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Anatomy and Physiology 6th Edition Saladin Test Bank

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Anatomy and Physiology 6th Edition Saladin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077535773

ISBN-10: 0077535774

Description

Anatomy and Physiology 6th Edition Saladin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0077535773

ISBN-10: 0077535774

 

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chapter 05

True / False Questions

1. Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood.

True False

2. Columnar cells lining the small intestine show a brush border of microvilli on the apical surface.

True False

3. Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin.

True False

4. In an epithelium, there is almost no extracellular matrix.

True False

5. The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid.

True False

6. Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs.

True False

7. Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements.

True False

8. Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues.

True False

9. Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape.

True False

10. Smooth and cardiac muscles are under involuntary control.

True False

11. Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells.

True False

12. Desmosomes are more effective than tight junctions in preventing substances from passing between cells.

True False

13. The duct of an endocrine gland leads into the bloodstream rather than onto an epithelial surface.

True False

14. The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma.

True False

15. Scar tissue helps to hold an organ together but does not restore normal function of the damaged tissue.

True False

Multiple Choice Questions

16. The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except

A. connective.

B. fibrous.

C. nervous.

D. epithelial.

E. muscular.

17. The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.

A. mesoderm; digestive glands

B. endoderm; muscular system and skeletal system

C. ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis

D. endoderm; mesoderm

E. mesoderm; endoderm

18. The clear gel inside a cell is called

A. matrix.

B. ground substance.

C. interstitial fluid.

D. cytosol.

E. tissue fluid.

19. A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a

A. fixative.

B. histological section.

C. spread.

D. stain.

E. smear.

20. This image shows a

A. cross section.

B. oblique section.

C. transverse section.

D. sagittal section.

E. longitudinal section.

21. _______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs.

A. Interstitial tissue

B. Muscle tissue

C. Adipose tissue

D. Epithelial tissue

E. Nervous tissue

22. An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________

A. stratified squamous.

B. stratified cuboidal.

C. simple cuboidal.

D. simple columnar.

E. pseudostratified columnar.

23. The basement membrane is found between

A. epithelium and connective tissue.

B. epithelium and extracellular material.

C. epithelium and intracellular material.

D. extracellular material and intracellular material.

E. interstitial fluid and extracellular fluid.

24. ______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

A. Simple squamous

B. Simple cuboidal

C. Simple columnar

D. Stratified squamous-keratinized

E. Stratified squamous-nonkeratinized

25. Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion.

A. simple columnar epithelium

B. stratified columnar epithelium

C. pseudostratified columnar epithelium

D. simple cuboidal epithelium

E. stratified cuboidal epithelium

26. ________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.

A. Simple columnar; stratified columnar

B. Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

C. Pseudostratified; stratified squamous

D. Simple cuboidal; stratified squamous

E. Stratified squamous; simple squamous

27. _____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes.

A. Basement membrane

B. Simple

C. Basal

D. Keratinized

E. Goblet

28. A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.

A. pseudostratified; nasal cavity

B. simple cuboidal; esophagus

C. simple columnar; small intestine

D. stratified squamous; anal canal

E. stratified squamous; esophagus

29. All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia.

A. pseudostratified columnar

B. simple columnar

C. stratified columnar

D. stratified cuboidal

E. stratified squamous

30. __________________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles ______________ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened.

A. Transitional; stratified squamous

B. Stratified squamous; pseudostratified

C. Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

D. Simple columnar; pseudostratified

E. Transitional; simple cuboidal

31. _______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________.

A. Transitional; tongue

B. Keratinized; tongue

C. Nonkeratinized; skin

D. Keratinized; skin

E. Nonkeratinized; vagina

32. __________________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion.

A. Simple columnar; transitional

B. Simple squamous; stratified squamous

C. Simple cuboidal; pseudostratified

D. Pseudostratified; simple squamous

E. Pseudostratified; simple cuboidal

33. These features are common to all connective tissues except

A. most cells are not in direct contact with each other.

B. interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.

C. cells usually occupy less space than extracellular material.

D. protein fibers are usually present in the ground substance.

E. most of them are highly vascular.

34. __________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not.

