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Biology The Unity and Diversity 13th Edition Starr Taggart Evers Test Bank

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Biology The Unity and Diversity 13th Edition Starr Taggart Evers Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111425692

ISBN-10: 1111425698

 

 

Description

Biology The Unity and Diversity 13th Edition Starr Taggart Evers Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1111425692

ISBN-10: 1111425698

 

 

 

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CHAPTER 20—VIRUSES AND PROKARYOTES

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

 

Evolution of a Disease

 

  1. AIDS is short for
a. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
b. Accelerated Immune Death Syndrome.
c. Accentuated Induced Deficiency Syndrome.
d. Advantageous Immunity Deficiency Syndrome.
e. none of these.

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Sequencing of HIV-1 revealed that it is most closely related to which of the following?
a. simian immunodeficiency virus
b. feline  immunodeficiency virus
c. bovine immunodeficiency virus
d. hepatitis B
e. all of these

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Once inside the human body, HIV primarily infects
a. liver tissue.
b. kidney tissue.
c. red blood cells.
d. white blood cells.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

Viruses and Viroids

 

  1. Which of the following is not a characteristic of viruses?
a. Contains DNA or RNA genetic material.
b. Contains cytoplasm and ribosomes.
c. Has a protein coat.
d. Can only replicate inside a living host cell.
e. Is very small.

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

  1. An adenovirus
a. is a naked virus.
b. does not have a lipid envelope.
c. has a spiked protein coat.
d. infects animals.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is false?
a. The outer coats of all viruses are alike.
b. The virus contains either DNA or RNA at its core, but not both.
c. Viruses infect organisms in all three domains of life.
d. Most viruses have a protein coat or covering.
e. Some viruses benefit us indirectly.

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension | Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

      Viral Replication

 

  1. Which of the following is(are) NOT involved in the reproduction of all viruses?
a. attachment and penetration
b. replication and synthesis
c. assembly
d. latency
e. release

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of type I Herpes simplex?
a. It is a DNA virus.
b. It has a latent phase in its replication cycle.
c. It remains in nerve cells for a time.
d. Sunburn or other stress can activate it.
e. Once activated it causes a form of skin cancer.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension | Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Herpes and other enveloped viruses enter their host cells
a. through pores.
b. by dissolving the host plasma membrane.
c. by fusion of the viral membrane with the cell’s plasma membrane.
d. by activating transport proteins in the host cell’s plasma membrane.
e. any of these.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Retroviruses are characterized by
a. an RNA core.
b. integrating DNA into the host’s chromosome.
c. the enzyme reverse transcriptase.
d. having one strain that causes AIDS.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

“Prokaryotes” – Enduring, Abundant, and Diverse

 

  1. Which of the following lack a nucleus and are structurally simple?
a. eukaryotes
b. prokaryotes
c. fungi
d. algae
e. all of these

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    EASY!

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following prokaryotic nutritional groups use CO2 and sunlight to produce energy?
a. photoautotrophs
b. chemoautotrophs
c. photoheterotrophs
d. chemoheterotrophs
e. all of these

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following prokaryotic nutritional groups use CO2 and inorganic substances to produce energy?
a. photoautotrophs
b. chemoautotrophs
c. photoheterotrophs
d. chemoheterotrophs
e. none of these

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following prokaryotic nutritional groups use organic substances for carbon and photons for energy?
a. photoautotrophs
b. chemoautotrophs
c. photoheterotrophs
d. chemoheterotrophs
e. none of these

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Of all organisms, prokaryotes are
a. the smallest.
b. the most abundant.
c. the most metabolically diverse.
d. the most widespread.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Prokaryotes are the ancestors of
a. protists.
b. fungi.
c. plants.
d. animals.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Structure and Function of “Prokaryotes”

 

  1. Which of the following does NOT characterize most prokaryotes?
a. no nucleus
b. a single circular chromosome
c. cell wall
d. complex internal membranes
e. great metabolic diversity

