemic respiration.
    C. internal respiration.
    D. external respiration.
    E. cellular respiration.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M05.02a With respect to external respiration: Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.04 Describe alveolar gas exchange and the partial pressure gradients responsible.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

  1. Which statement accurately describes alveolar exchange of oxygen?
    A. Oxygen diffuses from the alveolus to the blood because the alveolus has a higher partial pressure of oxygen.
    B.  Oxygen diffuses from the alveolus to the blood because the alveolus has a lower partial pressure of oxygen.
    C.  Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the alveolus because the alveolus has a higher partial pressure of oxygen.
    D.  Oxygen diffuses from the blood to the alveolus because the alveolus has a lower partial pressure of oxygen.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.02a With respect to external respiration: Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.04 Describe alveolar gas exchange and the partial pressure gradients responsible.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

The anatomic features of the respiratory membrane that make alveolar gas exchange so efficient are

  1. the high degree of moisture and the large ratio of volume to surface area.
    B. its large surface area and minimal thickness.
    C.

its thinness, high water content, and scarcity of capillaries.

  1. its hearty thickness and the presence of oxygen transport pumps.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.02b With respect to external respiration: Analyze how oxygen and carbon dioxide movements are affected by changes in partial pressure gradients (e.g., at high altitude), surface area, diffusion distance, and solubility and molecular weight of the gases.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.05 Name the two anatomic features of the respiratory membrane that contribute to efficient alveolar gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

An increase in the partial pressure of CO2 causes bronchioles to

  1. constrict.
    B. dilate.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M05.02c With respect to external respiration: Describe the mechanisms of ventilation-perfusion coupling and predict the effect that reduced alveolar ventilation has on pulmonary blood flow and the effect that reduced pulmonary blood flow has on bronchiole diameter and alveolar ventilation
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.06 Explain ventilation-perfusion coupling and how it maximizes alveolar gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

An increase in the partial pressure of oxygen causes pulmonary arterioles to ________, thereby altering _______ to make gas exchange more efficient.

constrict; perfusion

dilate; perfusion

constrict; ventilation

dilate; ventilation

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.02c With respect to external respiration: Describe the mechanisms of ventilation-perfusion coupling and predict the effect that reduced alveolar ventilation has on pulmonary blood flow and the effect that reduced pulmonary blood flow has on bronchiole diameter and alveolar ventilation
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.06 Explain ventilation-perfusion coupling and how it maximizes alveolar gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Short Answer Questions
 

  1. In a situation where one small bronchus is obstructed, the air in that segment of the lung will develop a high partial pressure of carbon dioxide and a low partial pressure of oxygen.  What changes in ventilation and perfusion will occur in that segment in response to this condition?

The changes in gas pressures will result in bronchiole dilation and arteriolar constriction.

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M05.02c With respect to external respiration: Describe the mechanisms of ventilation-perfusion coupling and predict the effect that reduced alveolar ventilation has on pulmonary blood flow and the effect that reduced pulmonary blood flow has on bronchiole diameter and alveolar ventilation
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.06 Explain ventilation-perfusion coupling and how it maximizes alveolar gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Multiple Choice Questions

As blood travels through a systemic capillary and exchanges gases with systemic cells,

  1. the partial pressure of oxygen in blood decreases as it goes from arterioles to venules.
    B. the partial pressure of oxygen in blood increases as it goes from arterioles to venules.
    C. the partial pressure of oxygen on blood remains the same as it goes from arterioles to venules.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.03a With respect to internal respiration: Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.07 Explain the partial pressure gradients between systemic cells and the blood in capillaries.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. From moment to moment, the oxygen partial pressure gradient between systemic capillary blood and systemic cells switches: one moment it favors diffusion toward the blood and the next moment it favors diffusion toward the cells.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.03a With respect to internal respiration: Describe oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration gradients and net gas movements.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.07 Explain the partial pressure gradients between systemic cells and the blood in capillaries.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Which statement accurately describes alveolar and systemic gas exchanges?
    A. In both alveolar and systemic gas exchange, oxygen diffuses out of the blood.
    B.  In both alveolar and systemic gas exchange, oxygen diffuses toward the blood.
    C.  In alveolar gas exchange oxygen diffuses into the blood, but in systemic gas exchange it diffuses out of the blood.
    D.  In alveolar gas exchange oxygen diffuses out of the blood, but in systemic gas exchange it diffuses into the blood.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M05.01 State Dalton’s Law and Henry’s Law, and relate both laws to the events of external and internal respiration and to the amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.
HAPS Topic: Module M05 Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs & tissues.
Learning Objective: 23.06.08 Differentiate between alveolar and systemic gas exchange.
Section: 23.06
Topic: Mechanisms of gas exchange in the lungs and tissues

 

Hemoglobin is crucial for oxygen transport in the blood because oxygen has a _______ solubility coefficient in water.