A. Epithelial; cartilage

B. Muscular; osseous tissue

C. Dense regular connective; dense irregular connective tissue

D. Areolar; cartilage

E. Nervous; osseous tissue

35. These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in common except

A. very conspicuous fibers.

B. the presence of fibroblasts.

C. the presence of collagen.

D. ground substance with a gelatinous to rubbery consistency.

E. a calcified matrix.

36. The shape of a person’s external ear is given by

A. dense regular connective tissue.

B. dense irregular connective tissue.

C. elastic cartilage.

D. fibrocartilage.

E. ligaments.

37. These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except

A. reticular tissue.

B. hyaline cartilage.

C. dense regular connective tissue.

D. dense irregular connective tissue.

E. areolar tissue.

38. New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in

A. blood.

B. fibrous connective tissue.

C. adipose tissue.

D. reticular tissue.

E. transitional tissue.

39. __________________ secrete the rubbery matrix of cartilage, whereas ________________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue.

A. Chondroblasts; plasma cells

B. Mast cells; fibroblasts

C. Osteocytes; chondroblasts

D. Chondroblasts; fibroblasts

E. Adipocytes; plasma cells

40. Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastin fibers. People with this syndrome have

A. hyperextensible joints.

B. a small cranium.

C. elastic bones.

D. stronger bones.

E. viscous blood.

41. All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except

A. glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

B. proteoglycans.

C. chondroitin sulfate.

D. hyaluronic acid.

E. collagen.

42. Collagenous fibers are very abundant in

A. blood and hyaline cartilage.

B. blood, adipose tissue, and osseous tissue.

C. ligaments, bones, and the most superficial portion of the skin.

D. tendons, ligaments, and the deeper portion of the skin.

E. areolar tissue, tongue, and bones.

43. Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both

A. dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.

B. plasma and formed elements.

C. elastic cartilage and hyaline cartilage.

D. spongy bone and compact (dense) bone.

E. adipose tissue and reticular tissue.

44. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities, such as

A. helping to transfer charges in the nervous system.

B. holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance.

C. giving bone its brittle, inorganic structure.

D. providing the major structural support of tendons and ligaments.

E. acting as an energy reserve for muscle contraction.

45. __________________ is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to __________________.

A. Dense irregular connective tissue; allow for heart contraction and relaxation

B. Adipose tissue; store energy for the heart

C. Reticular tissue; provide support to the heart

D. Simple cuboidal epithelium; line the heart chambers

E. Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues

46. __________________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes.

A. Blood

B. Areolar tissue

C. Osseous tissue

D. Dense irregular connective tissue

E. Adipose tissue

47. __________________ tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called __________________ tissues.

A. Muscular and nervous; excitable

B. Connective and muscular; responsive

C. Adipose and areolar; complex

D. Epithelial and connective; irritable

E. Nervous and connective; excitable

48. Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and

A. fibroblasts.

B. chondrocytes.

C. neuroglia.

D. myocytes.

E. osteocytes.

49. Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because

A. smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through the digestive tract.

B. skeletal muscle puts pressure on the digestive tract.

C. cardiac muscle maintains a high pressure that moves material through the digestive tract.

D. striated muscle creates a pressure gradient that forces material from one end of the digestive tract to the other.

E. skeletal muscle sphincters contract and allow materials to move through digestive tract.

50. Skeletal muscle is described as

A. striated and voluntary.

B. striated and involuntary.

C. nonstriated and voluntary.

D. nonstriated and involuntary.

E. fibrous and contracting.

51. A connective tissue fiber refers to a(n) __________________, a nerve fiber refers to a(n) ____________________, and a muscle fiber refers to a(n) _______.

A. entire cell; organelle; tissue

B. organelle; entire cell; part of a cell

C. organelle; entire cell; complex of macromolecules

D. complex of macromolecules; entire cell; part of a cell

E. complex of macromolecules; part of a cell; entire cell

52. In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.

A. plasma membrane

B. desmosomes

C. tight junctions

D. gap (communicating) junctions

E. ground substance

53. __________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.

A. Goblet cells; mucus; the blood

B. Endocrine glands; hormones; ducts

C. Exocrine glands; hormones; ducts

D. Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood

E. Exocrine glands; mucus; the blood

54. __________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water to form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid.

