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Biopsychology 8th Edition Pinel Test Bank

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Biopsychology 8th Edition Pinel Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205832569

ISBN-10: 0205832563

 

 

Description

Biopsychology 8th Edition Pinel Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205832569

ISBN-10: 0205832563

 

 

 

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Chapter 13

Hormones and Sex: What’s Wrong with the Mamawawa?

 

Multiple Choice Questions

 

1)  Hormones influence sexual behavior by

  1. A) directing the development of many of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as male or female.
  2. B) activating the reproduction-related behavior of sexually mature adults.
  3. C) dividing into two separate pools, male hormones and female hormones, which have opposite, mutually exclusive effects.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 328

Topic: Chapter 13 Introduction

 

2)  Hormones influence sexual behavior by

  1. A) directing the development from many of the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics that distinguish one as female or male.
  2. B) activating the reproduction-related behavior of sexually mature females and males.
  3. C) determining whether the zygote is XX or XY.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 328

Topic: Chapter 13 Introduction

 

3)  According to the text, the “mamawawa”

  1. A) is the men-are-men-and-women-are-women assumption.
  2. B) is seductive.
  3. C) seems so right, but is fundamentally wrong.
  4. D) is the tendency to think that “femaleness” and “maleness” are discrete, mutually exclusive, complementary categories.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 328

Topic: Chapter 13 Introduction

 

4)  According to the text, the “mamawawa” is an African culture

  1. A) whose sexual practices appear bizarre from the North American perspective.
  2. B) in which the female is dominant.
  3. C) in which weak males are castrated at puberty.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 328

Topic: Chapter 13 Introduction

 

 

 

 

5) Which of the gonads is indicated here?

  1. A) vagina
  2. B) ovary
  3. C) adrenal
  4. D) testes
  5. E) pancreas

Answer:B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 328

Topic: Chapter 13 Introduction

 

 

6)  Sweat glands

 

  1. A) are exocrine glands.
  2. B) release hormones into the circulatory system.
  3. C) are endocrine glands.
  4. D) are ductless glands.
  5. E) release hormones directly into the blood.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

7)  Endocrine glands are ductless glands; they release

 

  1. A) substances to the outside world.
  2. B) hormones to the outside world.
  3. C) perspiration, among other things.
  4. D) hormones into the circulatory system.
  5. E) chromosomes into nuclei.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

8)  The testes and ovaries are

 

  1. A) zygotes.
  2. B) gonads.
  3. C) sex chromosomes.
  4. D) ova.
  5. E) progestins.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

9)  In the mathematics of copulation,

 

  1. A) ovaries + testes = zygote
  2. B) Y + Y = zygote
  3. C) ovum + sperm = zygote
  4. D) gonads + testes = scrotum
  5. E) X Y = infertility

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

10)  Which of the following statements is true?

 

  1. A) No sperm cells have Y chromosomes.
  2. B) All sperm cells have Y chromosomes.
  3. C) All sperm cells have X chromosomes.
  4. D) No sperm cells have X chromosomes.
  5. E) none of the above is true

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

11)  In males, one sex chromosome is an X chromosome and the other is

 

  1. A) an XX chromosome.
  2. B) a Y chromosome.
  3. C) a large X chromosome.
  4. D) an H-Y chromosome.
  5. E) a small X chromosome.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

12)  Which of the following statements is true? All typical

 

  1. A) females have more than one X sex chromosome.
  2. B) females do not have a Y sex chromosome.
  3. C) males have an X sex chromosome.
  4. D) males have a Y sex chromosome.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

13)  Most hormones fit into one of the following three categories:

  1. A) complex carbohydrates, sugars, or proteins.
  2. B) amino acid derivatives, peptides and proteins, or steroids.
  3. C) peptide chains, saccharide chains, or amino acids.
  4. D) exocrine, endocrine, or androgens.
  5. E) peptides, polypeptides, or proteins.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

14)  Steroid hormones

 

  1. A) are synthesized from cholesterol.
  2. B) play a major role in sexual development.
  3. C) penetrate cell membranes.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and D

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

15)  The most prevalent estrogen is

 

  1. A) estradiol.
  2. B) progestin.
  3. C) progesterone.
  4. D) testosterone.
  5. E) androstenedione.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

16)  Two of the major classes of gonadal steroid hormones are

 

  1. A) androgens and estrogens.
  2. B) testosterones and estradiols.
  3. C) progesterones and estradiols.
  4. D) progesterones and testosterones.
  5. E) testosterones and minestrones.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

17)  Testosterone is

 

  1. A) a progestin.
  2. B) an androgen.
  3. C) an estrogen.
  4. D) an estradiol.
  5. E) a progesterone.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

18)  The three main classes of gonadal steroid hormones are

 

  1. A) testosterones, estrogens, and progestins.
  2. B) progesterones, androgens, and estradiols.
  3. C) estradiols, estrogens, and androgens.
  4. D) progestins, estrogens, and androgens.
  5. E) testosterones, estrogens, and minestrones.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

19)  Which hormone is released by the testes but not by the ovaries?

