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Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

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Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321616401

ISBN-10: 0321616405

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Anatomy and Physiology 4th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321616401

ISBN-10: 0321616405

 

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Anatomy and Physiology, 4e (Marieb)

Chapter 6  Bones and Skeletal Tissue

 

6.1   Matching Questions

 

Figure 6.1

 

Using Figure 6.1, match the following bone types with the numbered structure:

 

  1. Long
  2. Short
  3. Flat
  4. Irregular
  5. Sesamoid

 

1) Bone 1.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

2) Bone 2.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

3) Bone 3.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

4) Bone 4.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

5) Bone 5.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

6) Bone 6.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

7) Bone 7.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153; Fig. 6.2

 

Figure 6.2

 

Using Figure 6.2, match the following:

 

8) Compact bone.

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 154; Fig. 6.3

 

9) Location of the epiphyseal line.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 154; Fig. 6.3

 

10) Area where yellow marrow is found.

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 154; Fig. 6.3

 

11) Area with articular cartilage.

Answer:  A

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 154; Fig. 6.3

Match the following:

 

  1. A) Osteoporosis
  2. B) Osteomalacia
  3. C) Paget’s disease

 

12) Bones are porous and thin but bone composition is normal.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 167-169

 

13) Bone formed is poorly mineralized and soft. Deforms on weight bearing.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 167

 

14) Abnormal bone formation and reabsorption.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 169

 

Answers: 12) A 13) B 14) C

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) Comminuted
  2. B) Greenstick
  3. C) Spiral

 

15) An incomplete fracture or cracking of the bone without actual separation of the parts. Common in children.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 168; Tbl. 6.2

 

16) Bone fragments into many pieces.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 168; Tbl. 6.2

 

17) Common sports fracture resulting from a twisting force.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 168; Tbl. 6.2

 

Answers: 15) B 16) A 17) C

Match the following:

 

  1. A) Osteoblasts
  2. B) Osteoclasts
  3. C) Endosteum
  4. D) Lamellae
  5. E) Canaliculi

 

18) The lining of the marrow cavity.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

19) Cells that can dissolve the bony matrix.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

20) Layers of bone matrix.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157

 

21) Small channels that radiate through the matrix of bone.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

22) Cells that can build bony matrix.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157

 

Answers: 18) C 19) B 20) D 21) E 22) A

Match the following:

 

  1. A) Epiphyseal line
  2. B) Diaphysis
  3. C) Epiphyseal plate
  4. D) Appositional growth
  5. E) Chondrocytes

 

23) The cells responsible for the early stages of endochondral ossification.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 160-162

 

24) The growth pattern of bone in which matrix is laid down on the surface.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151

 

25) The area of long bones where cartilage cells are replaced by bone cells.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 155

 

26) The appearance of this structure signals the end of bone growth.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 155

 

27) Area where bone longitudinal growth takes place.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 155

Answers: 23) E 24) D 25) B 26) A 27) C

 

Match the following:

 

  1. A) Irregular bone
  2. B) Long bone
  3. C) Flat bone
  4. D) Sesamoid bone
  5. E) Short bone

 

28) Radius.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151-152

 

29) Carpals.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151-152

 

30) Patella.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151-152

 

31) Scapula.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151-152

 

32) Hip bones.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151-152

 

Answers: 28) B 29) E 30) D 31) C 32) A

6.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153

 

2) Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 162-163

 

3) Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 151-152

 

4) The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

5) Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 156

 

6) The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157-158

 

7) The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

8) Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

9) All bones formed by intramembranous ossification are irregular bones.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 160

 

10) An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157-158

 

11) The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 157-158

12) Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 157

 

13) Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

Answer:  TRUE

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 151

 

14) Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

Answer:  FALSE

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 163

 

 

6.3   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to  support weight and withstand tension stress?

  1. A) spongy bone
  2. B) irregular bone
  3. C) compact bone
  4. D) trabecular bone

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157-158

 

2) Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

  1. A) fat
  2. B) blood-forming cells
  3. C) elastic tissue
  4. D) Sharpey’s fibers

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

3) The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

  1. A) osteocyte
  2. B) osteoblast
  3. C) osteoclast
  4. D) chondrocyte

Answer:  B

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

4) What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

  1. A) elastic connective tissue
  2. B) dense fibrous connective tissue
  3. C) fibrocartilage
  4. D) hyaline cartilage

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 162

5) What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

  1. A) inadequate calcification of bone
  2. B) decreased osteoclast activity
  3. C) decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage
  4. D) increased osteoclast activity

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 163

 

 

6) A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

  1. A) epiphysis
  2. B) metaphysis
  3. C) diaphysis
  4. D) articular cartilage

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

7) The term diploë refers to the ________.