A. Mucous; serous

B. Merocrine; holocrine

C. Apocrine; mixed

D. Endocrine; exocrine

E. Serous; mucous

55. __________________ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __________________ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products.

A. Endocrine; exocrine

B. Mucous; serous

C. Cytogenic; apocrine

D. Mucous; cutaneous

E. Merocrine; holocrine

56. __________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts.

A. Areolar

B. Simple acinar

C. Simple coiled tubular

D. Compound acinar

E. Compound tubuloacinar

57. The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts consists of

A. simple squamous epithelium and dense irregular connective tissue.

B. areolar and dense irregular connective tissue.

C. epithelium and lamina propria.

D. areolar tissue and lamina propria.

E. simple squamous epithelium and areolar tissue.

58. This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment.

A. lamina propria

B. endothelium

C. synovial membrane

D. serous membrane (serosa)

E. mucous membrane (mucosa)

59. After six months of lifting weights at the gym you notice that some of your muscles have increased in size. This increase in size is due to _______ of muscle cells.

A. hyperplasia

B. neoplasia

C. hypertrophy

D. metaplasia

E. atrophy

60. This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called ______, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called ________________, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood.

A. ectoderm; stem cells

B. mesoderm; mesenchyme

C. endoderm; mesenchyme

D. mesoderm; fibroblasts

E. ectoderm; mesenchyme

61. Most biologists see embryonic stem (ES) cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are _______________ stem cells.

A. unipotent

B. multipotent

C. pluripotent

D. totipotent

E. omnipotent

62. The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies

A. neoplasia.

B. metaplasia.

C. atrophy.

D. differentiation.

E. hyperplasia.

63. Macrophages __________________ in the healing of a skin wound.

A. release histamine to increase blood flow to the area

B. produce and secrete collagenous fibers

C. phagocytize and digest tissue debris

D. stimulate epithelial cells to multiply

E. make capillaries more permeable allowing white blood cells to migrate into the area

64. It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of __________________ in human breast cells.

A. necrosis

B. apoptosis

C. atrophy

D. infarction

E. gangrene

65. The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called

A. necrosis.

B. apoptosis.

C. gangrene.

D. regeneration.

E. fibrosis.

chapter 05 Key

True / False Questions

1. Mesoderm gives rise to muscle, bone, and blood.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.b Name the three embryonic germ layers and some adult tissues derived from each.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

2. Columnar cells lining the small intestine show a brush border of microvilli on the apical surface.

TRUE

Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

3. Nonkeratinized cells exfoliate from the surface of the skin.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

4. In an epithelium, there is almost no extracellular matrix.

TRUE

Learning Outcome: 05.02.a. Describe the properties that distinguish epithelium from other tissue classes.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

5. The clear gel that usually surrounds cells is called interstitial fluid.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.a Name the four primary classes into which all adult tissues are classified.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

6. Fibrocartilage is found in intervertebral discs.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

7. Blood consists of cells and a ground substance made of formed elements.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

8. Plasma cells produce the ground substance that forms the matrix of connective tissues.

FALSE

Learning Outcome: 05.03.a Describe the properties that most connective tissues have in common.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

9. Excitable cells respond to outside stimuli by means of changes in plasma membrane shape.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.a Explain what distinguishes excitable tissues from other tissues.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

10. Smooth and cardiac muscles are under involuntary control.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.e Name the three kinds of muscular tissue and describe the differences between them.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

11. Dendrites in a neuron send outgoing signals to other cells.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.c Identify the major parts of a nerve cell.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

12. Desmosomes are more effective than tight junctions in preventing substances from passing between cells.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05.a Describe the junctions that hold cells and tissues together.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

13. The duct of an endocrine gland leads into the bloodstream rather than onto an epithelial surface.

FALSE

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.05.b Describe or define different types of glands.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

14. The secretory product of a gland is produced by its parenchyma, not its stroma.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05.c Describe the typical anatomy of a gland.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

15. Scar tissue helps to hold an organ together but does not restore normal function of the damaged tissue.

TRUE

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.06.e Name and describe the ways the body repairs damaged tissues.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

Multiple Choice Questions

16. The four primary tissue types found in adult organs include all of the following except

A. connective.

B. fibrous.

C. nervous.

D. epithelial.

E. muscular.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.a Name the four primary classes into which all adult tissues are classified.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