 

  1. A) testosterone
  2. B) progesterone
  3. C) estradiol
  4. D) androstenedione
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

20)  All of the sex steroids that are released by the gonads are also released by the

 

  1. A) sweat glands.
  2. B) adrenal cortex.
  3. C) pituitary.
  4. D) anterior pituitary.
  5. E) adrenal medulla.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

21)  Which of the following is released by the adrenal cortex?

 

  1. A) testosterone
  2. B) estradiol
  3. C) progesterone
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

22)  A tropic hormone is any hormone that

  1. A) increases reproductive behavior.
  2. B) stimulates or suppresses the release of posterior pituitary hormones.
  3. C) is released by the pituitary.
  4. D) stimulates or suppresses the release of other hormones.
  5. E) influences the ovaries and testes.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

23)  The anterior pituitary releases

 

  1. A) estrogen.
  2. B) tropic hormones.
  3. C) testosterone.
  4. D) releasing factors.
  5. E) vasopressin.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

 

24) Which structure is indicated here?

  1. A) anterior pituitary
  2. B) posterior pituitary
  3. C) hypothalamus
  4. D) mammillary body
  5. E) pineal

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

 

25) Located just above the pituitary is the

 

  1. A) hypothalamus.
  2. B) pinel gland.
  3. C) penile gland.
  4. D) thyroid gland.
  5. E) pineal gland.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

26)  The anterior pituitary develops from a small outgrowth of fetal

 

  1. A) tissue of the type that eventually grows into the roof of the mouth.
  2. B) thalamic tissue.
  3. C) posterior pituitary tissue.
  4. D) hypothalamic tissue.
  5. E) adrenal tissue.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

27)  In addition to the testes, which of the following endocrine glands could be said to dangle?

 

  1. A) pituitary
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) adrenal medulla
  4. D) thyroid
  5. E) adrenal cortex

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

28)  Metaphorically speaking, which gland is the conductor of the endocrine orchestra?

 

  1. A) thyroid
  2. B) anterior pituitary
  3. C) posterior pituitary
  4. D) pineal
  5. E) adrenal

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

29)  Although the pituitary is often referred to as the master gland, strictly speaking the master gland is the

 

  1. A) snot gland.
  2. B) anterior pituitary.
  3. C) posterior pituitary.
  4. D) adrenal cortex.
  5. E) pineal gland.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

30)  The anterior pituitary receives substantial neural input from the

 

  1. A) amygdala.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) posterior pituitary.
  4. D) thalamus.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

31)  Unlike the posterior pituitary, the anterior pituitary

 

  1. A) receives no neural input.
  2. B) has no blood vessels.
  3. C) releases hormones.
  4. D) releases no hormones.
  5. E) is suspended from the pituitary stalk.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

32)  The master gland has its own master; where is it?

 

  1. A) pituitary
  2. B) hypothalamus
  3. C) anterior pituitary
  4. D) posterior pituitary
  5. E) pineal

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

 

33) Indicated here is the__________ , which supplies the posterior pituitary with vasopressin and oxytocin.

  1. A) supraoptic nucleus
  2. B) paraventricular nucleus
  3. C) anterior pituitary
  4. D) adrenal cortex
  5. E) adrenal medulla

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

 

 

 

34)  Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) Men and women have fundamentally different anterior pituitaries.
  2. B) Men and women have fundamentally different posterior pituitaries.
  3. C) A male pituitary transplanted into a female displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release.
  4. D) A female pituitary transplanted into a male displays a cyclic pattern of hormone release.
  5. E) both A and D

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

35)  Which of the following statements is true?

  1. A) Vasopressin stimulates contractions of the uterus and the release of oxytocin.
  2. B) Vasopressin is synthesized in the posterior pituitary.
  3. C) The release of oxytocin is stimulated by hypothalamic releasing factors.
  4. D) Oxytocin and vasopressin are different names for the same hormone.
  5. E) Oxytocin and vasopressin are synthesized in the hypothalamus.

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

36)  Vasopressin and oxytocin are synthesized in the

 

  1. A) hypothalamus.
  2. B) posterior pituitary.
  3. C) anterior pituitary.
  4. D) adrenal glands.
  5. E) thyroid.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

37)  The axons of both paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus neurons terminate in the

 

  1. A) posterior pituitary.
  2. B) anterior pituitary.
  3. C) hypothalamus.
  4. D) gonads.
  5. E) adrenal cortex.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

38)  The hypothalamus controls the anterior pituitary via the

 

  1. A) fornix.
  2. B) adrenals.
  3. C) medial forebrain bundle.
  4. D) hypothalamopituitary portal system.
  5. E) thyroid.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

39)  In one study (Harris, 1955), selectively cutting the veins of the pituitary stalk temporarily disrupted the release of  several

 