  1. high
    B. low

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M06.01a With respect to oxygen transport: Describe the ways in which oxygen is transported in blood and discuss the relative importance of each to total oxygen transport.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.01 Explain why hemoglobin is essential to oxygen transport.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

Approximately what percent of the oxygen in blood is transported by the hemoglobin of erythrocytes?

  1. 33%
    B. 50%
    C. 66%
    D. 75%
    E. 98%

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.01a With respect to oxygen transport: Describe the ways in which oxygen is transported in blood and discuss the relative importance of each to total oxygen transport.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.01 Explain why hemoglobin is essential to oxygen transport.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

  1. About 23% of the carbon dioxide in the blood is attached to the _______ portion of hemoglobin.
    A. heme
    B.  globin
    C.  carboxyl
    D.  anhydrase

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.03a With respect to carbon dioxide transport: Describe the ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in blood and discuss the relative importance of each to total carbon dioxide transport.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.02 Describe the three ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

True / False Questions

  1. Most carbon dioxide is transported through the blood as bicarbonate dissolved in plasma.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.03a With respect to carbon dioxide transport: Describe the ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in blood and discuss the relative importance of each to total carbon dioxide transport.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.02 Describe the three ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

  1. Which reaction involving CO2 predominates within erythrocytes in the pulmonary capillaries of the lung?
    A. HCO3 combines with H+ to form H2CO3, which dissociates into CO2 and H2O.
    B.  HCO3 dissociates into H+, CO, and O2.
    C.  CO2 combines with H+ to form HCO2.
    D.  CO2 combines with water to form bicarbonate ion and carbonic acid.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M06.03b With respect to carbon dioxide transport: State the reversible chemical equation for the reaction of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid and then to hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.03 Explain the conversion of CO2 to and from HCO3- within erythrocytes.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

About 70% of the CO2 that diffuses into systemic capillaries

  1. directly dissolves in the plasma.
    B.

combines with water to form carbonic acid, which then dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions.

  1. binds to hemoglobin.
    D.forms carbonic anhydrase, which combines carbonic acid and water to solubilize the CO2.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.03a With respect to carbon dioxide transport: Describe the ways in which carbon dioxide is transported in blood and discuss the relative importance of each to total carbon dioxide transport.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.02 Describe the three ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

In addition to oxygen, hemoglobin also transports

  1. carbonic acid and bicarbonate ions.
    B. calcium and carbon dioxide.
    C. carbon dioxide and hydrogen ions.
    D. iron and albumin.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.03g With respect to carbon dioxide transport: Explain how each of the following relates to carbon dioxide transport: carbonic anhydrase, hydrogen ions binding to hemoglobin and plasma proteins, the chloride ion shift, and the oxygen- hemoglobin saturation level.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.04 Name the three substances carried by hemoglobin.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

If someone at sea level is given pure oxygen to breathe, it would cause the oxygen saturation of their hemoglobin

  1. to increase by more than double.
    B. to increase by only a tiny amount.
    C. to decrease due to uncooperative binding.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M06.02a With respect to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve: Interpret the curve at low and high partial pressures of oxygen.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.05 Explain the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve for both alveolar and systemic gas exchange.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

When blood passes through systemic capillaries, the oxygen saturation of hemoglobin changes

  1. from about 98% to about 75% saturated.
    B. from about 40% to about 80% saturated.
    C. from about 70% saturated to about 99% saturated.
    D. from about 99% saturated to about 25% saturated.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M06.02a With respect to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve: Interpret the curve at low and high partial pressures of oxygen.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.05 Explain the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve for both alveolar and systemic gas exchange.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

  1. An actively contracting muscle will cause local temperature to rise and will produce acidic molecules.  Warmth and lower pH cause the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve to shift ______ reflecting that hemoglobin releases ______ oxygen.
    A.

left; more

left; less

right; more

right; less

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
HAPS Objective: M06.02b With respect to the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve: List factors that shift the curve down and to the right, and explain how this results in increased oxygen delivery to the tissues.
HAPS Topic: Module M06 Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood.
Learning Objective: 23.07.05 Explain the significance of the oxygen-hemoglobin saturation curve for both alveolar and systemic gas exchange.
Section: 23.07
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

Essay Questions
 

Imagine that someone is climbing a mountain on a very hot day. As their muscles work, acidic by-products are generated. Describe the relevant responses of the respiratory system and also describe how the affinity for hemoglobin will change under these conditions.