17. The _______________ gives rise to the _______________.

A. mesoderm; digestive glands

B. endoderm; muscular system and skeletal system

C. ectoderm; nervous system and epidermis

D. endoderm; mesoderm

E. mesoderm; endoderm

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.b Name the three embryonic germ layers and some adult tissues derived from each.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

18. The clear gel inside a cell is called

A. matrix.

B. ground substance.

C. interstitial fluid.

D. cytosol.

E. tissue fluid.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.a Name the four primary classes into which all adult tissues are classified.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

19. A thin, stained slice of tissue mounted on a microscope is called a

A. fixative.

B. histological section.

C. spread.

D. stain.

E. smear.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.01.c Visualize the three-dimensional shape of a structure from a two-dimensional tissue section.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

20. This image shows a

A. cross section.

B. oblique section.

C. transverse section.

D. sagittal section.

E. longitudinal section.

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Figure: 05.02
Learning Outcome: 05.01.c Visualize the three-dimensional shape of a structure from a two-dimensional tissue section.
Section: 05.01
Topic: Histology

21. _______________ lines body cavities, covers the body surface, and forms the lining of many organs.

A. Interstitial tissue

B. Muscle tissue

C. Adipose tissue

D. Epithelial tissue

E. Nervous tissue

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.a. Describe the properties that distinguish epithelium from other tissue classes.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

22. An epithelium with all cells tall and narrow and with every cell touching the basement membrane is called ________________

A. stratified squamous.

B. stratified cuboidal.

C. simple cuboidal.

D. simple columnar.

E. pseudostratified columnar.

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

23. The basement membrane is found between

A. epithelium and connective tissue.

B. epithelium and extracellular material.

C. epithelium and intracellular material.

D. extracellular material and intracellular material.

E. interstitial fluid and extracellular fluid.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.a. Describe the properties that distinguish epithelium from other tissue classes.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

24. ______________ epithelium allows for rapid diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide through the air sacs (alveoli) of the lungs.

A. Simple squamous

B. Simple cuboidal

C. Simple columnar

D. Stratified squamous-keratinized

E. Stratified squamous-nonkeratinized

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

25. Most kidney tubules are made of this tissue specialized for absorption and secretion.

A. simple columnar epithelium

B. stratified columnar epithelium

C. pseudostratified columnar epithelium

D. simple cuboidal epithelium

E. stratified cuboidal epithelium

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

26. ________________ epithelium is the most widespread epithelium in the body, whereas _______________ epithelium is rare.

A. Simple columnar; stratified columnar

B. Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

C. Pseudostratified; stratified squamous

D. Simple cuboidal; stratified squamous

E. Stratified squamous; simple squamous

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

27. _____________ cells in simple columnar and pseudostratified columnar epithelia produce protective mucous coatings over the mucous membranes.

A. Basement membrane

B. Simple

C. Basal

D. Keratinized

E. Goblet

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

28. A brush border of microvilli belongs to _______________ epithelium found in the ______________.

A. pseudostratified; nasal cavity

B. simple cuboidal; esophagus

C. simple columnar; small intestine

D. stratified squamous; anal canal

E. stratified squamous; esophagus

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

29. All cells in this tissue reach the basement membrane and only cells that reach the free surface have cilia.

A. pseudostratified columnar

B. simple columnar

C. stratified columnar

D. stratified cuboidal

E. stratified squamous

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

30. __________________ epithelium found in the bladder resembles ______________ epithelium, but the apical cells are rounded, not flattened.

A. Transitional; stratified squamous

B. Stratified squamous; pseudostratified

C. Stratified squamous; stratified columnar

D. Simple columnar; pseudostratified

E. Transitional; simple cuboidal

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

31. _______________ epithelium provides a moist and slippery surface and is well suited to resist stress, as in the ________________.

A. Transitional; tongue

B. Keratinized; tongue

C. Nonkeratinized; skin

D. Keratinized; skin

E. Nonkeratinized; vagina

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

32. __________________ epithelium is associated with rapid transport of substances through a membrane, whereas __________________ epithelium is associated with resistance to abrasion.