  1. A) hypothalamic hormones.
  2. B) posterior pituitary hormones.
  3. C) anterior pituitary hormones.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

40)  A portal vein is any vein

 

  1. A) in the pituitary stalk or “porta.”
  2. B) that carries blood toward the pituitary.
  3. C) that connects one capillary network with another.
  4. D) that carries blood away from the hypothalamus.
  5. E) that leads to a large chamber.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

41)  Releasing hormones are synthesized in the

 

  1. A) amygdala.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) hippocampus.
  4. D) pituitary.
  5. E) gonads.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

42)  Releasing hormones are released into the

 

  1. A) gonads.
  2. B) posterior pituitary.
  3. C) hypothalamopituitary portal system.
  4. D) ventricles.
  5. E) adrenal cortex.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

43)  Releasing hormones control the release of

 

  1. A) estrogens.
  2. B) androgens.
  3. C) progestins.
  4. D) tropic hormones.
  5. E) releasing factors.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

44)  The first releasing hormone to be isolated was

 

  1. A) gonadotropin releasing hormone.
  2. B) thyrotropin releasing hormone.
  3. C) follicle stimulating hormone.
  4. D) luteinizing hormone.
  5. E) growth hormone releasing factor.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 332

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

45)  Thyrotropin is released by the

 

  1. A) thyroid gland.
  2. B) hypothalamus.
  3. C) anterior pituitary.
  4. D) posterior pituitary.
  5. E) adrenal cortex.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 332

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

46)  Gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulates the release of __________ from the anterior pituitary.

 

  1. A) follicle stimulating hormone
  2. B) luteinizing hormone
  3. C) thyrotropin
  4. D) testosterone
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 332

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

47)  Both follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone are

 

  1. A) releasing hormones.
  2. B) releasing factors.
  3. C) gonadotropins.
  4. D) posterior pituitary hormones.
  5. E) gonadal hormones.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 332

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

48)  There are often large minute-to-minute fluctuations in the levels of a person’s circulating hormones. These fluctuations are often the result of

 

  1. A) pulsatile hormone release.
  2. B) negative feedback.
  3. C) positive feedback.
  4. D) testosterone.
  5. E) the adrenal medulla.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 333

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

49)  Humans are dimorphic; that is, they come

 

  1. A) with two of most things.
  2. B) from a two-layered embryo.
  3. C) with a two-lobed brain.
  4. D) in two standard models: female and male.
  5. E) with two bilaterally symmetrical halves.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 333

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

50)  The cortices of the primordial gonads may develop into

 

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) the female sex ducts.
  3. C) the frenulum.
  4. D) testes.
  5. E) the Wolffian system.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

51)  The Sry gene on the Y sex chromosome triggers the synthesis of

 

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) the Müllerian system.
  3. C) the primordial gonads.
  4. D) Sry protein.
  5. E) estradiol.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

52)  Sry protein triggers the development of the medullas of the primordial gonads into

 

  1. A) testes.
  2. B) a Müllerian system.
  3. C) the penis.
  4. D) ovaries.
  5. E) a Wolffian system.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

53)  In the absence of Sry protein, the

  1. A) cortex of a primordial gonad develops into an ovary.
  2. B) medulla of a primordial gonad develops into a testis.
  3. C) Müllerian system develops into male ducts.
  4. D) cortex of a primordial gonad develops into a testis.
  5. E) medulla of a primordial gonad develops into an ovary.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

54)  Sperm cells move to the seminal vesicles through the

 

  1. A) Wolffian tube.
  2. B) Müllerian tube.
  3. C) vas deferens.
  4. D) fallopian tubes.
  5. E) H-Y antigen cells.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

55)  Only the upper part of the __________ is part of the Müllerian system.

 

  1. A) vas deferens
  2. B) vagina
  3. C) fallopian tubes
  4. D) uterus
  5. E) penis

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

56)  During the third month of male fetal development, the testes secrete substantial amounts of testosterone and

 

  1. A) estradiol.
  2. B) Müllerian-inhibiting substance.
  3. C) releasing factors.
  4. D) tropic hormones.
  5. E) Wolffian-inhibiting substance.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

57)  When she matures, a genetic female fetus that has been injected with testosterone in its third month of development could very well have

  1. A) no internal reproductive ducts.
  2. B) both male and female internal reproductive ducts.
  3. C) male internal reproductive ducts, but no female ducts.
  4. D) two complete sets of female internal reproductive ducts.
  5. E) copious quantities of Müllerian-inhibiting substance.

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

58)  Which of the following develop female internal reproductive ducts?