  1. A) double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone
  2. B) fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue
  3. C) internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones
  4. D) two types of marrow found within most bones

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 156

 

8) Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates a projection that helps to form joints?

  1. A) meatus
  2. B) ramus
  3. C) foramen
  4. D) fossa
  5. E) epicondyle

Answer:  B

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 156

 

9) Factors in preventing (or delaying) osteoporosis include ________.

  1. A) drinking fluoridated water
  2. B) decreasing weight-bearing exercise
  3. C) increasing dietary vitamin C
  4. D) decreasing exposure to the sun

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 167-169

 

10) Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

  1. A) is a characteristic of intramembranous bone formation
  2. B) involves medullary cavity formation
  3. C) is produced by secondary ossification centers
  4. D) takes twice as long as diaphysis

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 162-163

 

11) Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

  1. A) lacunae
  2. B) Haversian system
  3. C) epiphyseal plate
  4. D) epiphyseal line

Answer:  C

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 155

 

12) The most abundant skeletal cartilage type is ________.

  1. A) hyaline
  2. B) elastic
  3. C) fibrocartilage
  4. D) epiphyseal

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 151

 

13) Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

  1. A) support
  2. B) storage of minerals
  3. C) production of blood cells (hematopoiesis)
  4. D) communication

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153

 

14) What is the structural unit of compact bone?

  1. A) osseous matrix
  2. B) spongy bone
  3. C) lamellar bone
  4. D) the osteon

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157

 

15) Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.

  1. A) cartilage and compact bone
  2. B) marrow and osteons
  3. C) osteoblasts and osteoclasts
  4. D) chondrocytes and osteocytes

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

16) The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

  1. A) Volkmann’s canals
  2. B) a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
  3. C) perforating (Sharpey’s) fibers
  4. D) the struts of bone known as spicules

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

17) The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.

  1. A) cartilage and interstitial lamellae
  2. B) osteoclasts and osteoblasts
  3. C) yellow marrow and spicules
  4. D) blood vessels and nerve fibers

Answer:  D

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

18) What are the small spaces in bone tissue that are holes in which osteocytes live called?

  1. A) lacunae
  2. B) Volkmann’s canals
  3. C) Haversian canals
  4. D) trabeculae

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

19) For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

  1. A) A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.
  2. B) An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.
  3. C) The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate.
  4. D) A medullary cavity forms.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 160; Fig. 6.8

 

20) The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

  1. A) closing of the epiphyseal plate
  2. B) long bones reaching adult length and width
  3. C) appositional growth
  4. D) concentric growth

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 163

 

21) Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

  1. A) osteoclast
  2. B) osteocyte
  3. C) osteoblast
  4. D) stem cell

Answer:  A

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155

 

22) Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

  1. A) calcitonin
  2. B) thyroxine
  3. C) parathyroid hormone
  4. D) estrogen

Answer:  C

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 164

 

23) The universal loss of mass seen in the skeleton, which begins about the age of 40, ________.

  1. A) is slower in females than in males
  2. B) is absolutely uniform throughout the skeleton
  3. C) reflects incomplete osteon formation and mineralization
  4. D) is greater in African Americans than in Northern Europeans

Answer:  C

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 169

 

24) Wolff’s law is concerned with ________.

  1. A) vertical growth of bones being dependent on age
  2. B) the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it
  3. C) the function of bone being dependent on shape
  4. D) the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 165

 

25) Cranial bones develop ________.

  1. A) from cartilage models
  2. B) within fibrous membranes
  3. C) from a tendon
  4. D) within osseous membranes

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 160

 

26) Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

  1. A) pineal gland
  2. B) thyroid
  3. C) parathyroid
  4. D) spleen

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 164

 

27) Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

  1. A) growth at the epiphyseal plate
  2. B) the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage
  3. C) along the edges only
  4. D) the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151

 

28) Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

  1. A) Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones.
  2. B) Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.
  3. C) Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.
  4. D) Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 151

 

29) In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

  1. A) by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
  2. B) by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis
  3. C) from the edges inward
  4. D) in a circular fashion

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 162-163

 

30) Spongy bones are made up of a framework called ________.