A. Simple columnar; transitional

B. Simple squamous; stratified squamous

C. Simple cuboidal; pseudostratified

D. Pseudostratified; simple squamous

E. Pseudostratified; simple cuboidal

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences.
Section: 05.02
Topic: Histology

33. These features are common to all connective tissues except

A. most cells are not in direct contact with each other.

B. interstitial fluid is so scarce that it is not visible with a light microscope.

C. cells usually occupy less space than extracellular material.

D. protein fibers are usually present in the ground substance.

E. most of them are highly vascular.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.a Describe the properties that most connective tissues have in common.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

34. __________________ tissue is highly vascular, whereas _______________ is not.

A. Epithelial; cartilage

B. Muscular; osseous tissue

C. Dense regular connective; dense irregular connective tissue

D. Areolar; cartilage

E. Nervous; osseous tissue

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

35. These are features that fibrous connective tissues have in common except

A. very conspicuous fibers.

B. the presence of fibroblasts.

C. the presence of collagen.

D. ground substance with a gelatinous to rubbery consistency.

E. a calcified matrix.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

36. The shape of a person’s external ear is given by

A. dense regular connective tissue.

B. dense irregular connective tissue.

C. elastic cartilage.

D. fibrocartilage.

E. ligaments.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

37. These are all types of fibrous connective tissues except

A. reticular tissue.

B. hyaline cartilage.

C. dense regular connective tissue.

D. dense irregular connective tissue.

E. areolar tissue.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

38. New triglycerides are constantly synthesized and stored and others are hydrolyzed and released into circulation mostly from cells in

A. blood.

B. fibrous connective tissue.

C. adipose tissue.

D. reticular tissue.

E. transitional tissue.

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

39. __________________ secrete the rubbery matrix of cartilage, whereas ________________ produce the fibers and ground substance that form the matrix of fibrous connective tissue.

A. Chondroblasts; plasma cells

B. Mast cells; fibroblasts

C. Osteocytes; chondroblasts

D. Chondroblasts; fibroblasts

E. Adipocytes; plasma cells

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

40. Marfan syndrome is a hereditary defect in elastin fibers. People with this syndrome have

A. hyperextensible joints.

B. a small cranium.

C. elastic bones.

D. stronger bones.

E. viscous blood.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

41. All these substances account for the gelatinous consistency of connective tissue ground substance except

A. glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

B. proteoglycans.

C. chondroitin sulfate.

D. hyaluronic acid.

E. collagen.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.c Explain what the matrix of a connective tissue is and describe its components.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

42. Collagenous fibers are very abundant in

A. blood and hyaline cartilage.

B. blood, adipose tissue, and osseous tissue.

C. ligaments, bones, and the most superficial portion of the skin.

D. tendons, ligaments, and the deeper portion of the skin.

E. areolar tissue, tongue, and bones.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.c Explain what the matrix of a connective tissue is and describe its components.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

43. Fibroblasts and protein fibers are associated with both

A. dense regular and dense irregular connective tissues.

B. plasma and formed elements.

C. elastic cartilage and hyaline cartilage.

D. spongy bone and compact (dense) bone.

E. adipose tissue and reticular tissue.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

44. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) help give the ground substance some of its qualities, such as

A. helping to transfer charges in the nervous system.

B. holding water and maintaining electrolyte balance.

C. giving bone its brittle, inorganic structure.

D. providing the major structural support of tendons and ligaments.

E. acting as an energy reserve for muscle contraction.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.03.c Explain what the matrix of a connective tissue is and describe its components.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

45. __________________ is found in the heart, and one of its functions is to __________________.

A. Dense irregular connective tissue; allow for heart contraction and relaxation

B. Adipose tissue; store energy for the heart

C. Reticular tissue; provide support to the heart

D. Simple cuboidal epithelium; line the heart chambers

E. Blood; transport nutrients to the tissues

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

46. __________________ exhibits a lot of apparently empty space, and is found in many serous membranes.

A. Blood

B. Areolar tissue

C. Osseous tissue

D. Dense irregular connective tissue

E. Adipose tissue

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other.
Section: 05.03
Topic: Histology

47. __________________ tissues respond quickly to outside stimuli by means of changes in membrane potential, thus they are called __________________ tissues.