 

  1. A) ovariectomized female fetuses
  2. B) orchidectomized male fetuses
  3. C) male fetuses injected with estrogen
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

59)  The word that refers specifically to the removal of the testes is

 

  1. A) orchidectomy.
  2. B) ovariectomy.
  3. C) gonadectomy.
  4. D) castration.
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

60)  A female whose ovaries have been removed is said to be

 

  1. A) orchidectomized.
  2. B) ovariectomized.
  3. C) gonadectomized.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

61)  The external reproductive organs of males and females develop

 

  1. A) from different tissue.
  2. B) from the same bipotential tissue.
  3. C) under epigenetic control.
  4. D) under direct genetic control.
  5. E) under estrogenic control.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

62)  The male and female external reproductive organs develop from the

 

  1. A) Wolffian system.
  2. B) Müllerian system.
  3. C) Wolffian and Müllerian systems, respectively.
  4. D) the same bipotential precursor.
  5. E) Müllerian and Wolffian systems, respectively.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

63)  Which of the following male structures develops from the same fetal tissue as do the labia majora?

 

  1. A) scrotum
  2. B) shaft of the penis
  3. C) head of the penis
  4. D) frenulum
  5. E) labia minora

 

Answer: A

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

64)  Puberty is associated with an increase in the release of

 

  1. A) growth hormone.
  2. B) adrenocorticotropic hormone.
  3. C) gonadotropic hormone.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

65)  At puberty, in general feminization of the body

  1. A) occurs automatically unless testosterone is present.
  2. B) is stimulated by a high ratio of androgens to estrogens.
  3. C) is stimulated by a high ratio of estrogens to androgens.
  4. D) can be blocked by hormones but is not stimulated by them.
  5. E) occurs automatically even if testosterone is present in large amounts.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 335

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

66)  Which of the following is a secondary sex characteristic that is induced by an androgen other than testosterone?

 

  1. A) chest hair
  2. B) increased muscularity
  3. C) the female pattern of pubic hair growth
  4. D) the male pattern of pubic hair growth
  5. E) breasts

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

67)  At puberty, the growth of female pubic hair and axillary hair is stimulated by

 

  1. A) androstenedione.
  2. B) testosterone.
  3. C) minestrone.
  4. D) estradiol.
  5. E) growth hormone.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development

 

68)  A century and a half ago, puberty usually began at about __________ years of age.

 

  1. A) 15 or 16
  2. B) 9 or 10
  3. C) 11 or 12
  4. D) 7 or 8
  5. E) 18 or 19

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

69)  A normal genetic female who receives injections of testosterone throughout fetal development will be born with

 

  1. A) ovaries.
  2. B) male internal reproductive ducts.
  3. C) undeveloped female reproductive ducts.
  4. D) male external reproductive organs.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 333-336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

70)  If the testes of a normal male fetus were removed as soon as they developed, the child would be born with

  1. A) female internal reproductive ducts.
  2. B) undeveloped male internal reproductive ducts.
  3. C) a hypothalamus that releases gonadotropin-releasing hormones cyclically.
  4. D) female external reproductive organs.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 333-336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

71)  Which of the following statements describes our current understanding of differences in the structure of human female and human male brains?

  1. A) Male and female brains are identical.
  2. B) Some suggestions of differences have been reported, but none of the differences has proven to be replicable.
  3. C) Many structural differences have been documented.
  4. D) The female frontal cortex is substantially larger than the male counterpart.
  5. E) The male frontal cortex has an extra layer.

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

72)  Brains of men and women exhibit the following general difference: Men’s brains tend to be

 

  1. A) 15% smaller.
  2. B) 15% larger.
  3. C) much more myelinated.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

73)  All gonadal sex hormones are

 

  1. A) steroids.
  2. B) peptides.
  3. C) derived from cholesterol.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

74)  There is good evidence in some species that testosterone does not masculinize the brain directly, that it is first converted to estradiol, which then masculinizes the brain. This hypothesis is called the __________ hypothesis.

 

  1. A) dihydrotestosterone
  2. B) aromatization
  3. C) alpha fetoprotein
  4. D) cholesterol
  5. E) dimorphic

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

75)  The aromatization hypothesis is that

  1. A) alpha fetoprotein deactivates circulating testosterone.
  2. B) dihydrotestosterone has no masculinizing effect.
  3. C) estradiol created in the brains of developing males from circulating testosterone masculinizes their brains.
  4. D) estradiol created in the brains of developing females from circulating testosterone feminizes their brains.
  5. E) testosterone created in the brains of developing females from circulating estradiol feminizes their brains.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

76)  Alpha fetoprotein

  1. A) is present in the blood of neonatal rats.
  2. B) does not readily penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
  3. C) deactivates circulating estradiol.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

77)  In sensitive species, female fetuses are protected from the masculinizing effects of their mother’s estradiol by

 

  1. A) estrogens.
  2. B) the blood-brain barrier.
  3. C) alpha fetoprotein.
  4. D) diethylstilbestrol.
  5. E) lordosis.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

78)  Which of the following statements about brain differentiation is true according to recent findings?