 

 

Answers should mention the stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by hypoxia as well as exercise-induced changes in respiration (some apparently feed-forward). Minute ventilation rate should increase. Heat, low oxygen, and low pH will all lower Hb affinity for oxygen (favoring unloading at active body tissues).

 

Bloom’s Level: 4. Analyze
HAPS Objective: M08.01 Provide specific examples to demonstrate how the respiratory system responds to maintain homeostasis in the body.
HAPS Topic: Module M08 Application of homeostatic mechanisms.
Learning Objective: 23.08.03 Explain the changes in breathing that accompany exercise.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Mechanisms of gas transport in the blood

 

True / False Questions

Hyperventilation leads to hypercapnia.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.01 Explain how hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical composition of blood.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

  1. What changes in the blood levels of respiratory gases result from hyperventilation?
    A. Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels rise.
    B.  Oxygen and carbon dioxide levels fall.
    C.  Oxygen levels rise and carbon dioxide levels fall.
    D.  Oxygen levels do not change but carbon dioxide levels fall.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.01 Explain how hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical composition of blood.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

Airway obstruction can lead to hypoventilation, which can cause

  1. hypoxia and respiratory acidosis.
    B. hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis.
    C. hypocapnia and hyperpnea.
    D. hypoxia and respiratory alkalosis.
    E. hypocapnia and respiratory alkalosis.

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.01 Explain how hyperventilation and hypoventilation influence the chemical composition of blood.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

When someone begins to hyperventilate, the increased movements of their respiratory muscles ________ venous return of blood to the heart.

  1. increase
    B. decrease

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.02 Describe how breathing rate and depth effects venous return of blood and lymph.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

When someone exercises vigorously, their breathing is described as demonstrating

  1. hyperpnea, involving deeper but not faster breathing.
    B. hyperventilation, involving both deeper and faster breathing.
    C. bradypnea, involving deeper and slower breathing.
    D. hypopnea, involving shallower but faster breathing.

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.03 Explain the changes in breathing that accompany exercise.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Clinical applications of the respiratory system

 

True / False Questions

  1. The main stimulus that drives increased breathing during exercise is a drop in blood levels of oxygen.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M07.04 Define hyperventilation, hypoventilation, panting, eupnea, hyperpnea and apnea.
HAPS Topic: Module M07 Control of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.08.03 Explain the changes in breathing that accompany exercise.
Section: 23.08
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

 

 

 

In this sagittal section showing the upper respiratory tract, what structure does number 4 indicate?

  1. Uvula
    B. Soft palate
    C. Hard palate
    D.

Nasal concha

  1. Epiglottis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.03
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

In this sagittal section showing the upper respiratory tract, what structure does number 5 indicate?

  1. Uvula
    B. Soft palate
    C. Hard palate
    D. Nasal conchae
    E.

Nasal bone

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.03
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

In this sagittal section showing the upper respiratory tract, what number indicates a nasal concha?

  1. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
    E. 5

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.03
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

In this sagittal section showing the upper respiratory tract, what bone does number 2 indicate?

Frontal bone

Nasal bone

Maxillary bone

Ethmoid bone

Sphenoid bone

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.03
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.02 Provide a general description of the structure and function of the nasal cavity.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

 

 

 

  1. Which sinus does the number 1 indicate?
    A. Frontal sinus
    B.  Anterior sinus
    C.  Ethmoidal sinus
    D.  Maxillary sinus
    E.  Sphenoidal sinus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.04
HAPS Objective: M02.04a For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.03 Describe the structure and function of the four paired paranasal sinuses.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

  1. Which sinus does the number 4 indicate?
    A. Frontal sinus
    B.  Maxillary sinus
    C.  Ethmoidal sinus
    D.  Sphenoidal sinus
    E.  Sagittal sinus

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.04
HAPS Objective: M02.04a For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.02.03 Describe the structure and function of the four paired paranasal sinuses.
Section: 23.02
Topic: Gross anatomy of the upper respiratory tract

 

 

 

In this view of the larynx, what structure does number 2 indicate?

  1. Tracheal cartilage
    B. Thyroid cartilage
    C. Hyoid bone
    D. Cricoid cartilage
    E. Epiglottis

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.06
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

In this view of the larynx, what structure does number 5 indicate?