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Which of the following is a correct description of a prokaryote shape?
a. A coccus is corkscrew shaped.
b. An archaean is arch shaped.
c. A bacillus is rod shaped.
d. A spirillum is shperical.
e. All of these are correct.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Peptidoglycan is a compound in
a. bacterial flagella.
b. bacterial cell walls.
c. archaean cell walls.
d. archaean flagella.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following distinguishes bacterial flagella from those of eukaryotes?
a. number per cell and structure
b. structure and mechanism of movement
c. function and mechanism of movement
d. number per cell and mechanism of movement
e. number per cell and function

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Pili may do all of the following EXCEPT
a. help cells attach to surfaces.
b. function in reproduction.
c. extend from the cell surface.
d. be transferred between cells.
e. function in cell locomotion.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. All of the following are located on the exterior surface of a prokaryote EXCEPT
a. flagellum
b. pilus
c. plasma membrane
d. capsule
e. none of these

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. In what way does prokaryotic fission resemble eukaryotic mitosis?
a. mechanism of chromosome movement
b. genetically equivalent daughter cells are produced
c. chromosome attachment
d. production of a cytoskeletal framework for separating chromosomes
e. all of these

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension | Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Plasmids
a. are self-replicating circular molecules of DNA.
b. may be transferred between bacteria.
c. may pick up genes from other prokaryotes.
d. contains genes separate from the bacterial chromosome.
e. fit all of these descriptions.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

      Bacterial Diversity

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about cyanobacteria?
a. Cyanobacteria have the same light-capturing chlorophylls as plants.
b. Chloroplasts evolved from ancient cyanobacteria.
c.  Cyanobacteria can fix carbon.
d. Cyanobacteria can fix nitrogen.
e. Cyanobacteria put nearly all of the nitrogen into Earth’s atmosphere.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: KNowledge

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of the proteobacteria?
a. They are the most diverse group of bacteria.
b. Some are photoautotrophs.
c. Some are chemoautotrophs.
d. Some are chemoheterotrophs.
e. All of these are true.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension | Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. Gram staining divides bacteria into ____ groups based on differences in the composition of their ____.
a. two; DNA
b. four; capsules
c. two; cell walls
d. four; cell walls
e. two; plasma membranes

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Gram-positive bacteria have ____ and appear ____ under the microscope.
a. thick walls; pink
b. thick walls; purple
c. thin walls; pink
d. thin walls; purple
e. none of these

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Most species of Gram-positive bacteria are
a. photoautotrophic.
b. photoheterotrophic.
c. chemoautotrophic.
d. chemoheterotrophic.
e. photochemoautotrophic.

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Endospores can resist
a. boiling water.
b. acids.
c. irradiation.
d. disinfectants.
e. all of these.

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. A dangerous form of food poisoning is caused by
a. Clostridium botulinum.
b. Clostridium tetani.
c. Bacillus anthracis.
d. Heliobacter pylori.
e. Thermus aquaticus.

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is an intracellular parasite that causes sexually transmitted disease?
a. Chlamydia
b. Cyanobacteria
c. Clostridium
d. Chondromyces
e. all of these

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

     Archaea

 

  1. Archaeans are similar to bacteria in all of the following ways EXCEPT
a. size.
b. shape.
c. plasma membrane  composition.
d. absence of a nucleus.
e.  mode of cellular division.