  1. A) The sexual dimorphism of the mammalian brain depends entirely on the presence or absence of testosterone; genes play no direct role.
  2. B) The program of mammalian female brain development unfolds normally in the absence of estradiol or other hormones.
  3. C) There is a single mechanism that accounts for all differences between the brains of male and female mammals.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

79)  In the evaluation of the effects of various hormone treatments on reproductive behavior, it is important to distinguish between “feminize” and “demasculinize” because they

  1. A) are usually the same.
  2. B) are the opposite of masculinize and defeminize.
  3. C) do not always go together.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 339

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

80)  Ear wiggling

  1. A) is a proceptive behavior in female rats.
  2. B) by male rats serves to attract the sexual attention of female rats.
  3. C) occurs in male rats only during particularly intense orgasms.
  4. D) commonly occurs in female rats only during particularly intense orgasms.
  5. E) is a component of lordosis in rats.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 339

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

81)  Genetic males with androgenic insensitivity syndrome have

 

  1. A) little public hair.
  2. B) shallow vaginas.
  3. C) internalized testes.
  4. D) breasts.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 340

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

82)  Which of the following is not a true statement about genetic males with androgenic insensitivity syndrome?

 

  1. A) They have testes.
  2. B) They have ovaries.
  3. C) They have little pubic hair.
  4. D) They are infertile.
  5. E) Many are happily married.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 340

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

83)  Individuals with androgenic insensitivity syndrome do not develop normal internal female reproductive ducts because their

 

  1. A) ovaries release Sry protein.
  2. B) ovaries release Wolffian-inhibiting substance.
  3. C) testes release Müllerian-inhibiting substance.
  4. D) testes release androgens.
  5. E) ovaries release estrogens.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 341

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

84)  Adrenogenital syndrome is a consequence of

  1. A) congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
  2. B) a congenital reduction in the release of cortisol from the gonads.
  3. C) a congenital elevation in the release of cortisol from the gonads.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 341

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

85)  If identified at birth in a genetic female, adrenogenital syndrome is typically treated by early

 

  1. A) surgical correction of any abnormalities of the genitals.
  2. B) the administration of cortisol.
  3. C) the administration of testosterone.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) both A and C

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 341

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

86)  Adrenogenital syndrome is associated with

  1. A) a decrease in the release of cortisol from the adrenal cortices.
  2. B) high levels of adrenal androgens.
  3. C) ambiguous reproductive organs in many genetic females.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 341

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

87)  Which of the following is true of untreated genetic females with adrenogenital syndrome?

  1. A) Their bodies may be unpredictably masculinized or feminized at puberty, irrespective of their apparent gender during childhood.

 

  1. B) They have low levels of circulating adrenal androgens.
  2. C) They have high levels of adrenal cortisol.
  3. D) At birth, they look like normal males.
  4. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

88)  John Money’s famous case study of ablatio penis was initially used to argue that

  1. A) social learning dominates hormones when it comes to gender identity.
  2. B) social learning dominates genes when it comes to gender identity.
  3. C) genes dominate social learning when it comes to gender identity.
  4. D) hormones dominate social learning when it comes to gender identity.
  5. E) sexual development is genetic and hormonal.

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

89)  In Money’s 1975 report, he claimed that his famous case of ablatio penis had developed as a

 

  1. A) normal boy.
  2. B) normal girl.
  3. C) hermaphrodite.
  4. D) transvestite.
  5. E) lesbian.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

90)  In a follow-up study of Money’s famous case study of ablatio penis, it was revealed that the patient had

  1. A) acted like a male from an early age.
  2. B) suspected he was a boy from the second grade on.
  3. C) refused to wear a bra.
  4. D) requested mastectomy and phalloplasty.
  5. E) all of the above

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

91)  David Reimer, the case of ablatio penis, requested and was given

 

  1. A) phalloplasty.
  2. B) mastectomy.
  3. C) estrogen treatment.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

92)  The famous case of David Reimer suggests that surgically modifying a person’s sex

 

  1. A) in infancy should be curtailed.
  2. B) after puberty should be curtailed.
  3. C) should be curtailed.
  4. D) should be curtailed in males.
  5. E) should be curtailed in females.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

93)  Orchidectomy

  1. A) immediately eliminates the ability of all patients to achieve an erection.
  2. B) immediately eliminates the sexual motivation of all patients.
  3. C) reduces the recidivism rate of sex offenders.
  4. D) immediately eliminates interest in sexual activity in all patients.
  5. E) gradually reduces vaginal lubrication.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 343

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

94)  Castrating adult human males usually produces a decrease in their

 

  1. A) their sexual motivation.
  2. B) their ability to achieve an erection.
  3. C) strength.
  4. D) body hair.
  5. E) all of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 343

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

95)  One particularly puzzling thing about the effects of orchidectomy in adult males is the

  1. A) loss of sexual potency.
  2. B) vastly different rates at which sexual motivation and potency decline in different men.
  3. C) fact that some men still get married.
  4. D) fact that sterility is inevitable.
  5. E) fact that sterility is rare.