  1. A) osteons
  2. B) lamellar bone
  3. C) trabeculae
  4. D) osseous lamellae

Answer:  C

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 158

 

31) Osteogenesis is the process of ________.

  1. A) making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
  2. B) bone destruction to liberate calcium
  3. C) bone formation
  4. D) making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage

Answer:  C

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 160

 

32) Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

  1. A) interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates
  2. B) the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity
  3. C) differentiation of osteoclasts
  4. D) calcification of the matrix

Answer:  A

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 162-163

 

33) Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is important for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

  1. A) thyroid hormone
  2. B) somatomedins
  3. C) growth hormone
  4. D) prolactin

Answer:  C

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 164-165

 

34) In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

  1. A) overproduction of thyroid hormone
  2. B) elevated levels of sex hormones
  3. C) too much vitamin D in the diet
  4. D) osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity

Answer:  B

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 162-163

 

35) Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

  1. A) calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
  2. B) potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
  3. C) sodium, calcium, and vitamin E
  4. D) vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride

Answer:  A

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 163

 

 

6.4   Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions

 

1) Blood cell formation is called ________.

Answer:  hematopoiesis

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 153

2) A bone embedded in a tendon is called a(n) ________ bone.

Answer:  sesamoid

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 151

 

3) A central (Haversian) canal may contain arteries, veins, capillaries, lymph vessels, and ________ fibers.

Answer:  nerve

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 157-158

 

4) A long bone forms by a process known as ________ ossification.

Answer:  endochondral

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 160

 

5) ________ growth is growth in the diameter of long bones.

Answer:  Appositional

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 163

 

6) ________ are multinucleated cells that destroy bone.

Answer:  Osteoclasts

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 155; Fig. 6.4

 

7) ________ is a disease of the bone in which bone reabsorption outpaces bone deposit, leaving the person with thin and often very fragile bones.

Answer:  Osteoporosis

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 167-169

 

8) A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels and/or nerves is called a(n) ________.

Answer:  foramen

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 156

 

9) List the steps in the repair process of a simple fracture.

Answer:  Hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and remodeling.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 166-167

 

10) What is found in a Haversian canal?

Answer:  Blood vessels and nerve fibers.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 158

 

 

11) Several hormones control the remodeling of bones. Which two respond to changing blood calcium levels?

Answer:  To keep bones in proper dimensions, PTH and calcitonin are the major determinants of whether and when remodeling will occur in response to changing blood calcium.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 164-165

12) Why are the bones of young children much more flexible than those of the elderly?

Answer:  Bones of children are not completely calcified, with a higher ratio of more flexible organic fibers. Bones in the elderly are more completely calcified, which gives the characteristic of rigidity.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 162-163

 

13) Bones appear to be lifeless structures. Does bone material renew itself?

Answer:  Bone only appears lifeless in gross anatomy. Microscopically, bone is full of cells and blood vessels that maintain and renew bone tissue. Approximately 5% to 7% of our bone mass is recycled each week. Up to 0.5 g of calcium may enter or leave the bones each day, depending on the negative feedback hormonal mechanism and gravitational forces.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 163-166

 

14) Compare the function of the organic materials in the bone matrix with the function of the inorganic materials in the matrix.

Answer:  The organic matrix contributes to the bone structure and its tensile strength, while the inorganic matrix contributes to hardness and resistance to compression.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 158

 

15) What are the differences between the diaphysis and the epiphyses of long bones?

Answer:  The diaphysis bone is composed almost entirely of compact bone (except in irregular and short bones), while the epiphyses are composed almost entirely of spongy bone.  The epiphyses are on the ends of the bone; the diaphysis is the “shank” of the bone.  The diaphysis in long bones has a large medullary cavity, whereas the epiphyses do not.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 155

 

16) Describe how oxygen is carried from outside a bone to an individual osteocyte.