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

 

  1. In which of the following ways are archaeans similar to eukaryotic cells?
a. size
b. shape
c. presence of histones
d. DNA polymerases
e. presence of operons

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The methanogenic archaeans belong are ____.
a. aerobes
b. facultative anaerobes
c. strict aerobes
d. facultative anaerobes
e. strict anaerobes

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. The methanogenic archaeans are ____ that pull electrons from ____.
a. chemoautotrophs; oxygen
b. chemoheterotrophs; carbon dioxide
c. chemoautotrophs; water
d. chemoheterotrophs; methane
e. chemoautotrophs; hydrogen gas

 

ANS:  E                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Bacteriorhodopsin is a light-sensitive pigment found in ____ archaeans and used to supply energy for ____ production.
a. halophilic; ATP
b. thermophilic; carbohydrate
c. methanogenic; methane
d. halophilic; carbohydrate
e. thermophilic; ATP

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1

DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

 

 

 

MATCHING

 

Classification. Answer the following questions using the five groups listed below:

 

a. halophiles
b. cyanobacteria
c. thermophiles
d. proteobacteria
e. methanogens

 

 

 

  1. These bacteria live in temperatures that are not usually conducive to life.

 

  1. These produce CH4.

 

  1. These bacteria can live in water of very high salt concentration.

 

  1. These can form heterocysts, valuable in nitrogen fixation.

 

  1. These are the most diverse monophyletic group of bacteria.

 

  1. ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge      MSC:  Classification

 

  1. ANS:  E                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge      MSC:  Classification

 

  1. ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge      MSC:  Classification

 

  1. ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge      MSC:  Classification

 

  1. ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge      MSC:  Classification

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. A __________ is a noncellular infectious particle with a protein coat enclosing DNA or RNA.

 

ANS:  virus               PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. A virus infects a host cell and takes over the host’s mechanisms of replication and __________ synthesis.

 

ANS:  protein           PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. A __________ is a virus that infects only bacteria.

 

ANS:  bacteriophage                                  PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Some viruses cause disease; they act as __________ in humans.

 

ANS:  pathogens       PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Bacteriophages may multiply by a __________ pathway in which the new viral particles are made quickly and released by lysis.

 

ANS:  lytic                PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. Bacteriophages may reproduce using a __________ pathway in which viral DNA becomes part of the host chromosome.

 

ANS:  lysogenic        PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

 

  1. __________ or __________ extend from many prokaryotic cells and serve in attachment and motility.

 

ANS:  Pili; flagella    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. The __________ is a circular molecule of DNA that resides in a region of cytoplasm called the __________.

 

ANS:  prokaryotic chromosome; nucleoid             PTS:               1         DIF:     Difficult

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. The 3 types of horizontal gene flow that occur in bacteria are __________, __________, and __________.

 

ANS:  conjugation; transduction; transformation    PTS:               1         DIF:     Moderate

OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Archaeans include three main groups:__________ (methane producers), __________ (salt lovers), and __________ (heat lovers).

 

ANS:  methanogens; extreme halophiles; extreme thermophiles

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

 

  1. Why are viruses not considered to be alive?

 

ANS:

The first reason is that viruses are not cells, and cell theory states that all living things are cells.  The second reason is that viruses are unable to replicate on their own and depend on host cells to facilitate the process.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Comprehension

TOP:   VIRUSES AND VIROIDS

 

  1. How does the lysogenic cycle differ from the lytic cycle?

 

ANS:

For the most part the two are similar. But in the lysogenic cycle, the virus incorporates its genetic material into the host cell genome. This allows the virus to be replicated along with the host cell without damaging the host cell.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Easy               OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

TOP:   VIRAL REPLICATION

 

  1. How do archaea differ from bacteria?

 

ANS:

For one, archaea are for more likely to be anaerobic.  Second, archaea are more closely related to eukaryotes.  Third, archaea are more apt to prefer extreme environments.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Knowledge

TOP:   ARCHAEA / “PROKARYOTES” – ENDURING, ABUNDANT, AND DIVERSE

 

  1. Why are endospores so dangerous to food production?

 

ANS:

Endospores are capable of withstanding drying, boiling and radiation.  These are the primary mechanisms by which the food industry sterilizes its products.  As a result, the survival of endospores in food products is a constant danger.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Moderate       OBJ:   Bloom’s Taxonomy: Analysis

TOP:   BACTERIAL DIVERSITY