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 343

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

96)  Orchidectomy almost always produces impotence, which is eliminated by replacement injections of

 

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) estradiol.
  3. C) androstenedione.
  4. D) progesterone.
  5. E) minestrone.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 344

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

97)  Which of the following statements is not true? Testosterone replacement injections administered to adult orchidectomized males usually

 

  1. A) render them potent.
  2. B) increase their muscularity.
  3. C) eliminate their sterility.
  4. D) enable them to achieve an erection.
  5. E) increase their sex drive.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 344

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

98)  Testosterone injections administered to healthy males often increase

 

  1. A) their homosexual tendencies.
  2. B) increase the proportion of multiple births.
  3. C) the size of their penises.
  4. D) their sex drive.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 344

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

99)  Dihydrotestosterone is

 

  1. A) identical to testosterone.
  2. B) an aromatizable androgen.
  3. C) a nonaromatizable androgen.
  4. D) readily converted to estradiol.
  5. E) both B and D

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 344

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

100)  In sexually mature female rats and guinea pigs, each estrous cycle is about

 

  1. A) 12 hours long.
  2. B) 4 days long.
  3. C) 2 weeks long.
  4. D) 4 weeks long.
  5. E) 8 weeks long.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 344

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

101)  In laboratory experiments, ovariectomized female rats are often rendered receptive by injections of

 

  1. A) testosterone and estradiol.
  2. B) estradiol and progesterone.
  3. C) progesterone and testosterone.
  4. D) estradiol and estrogen.
  5. E) testosterone and androgen.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 345

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

102)  Castrating sexually mature female rats

  1. A) decreases their receptivity over the ensuing months.
  2. B) decreases their proceptivity over the ensuing months.
  3. C) rapidly increases their proceptivity.
  4. D) rapidly eliminates their receptivity and proceptivity.
  5. E) rapidly increases their receptivity.

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 345

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

103)  Which of the following is not a common consequence of ovariectomy in adult human females?

 

  1. A) sterility
  2. B) lack of menstruation
  3. C) elimination of sex drive
  4. D) disruption of progesterone release
  5. E) decrease in vaginal lubrication

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 345

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

104)  There is some evidence that the hormone that influences sexual motivation in women is

 

  1. A) testosterone.
  2. B) estradiol.
  3. C) progesterone.
  4. D) an estrogen.
  5. E) both B and D

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 345

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

105)  The following finding suggests that the sex drive of women is influenced by testosterone:

  1. A) Replacement injections of testosterone increased the proceptivity of ovariectomized and adrenalectomized female rhesus monkeys.
  2. B) Various measures of sexual motivation were correlated with the testosterone levels of healthy women.
  3. C) Replacement injections of testosterone increased the sexual motivation of woman who had been both ovariectomized and adrenalectomized.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 345

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

106)  Which of the following is not true? Anabolic steroids

  1. A) are similar to testosterone.
  2. B) are often more effective than testosterone in promoting muscle development.
  3. C) often increase male sex drive.
  4. D) can have dangerous side effects.
  5. E) can increase aggression.

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 346

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

107)  Although there are few controlled studies of anabolic steroid use, it seems clear that anabolic steroids can

 

  1. A) increase muscularity.
  2. B) improve athletic performance.
  3. C) increase sexual motivation.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) both A and B

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 346

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

108)  Testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, amenorrhea, sterility, hirsutism, cancer, acne, and muscle spasms are all potential symptoms of

 

  1. A) androgenic insensitivity.
  2. B) anabolic steroid use.
  3. C) heterosexuality.
  4. D) adrenogenital syndrome.
  5. E) ablatio penis.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 346

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

109)  Estradiol has been found to

 

  1. A) increase adult neurogenesis.
  2. B) increase synaptogenesis.
  3. C) promote axonal regeneration.
  4. D) all of the above
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 347

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

110)  Which of the following hormones has been shown to have several neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects ?

 

  1. A) estradiol
  2. B) growth hormone
  3. C) androgen
  4. D) progesterone
  5. E) testosterone

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 347

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

111)  Most research on the neural mechanisms of sexual behavior has focused on the

 

  1. A) sexually nuclei.
  2. B) cortex.
  3. C) hypothalamus.
  4. D) limbic system.
  5. E) amygdala.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 348

Topic: 13.6  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

112)  The __________ are found in the preoptic area, and they are larger in male rats than in female rats.

 

  1. A) lateral geniculate nuclei
  2. B) testes
  3. C) sexually dimorphic nuclei
  4. D) scrota
  5. E) suprachiasmatic nuclei

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 348

Topic: 13.6  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

113)  The sexually dimorphic nuclei are well known because they

 

  1. A) manufacture gonadotropin releasing factor.
  2. B) are larger in male rats than in female rats.
  3. C) control vasopressin release.
  4. D) control sexual behavior.
  5. E) are located in the hypothalamus.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 348

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

114)  Which hormone normally triggers the growth of the sexually dimorphic nuclei in male neonatal rats?