A. Muscular and nervous; excitable

B. Connective and muscular; responsive

C. Adipose and areolar; complex

D. Epithelial and connective; irritable

E. Nervous and connective; excitable

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.a Explain what distinguishes excitable tissues from other tissues.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

48. Nervous tissue consists predominantly of two cell types, neurons and

A. fibroblasts.

B. chondrocytes.

C. neuroglia.

D. myocytes.

E. osteocytes.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.b Name the cell types that compose nervous tissue.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

49. Astronauts in zero gravity are able to move food through their digestive tracts because

A. smooth muscle produces waves of contractions that propel material through the digestive tract.

B. skeletal muscle puts pressure on the digestive tract.

C. cardiac muscle maintains a high pressure that moves material through the digestive tract.

D. striated muscle creates a pressure gradient that forces material from one end of the digestive tract to the other.

E. skeletal muscle sphincters contract and allow materials to move through digestive tract.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.04.e Name the three kinds of muscular tissue and describe the differences between them.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

50. Skeletal muscle is described as

A. striated and voluntary.

B. striated and involuntary.

C. nonstriated and voluntary.

D. nonstriated and involuntary.

E. fibrous and contracting.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.04.e Name the three kinds of muscular tissue and describe the differences between them.
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

51. A connective tissue fiber refers to a(n) __________________, a nerve fiber refers to a(n) ____________________, and a muscle fiber refers to a(n) _______.

A. entire cell; organelle; tissue

B. organelle; entire cell; part of a cell

C. organelle; entire cell; complex of macromolecules

D. complex of macromolecules; entire cell; part of a cell

E. complex of macromolecules; part of a cell; entire cell

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Section: 05.04
Topic: Histology

52. In the intestine, __________________ ensure(s) that most digested nutrients pass through the epithelial cells and not between them.

A. plasma membrane

B. desmosomes

C. tight junctions

D. gap (communicating) junctions

E. ground substance

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.05.a Describe the junctions that hold cells and tissues together.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

53. __________________ secrete __________________ into __________________.

A. Goblet cells; mucus; the blood

B. Endocrine glands; hormones; ducts

C. Exocrine glands; hormones; ducts

D. Endocrine glands; hormones; the blood

E. Exocrine glands; mucus; the blood

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05.b Describe or define different types of glands.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

54. __________________ glands secrete mucin, which combines with water to form a thick and sticky product, whereas __________________ glands produce a relatively watery fluid.

A. Mucous; serous

B. Merocrine; holocrine

C. Apocrine; mixed

D. Endocrine; exocrine

E. Serous; mucous

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05.d Name and compare different modes of glandular secretion.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

55. __________________ glands (such as tear glands) have vesicles that release their secretion by exocytosis, whereas __________________ glands (such as oil-producing glands) secrete a mixture of disintegrated cells and their products.

A. Endocrine; exocrine

B. Mucous; serous

C. Cytogenic; apocrine

D. Mucous; cutaneous

E. Merocrine; holocrine

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.05.d Name and compare different modes of glandular secretion.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

56. __________________ glands have branched ducts and secretory cells that form sacs at one end of the ducts.

A. Areolar

B. Simple acinar

C. Simple coiled tubular

D. Compound acinar

E. Compound tubuloacinar

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.05.c Describe the typical anatomy of a gland.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

57. The membrane that lines digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts consists of

A. simple squamous epithelium and dense irregular connective tissue.

B. areolar and dense irregular connective tissue.

C. epithelium and lamina propria.

D. areolar tissue and lamina propria.

E. simple squamous epithelium and areolar tissue.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.05.f Name and describe the major types of membranes in the body.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

58. This membrane lines passageways that open to the exterior environment.

A. lamina propria

B. endothelium

C. synovial membrane

D. serous membrane (serosa)

E. mucous membrane (mucosa)

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.05.f Name and describe the major types of membranes in the body.
Section: 05.05
Topic: Histology

59. After six months of lifting weights at the gym you notice that some of your muscles have increased in size. This increase in size is due to _______ of muscle cells.

A. hyperplasia

B. neoplasia

C. hypertrophy

D. metaplasia

E. atrophy

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.06.a Name and describe the modes of tissue growth.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

60. This primary germ layer is the middle layer, called ______, and gives rise to a gelatinous material called ________________, which gives rise to different types of connective tissue such as bone, muscle, and blood.