Answer:  Blood vessels enter through the periosteum into a perforating canal.  The vessel may follow along the axis of the bone through a central canal.  Osteocytes have long, almost dendritic-like extensions or arms that reach out through tiny holes called canaliculi.  The canaliculi connect one cell to another and to the central canal.  Oxygen would leave the blood vessel in the central canal and travel through the canaliculi from cell to cell until it reaches the cell in question.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 157-158

 

 

17) How is the beginning of intramembraneous ossification different from endochondral ossification?

Answer:  Intramembraneous ossification starts in connective tissue from mesenchymal cells that become osteoblasts.  These osteoblasts cluster together into an ossification center.  Endochondral ossification starts with a hyaline cartilage “template.”  Mesenchymal cells become osteoblasts and begin forming bone around the cartilage.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 160-162

18) If your doctor notices a marked decrease in calcium ion levels in your blood, what gland might he suspect is not functioning properly and why?

Answer:  The parathyroid gland normally responds to low calcium ion levels in the blood and releases PTH, which mobilizes osteoclasts to step up bone destruction, releasing more calcium into the bloodstream.  If the parathyroid is not functioning properly it may release too much PTH or not respond at all, which seems to be the case here.

Diff: 1         Page Ref: 164

 

6.5   Clinical Questions

 

1) Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?

Answer:  The child most likely has rickets, a condition caused by poor diet, especially one deficient in vitamin D. The parents were told to increase her intake of calcium and vitamin D and to make sure that she gets some sunshine every day.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 167

 

2) Emily, a 64-year-old obese woman, was brought to the hospital suffering pain in her legs, and an X ray revealed that she had a simple fracture in her right femur and a crack in her left tibia. Other tests revealed that her bones were brittle and porous. What might have happened to Emily, and what advice would she have been given by the physician?

Answer:  Emily has osteoporosis, a debilitating bone disease that strikes more women than men after age 45-50. The bones become weak and brittle due to leaching of calcium from the bone. Emily has been told that she needs to lose weight because her bones may not have the strength to support her body mass.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 167-169

 

3) A 75-year-old woman and her 9-year-old granddaughter were victims of a train crash. In both cases, trauma to the chest was sustained. X rays of the grandmother revealed several fractured ribs, but her granddaughter had none. Explain these different findings.

Answer:  The child had more organic material in her bones, which allows them to bend, while her grandmother’s bones are extensively calcified, with little organic material, and are probably thin due to osteoporosis.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 162-163; 167-169

 

4) Johnny fractured the lower third of his right tibia in a skiing accident. The soft tissues in the area were severely damaged and their surgical removal was necessary. After prolonged immobilization, it was found that Johnny was healing very poorly. The explanation offered by the orthopedic surgeon was that vascularization of the fracture site was still inadequate and good healing was absolutely dependent upon an adequate blood supply. Describe how a long bone receives its blood supply and trace the path of nutrient delivery to the osteocytes.

Answer:  Long bones are nourished by nutrient arteries that frequently enter the shaft. Removal of the soft tissues probably reduced the flow of blood to the affected area. The pathway would include diffusion of nutrients from blood vessels to periosteum to Volkmann’s canals to Haversian canals to canaliculi to lacunae.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 155

 

5) People who live in the north should take supplemental calcium with vitamin D.  Explain why.

Answer:  Vitamin D is manufactured by sunlight and is needed for absorption of dietary calcium.  People who live in the north where the winter months are severe may need supplemental vitamin D because of the decreased amount of sunlight exposure.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 167

 

6) When does prevention of osteoporosis start?

Answer:  The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children.  Parents need to provide children with the opportunity to develop as much bone as they have inherited the ability to develop.  If people increase their peak bone mass as young adults, they will have additional protection from osteoporotic fractures in the future.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 167-169

 

7) If your elderly patient’s blood calcium level is normal, does that mean the patient does not have osteoporosis?  Explain.

Answer:  No.  The level of calcium in the blood is expected to be normal, even in advanced cases of osteoporosis.  The calcium in the bones will be low, but that is not indicated by the blood nourishment.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 167-169

 

8) How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?

Answer:  Because bone deposition and reabsorption can occur, and because bone responds to mechanical stress (Wolff’s law), a tooth can be moved. By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.

Diff: 3         Page Ref: 165-166

 

9) Explain why swimming is not generally recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis.

Answer:  Mechanical stress and gravity help to promote skeletal remodeling.  Swimming is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.  The water, not bones, supports the body’s weight while swimming.

Diff: 2         Page Ref: 169