 

  1. A) estradiol aromatized from testosterone
  2. B) androstenedione
  3. C) progesterone
  4. D) vasopressin
  5. E) testosterone

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 348

Topic: 13.6  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

115)  Destruction of the medial preoptic area

 

  1. A) abolishes male copulatory behavior.
  2. B) increases male copulatory behavior.
  3. C) abolishes female copulatory behavior.
  4. D) increases female copulatory behavior.
  5. E) both B and C

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 349

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

116)  The medial preoptic area appears to control male copulatory behavior via a tract that runs to the

 

  1. A) ventromedial hypothalamus.
  2. B) sexually dimorphic nucleus.
  3. C) preoptic area.
  4. D) periaqueductal gray.
  5. E) lateral tegmental field.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 349

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

117)  Estrus can be induced in ovariectomized female rats by microinjections of estradiol and progesterone in the

 

  1. A) anterior hypothalamus.
  2. B) lateral hypothalamus.
  3. C) ventromedial nucleus.
  4. D) medial preoptic area.
  5. E) anterior pituitary.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 349

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

118)  The influence of the VMN on the copulatory behavior of female rats appears to be mediated by a pathway that runs to the

 

  1. A) lateral tegmental field.
  2. B) medial preoptic area.
  3. C) substantia nigra.
  4. D) hypothalamus.
  5. E) periaqueductal gray.

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 349

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

119)  People who are sexually attracted to members of either sex are

 

  1. A) hypersexual.
  2. B) heterosexual.
  3. C) homosexual.
  4. D) bisexual.
  5. E) transsexual.

 

Answer: D

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 350

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

120)  Bailey and Pillard found the rate of homosexuality in males who had a homosexual twin brother to be

  1. A) 52% for monozygotic and 22% for dizygotic twins.
  2. B) 100% for monozygotic and 0% for dizygotic twins.
  3. C) 50% for twins and 50% for siblings.
  4. D) 30% for monozygotic twins and 20% for half brothers.
  5. E) 92% for monozygotic and 52% for dizygotic twins.

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 350

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

121)  Which of the following groups of males has substantially higher levels of circulating testosterone than the others?

 

  1. A) heterosexuals
  2. B) homosexuals
  3. C) bisexuals
  4. D) transsexuals
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 350

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

122)  If a homosexual male were gonadectomized and then given extremely large replacement injections of testosterone, his primary sexual orientation would be

 

  1. A) homosexual.
  2. B) heterosexual.
  3. C) bisexual.
  4. D) asexual.
  5. E) antisexual.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

123)  Castrating bisexual males

 

  1. A) reduces their homosexual behavior.
  2. B) reduces their heterosexual behavior.
  3. C) increases their homosexuality.
  4. D) both A and B
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: D

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

124)  Same-sex sexual preferences have been induced in several species by perinatal

 

  1. A) castration of males.
  2. B) castration of females.
  3. C) testosterone injections in males.
  4. D) testosterone injections in females.
  5. E) both A and D

 

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

125)  The fact that the probability of homosexuality of human males increases as a function of the number of older brothers

 

  1. A) illustrates the dominance of genetic factors.
  2. B) is the maternal immune hypothesis.
  3. C) is the fraternal birth order effect.
  4. D) results from intersibling sexual activity.
  5. E) results from a viral infection.

 

Answer: C

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

126)  In a key study, women whose mothers had been exposed to a synthetic estrogen (diethylstilbestrol) during pregnancy reported

  1. A) being predominantly homosexual.
  2. B) being predominantly heterosexual.
  3. C) being more sexually attracted to females than usual.
  4. D) both A and C
  5. E) both B and C

Answer: E

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

127)  Sexual attraction develops

 

  1. A) with the onset of puberty.
  2. B) before the onset of puberty.
  3. C) after the onset of puberty.
  4. D) in infancy.
  5. E) following puberty.

 

Answer: B

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 351

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

128)  Transsexualism is an abnormality of sexual

 

  1. A) identity.
  2. B) attraction.
  3. C) motivation.
  4. D) maturation.
  5. E) experience.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 352

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

129)  The first step in male-to-female sexual reassignments is

 

  1. A) psychiatric assessment and counseling.
  2. B) estrogen treatment.
  3. C) orchidectomy.
  4. D) mastectomy.
  5. E) removing the penis.

 

Answer: A

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 352

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

130)  Genetic male transsexuals are almost always

 

  1. A) bisexual.
  2. B) sexually attracted to males.
  3. C) sexually attracted to females.
  4. D) not sexually attracted to males or females.
  5. E) none of the above

 

Answer: E

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 352

Topic: 13.7 Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

1)  Sweat glands are __________ glands.

Answer: exocrine

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

2)  __________ glands are ductless glands, which release hormones into the circulatory system.

Answer: Endocrine

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

3)  __________ hormones are short chains of amino acids.

Answer: Peptide

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

4)  __________ hormones can readily penetrate cell membranes because their molecules are small and fat soluble.