A. ectoderm; stem cells

B. mesoderm; mesenchyme

C. endoderm; mesenchyme

D. mesoderm; fibroblasts

E. ectoderm; mesenchyme

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.01.b Name the three embryonic germ layers and some adult tissues derived from each.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

61. Most biologists see embryonic stem (ES) cells as a possible treatment for diseases that result from the loss of functional cells. This possibility is based on the fact that ES cells are _______________ stem cells.

A. unipotent

B. multipotent

C. pluripotent

D. totipotent

E. omnipotent

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.06.b Define adult and embryonic stem cells and their varied degrees of developmental plascitiy.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

62. The pseudostratified columnar epithelium of the bronchi in smokers may transform into stratified squamous epithelium. This exemplifies

A. neoplasia.

B. metaplasia.

C. atrophy.

D. differentiation.

E. hyperplasia.

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.06.c Name and describe the ways that a tissue can change from one type to another.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

63. Macrophages __________________ in the healing of a skin wound.

A. release histamine to increase blood flow to the area

B. produce and secrete collagenous fibers

C. phagocytize and digest tissue debris

D. stimulate epithelial cells to multiply

E. make capillaries more permeable allowing white blood cells to migrate into the area

Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply
Learning Outcome: 05.06.e Name and describe the ways the body repairs damaged tissues.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

64. It is normal for breasts to shrink after lactation ceases. This is a consequence of __________________ in human breast cells.

A. necrosis

B. apoptosis

C. atrophy

D. infarction

E. gangrene

Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand
Learning Outcome: 05.06.d Name and describe the modes and causes of tissue shrinkage and death.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

65. The replacement of damaged tissue with scar tissue is called

A. necrosis.

B. apoptosis.

C. gangrene.

D. regeneration.

E. fibrosis.

Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember
Learning Outcome: 05.06.e Name and describe the ways the body repairs damaged tissues.
Section: 05.06
Topic: Histology

chapter 05 Summary

Category # of Questions
Bloom’s Level: 1. Remember 27
Bloom’s Level: 2. Understand 16
Bloom’s Level: 3. Apply 19
Figure: 05.02 1
Learning Outcome: 05.01.a Name the four primary classes into which all adult tissues are classified. 3
Learning Outcome: 05.01.b Name the three embryonic germ layers and some adult tissues derived from each. 3
Learning Outcome: 05.01.c Visualize the three-dimensional shape of a structure from a two-dimensional tissue section. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.02.a. Describe the properties that distinguish epithelium from other tissue classes. 3
Learning Outcome: 05.02.b List and classify eight types of epithelium, distinguish them from each other, and state where each type can be found in the body. 7
Learning Outcome: 05.02.c Explain how the structural differences between epithelia relate to their functional differences. 5
Learning Outcome: 05.03.a Describe the properties that most connective tissues have in common. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.03.c Explain what the matrix of a connective tissue is and describe its components. 3
Learning Outcome: 05.03.d Name and classify 10 types of connective tissue, describe their cellular components and matrix, and explain what distinguishes them from each other. 12
Learning Outcome: 05.04.a Explain what distinguishes excitable tissues from other tissues. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.04.b Name the cell types that compose nervous tissue. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.04.c Identify the major parts of a nerve cell. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.04.e Name the three kinds of muscular tissue and describe the differences between them. 3
Learning Outcome: 05.05.a Describe the junctions that hold cells and tissues together. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.05.b Describe or define different types of glands. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.05.c Describe the typical anatomy of a gland. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.05.d Name and compare different modes of glandular secretion. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.05.f Name and describe the major types of membranes in the body. 2
Learning Outcome: 05.06.a Name and describe the modes of tissue growth. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.06.b Define adult and embryonic stem cells and their varied degrees of developmental plascitiy. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.06.c Name and describe the ways that a tissue can change from one type to another. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.06.d Name and describe the modes and causes of tissue shrinkage and death. 1
Learning Outcome: 05.06.e Name and describe the ways the body repairs damaged tissues. 3
Section: 05.01 6
Section: 05.02 15
Section: 05.03 18
Section: 05.04 8
Section: 05.05 9
Section: 05.06 9
Topic: Histology 65