  1. Tracheal cartilage
    B. Thyroid cartilage
    C. Epiglottis
    D. Cricoid cartilage
    E. Corniculate cartilage

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.06
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.01 Describe the general functions and structure of the larynx.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In these views of the trachea, what structure does number 2 indicate?
    A.Trachealis muscle
    B.

Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

  1. Anular ligament
    E.

Tracheal cartilage

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.08
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. In these views of the trachea, what type of tissue does number 3 indicate?
    A.

Thyroid cartilage

Trachealis muscle

Tracheal cartilage

Anular ligament

Cricoid cartilage

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.08
HAPS Objective: M02.06b For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Describe the microscopic anatomy of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. In these views of the trachea, what structure does number 1 indicate?
    A.Trachealis muscle
    B.

Thyroid cartilage

Cricoid cartilage

  1. Anular ligament
    E.

Tracheal cartilage

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.08
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.03 Describe the structure of the trachea.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

 

 

In this close-up image of a lung, what structure does number 1 indicate?

  1. Respiratory bronchiole
    B. Alveolar duct
    C. Alveolus
    D. Terminal bronchiole
    E. Bronchiole

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.11
HAPS Objective: M02.06a For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. In this closeup image of a lung, what structure does number 2 indicate?
    A. Respiratory bronchiole
    B.  Alveolar duct
    C.  Alveolus
    D.  Terminal bronchiole
    E.  Bronchiole

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.11
HAPS Objective: M02.06a For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

  1. In this closeup image of a lung, what structure does number 3 indicate?
    A. Respiratory bronchiole
    B.  Alveolar duct
    C.  Alveolus
    D.  Terminal bronchiole
    E.  Bronchiole

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.11
HAPS Objective: M02.06a For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

  1. In this closeup image of a lung, what structures are indicated by number 4?
    A. Respiratory bronchioles
    B.  Alveolar ducts
    C.  Alveoli
    D.  Terminal bronchioles
    E.  Bronchioles

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Figure: 23.11
HAPS Objective: M02.06a For each of the following – respiratory (nasal) mucosa, the layers of the tracheal wall, the bronchi and bronchioles, the three cell types found in alveoli, and the respiratory membrane: Identify each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lower respiratory tract

 

True / False Questions
 

  1. The left primary bronchus is shorter, wider, and more vertically oriented than the right primary bronchus.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.03.07 Describe the structure and function of the other lower respiratory tract structures and organs.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Gross anatomy of the lungs

  1. Depression of the ribs increases the lateral dimensions of the thoracic cavity.
    FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.02 Explain how pressure gradients are established and result in pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

Consistent with Boyle’s law, air flows from a region of lower pressure (the atmosphere) into a region of higher pressure within the lungs.

FALSE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.01 Give an overview of the process of pulmonary ventilation.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

  1. The pulmonary plexus is a weblike network of nerve fibers that surrounds the primary bronchi and enters the lungs at the hilum. It consists of both sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
HAPS Objective: M02.04b For each of the following – nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, pleural membranes, pulmonary blood vessels and nerves, thoracic and pleural cavities, and diaphragm: Describe the gross anatomical features of each structure.
HAPS Topic: Module M02 Gross & microscopic anatomy of the respiratory tract & related organs.
Learning Objective: 23.04.04 Describe the innervation of lung structures by the autonomic nervous system.
Section: 23.04
Topic: Control of pulmonary ventilation

  1. Prematurely born infants sometimes experience respiratory distress due to inadequate production of surfactant.
    TRUE

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.05 Explain how each of the following affect pulmonary ventilation: bronchiolar smooth muscle contractions, lung and thoracic wall compliance and recoil, and pulmonary surfactant and alveolar surface tension.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.03.08 List three types of cells found in alveoli and describe the function of each.
Section: 23.03
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation

 

Multiple Choice Questions
 

During quiet expiration,

thoracic cavity volume decreases.

the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract.

inspiratory neurons in the VRG spontaneously depolarize.

air moves from the atmosphere to the alveoli.

 

 

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
HAPS Objective: M03.04 State Boyle’s Law and relate this law to the specific sequence of events (muscle contractions/relaxations and pressure/volume changes) causing inspiration and expiration.
HAPS Topic: Module M03 Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation.
Learning Objective: 23.05.06 Explain the physiologic events associated with quiet breathing.
Section: 23.05
Topic: Mechanisms of pulmonary ventilation