Answer: Steroid

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

5)  Egg and sperm cells combine to form a cell called a __________.

Answer: zygote

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

6)  The most prevalent __________ is estradiol.

Answer: estrogen

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 329

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

7)  __________ steroid hormone is released by the ovaries and not by the testes.

Answer: No

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

8)  All of the steroid hormones released by the gonads are also released by the __________.

Answer: adrenal cortex

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

9)  The pituitary dangles from a stalk connected to the __________.

Answer: hypothalamus

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 330

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

 

 

 

10)  A __________ vein is any vein that connects one capillary network with another.

Answer: portal

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 331

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

11)  The __________ of the primordial gonads develop into testes.

Answer: medullas

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

12)  The specific term for surgical removal of the testes is __________.

Answer: orchidectomy

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 334

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

13)  The growth of human axillary hair at puberty is stimulated by the hormone __________.

Answer: androstenedione

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

14)  In some species, testosterone is thought to be converted to estradiol, which then masculinizes the brain. This called the __________ hypothesis.

Answer: aromatization

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

15)  __________ is the intromission-facilitating arched-back posture of female rodent sexual receptivity.

Answer: Lordosis

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 339

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

16)  Ear wiggling is a __________ (solicitation) behavior in female rats.

Answer: proceptive

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 339

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

17)  Sparse pubic and axillary hair is a symptom of __________.

Answer: androgenic insensitivity syndrome

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 340

Topic: 13.4  Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

18)  Dihydrotestosterone is a __________ androgen.

Answer: nonaromatizable

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 337

Topic: 13.5 Effects of Gonadal Hormones on Adults

 

19)  The __________ nuclei of the preoptic hypothalamus are larger in male rats than female rats.

Answer: sexually dimorphic

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 338

Topic: 13.6  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

20)  The __________ area of the hypothalamus seems to control the motivation to engage in male copulatory behavior.

Answer: medial preoptic

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 349

Topic: 13.6 Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Essay and other multiple-mark Questions

 

1)  Explain how the neuroendocrine system regulates the release of hormones from the gonads. Illustrate with a diagram of the regulatory model.

Answer:

30% for a discussion of how the hypothalamus regulates the anterior pituitary

30% for a discussion of how the anterior pituitary regulates the gonads

20% for a discussion of the concept of feedback

20% for a reasonable illustration

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 329-333

Topic: 13.1 Neuroendocrine System

 

2)  Describe the sexual differentiation of the gonads, internal reproductive, and external reproductive organs. Compare and contrast the mechanisms.

Answer:

25% for describing differentiation of the gonads

25% for describing differentiation of the internal reproductive ducts

25% for describing differentiation of the external reproductive organs

25% for comparing and contrasting the three mechanisms

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 333-336

Topic: 13.2 Hormones and Sexual Development of the Body

 

3)  Describe and discuss sexual dimorphisms of the mammalian hypothalamus and other parts of the mammalian brain. How do they develop? Include cyclic gonadotropin release, the sexually dimorphic nucleus, and the aromatization hypothesis in your answer.

Answer:

25% for describing differentiation of the pattern of gonadotropin release

25% for describing differentiation of the sexually dimorphic nucleus

25% for describing the aromatization hypothesis

25% for discussion, emphasizing the lack of the functional consequences of brain differentiation

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 336-338

Topic: 13.3 Hormones and Sexual Development of Brain and Behavior

 

4)  Describe the symptoms and mechanism of the androgenic insensitivity syndrome. Explain the hormonal mechanism underlying the development of these symptoms.

Answer:

40% for describing the syndrome and its mechanism

60% for describing the development of the gonads, internal reproductive ducts, external reproductive organs, and secondary sex characteristics

Diff: 1  Page Ref: 340-341

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

5)  Discuss the case of David Reimer, the twin who lost his penis. How was his condition treated? Was the treatment effective? What can we learn from this case–describe two major points?

Answer:

20% for describing the cause of his problem

40% for describing the treatment and its effects

40% for describing two main points that can be learned from the case

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 342

Topic: 13.4 Three Cases of Exceptional Human Development

 

6)  Describe the role of the hypothalamus in mammalian sexual behavior, emphasizing the evidence for this view. Why has research on the neural mechanisms of sexual behavior focused on the hypothalamus?

Answer:

35% for describing the medial preoptic area

35% for describing the ventromedial nucleus

30% for describing reasons why sex research has focused on the hypothalamus

Diff: 3  Page Ref: 349-350

Topic: 13.6  Neural Mechanisms of Sexual Behavior

 

7)  Discuss variations of sexual identity and sexual attraction. How are they related? What do we know about the causes and mechanisms of homosexuality and transsexualism?

Answer:

30% for describing variations in sexual orientation

30% for describing variations in sexual identity

10% for discussing their independence

30% for discussing the possible role of early hormone exposure and the fraternal birth order effect

Diff: 2  Page Ref: 350-352

Topic: 13.7  Sexual Orientation and Sexual Identity