Campbell Biology Concepts and Connections 7th Edition Reece Taylor Test Bank
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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:
Chapter 36. Population Ecology
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1) A group of individuals of a single species that occupy the same general area defines a
2) Which of the following is an example of a population?
A) all of the microorganisms on your skin
B) all of the students in your classroom
C) all students attending colleges and universities in your state
D) the various plants found in prairies in the western United States
3) Assume that there are five alligators per acre in a swamp in northern Florida. This is a measure of the alligator
B) intrinsic rate of increase.
4) The pattern of distribution for a certain species of kelp is clumped. We would expect that the pattern of
distribution for a population of snails that live on the kelp would be
5) You drive through Iowa in the spring and notice that along a stretch of several kilometers, every third fence
post has a male redwing blackbird perched on it defending its nesting territory. This is an example of
A) clumped dispersion.
B) random dispersion.
C) uniform dispersion.
D) artificial dispersion.
6) The density of Douglas firs in an old-growth forest is estimated by counting the Douglas firs in four sample
plots of 1 hectare each. The number of fir trees in the plots is 10, 12, 7, and 11, respectively. What is the
estimated density of firs in the forest?
A) 5 trees per hectare
B) 10 trees per hectare
C) 20 trees per hectare
D) 25 trees per hectare
7) To obtain optimal production in a small garden, one should
A) plant seeds in rows with minimal spacing between rows.
B) plant seeds in clumps with large spaces between clumps.
C) plant seeds in a uniform pattern throughout the garden.
D) sow seeds randomly throughout the garden.
8) A survivorship curve is a
A) graph that plots an individualʹs likelihood of reproducing as a function of age.
B) graph that plots an individualʹs likelihood of being alive as a function of age.
C) graph that shows the effect of predation on a prey population.
D) model for population growth that incorporates the concept of carrying capacity.
9) A Type I survivorship curve is associated with which of the following life history traits?
A) parents providing extended care for their young
B) large numbers of offspring being produced
C) infant mortality being much greater than adult mortality
D) a short life span for most individuals
10) A survivorship curve that involves producing very few offspring, each of which has a high probability of
surviving to adulthood, is typical of
A) sea stars.
11) The maximum number of individuals a habitat can support is called its
A) reproductive potential.
B) carrying capacity.
C) community size.
D) density-dependent factor.
12) Consider a stable frog population living at carrying capacity in a pond. If an average female produces 6,000
eggs during her lifetime and an average of 300 tadpoles hatch from these eggs, how many of these tadpoles
will, on average, survive to reproduce?
C) 10 to 20
D) more than 100
13) A population of fungi in a yard produces 10 mushrooms in year 1, 20 in year 2, and 40 in year 3. If this trend
continues, by year 5 there will be ________ mushrooms.
14) A newly mated queen ant establishes an ant nest in an unoccupied patch of suitable habitat. The population of
the nest grows quickly at first, then levels off at carrying capacity. Which of the following types of equation will
best describe its population growth?
15) A test tube is inoculated with 1 × 103 cells of a bacterial strain that has a generation time of 30 minutes. The
carrying capacity of the test tube for this strain is 6 × 109 cells. What will the bacterial population be after 90
minutes of culturing?
A) 3 × 103
B) 8 × 103
C) 1 × 109
D) 1 × 1012
16) If an ecosystem has a carrying capacity of 1,000 individuals for a given species, and 2,000 individuals of that
species are present, we can predict that the population
A) size will remain at equilibrium.
B) size will decrease.
C) will show a clumped dispersion pattern.
D) size will slowly increase.
17) If a population has a birth rate of 40 individuals per 1,000 per year and a death rate of 30 individuals per 1,000
per year, how will the population change each year? (Assume that the population is below carrying capacity
and that there is no immigration or emigration.)
A) It will decrease by 70%.
B) It will increase by 1%.
C) It will increase by 5%.
D) It will increase by 100%.
18) A human population will achieve zero population growth if
A) no couple has more than two children.
B) couples have an average of about 2.25 children each (to account for some children who do not survive to
C) no couple has more than one child.
D) the birth rate equals the intrinsic rate of increase r.
19) The death by bubonic plague of about one-third of Europeʹs population during the fourteenth century is a
good example of
A) abiotic factors limiting population size.
B) a density-dependent effect.
C) a density-independent effect.
D) carrying capacity.
20) A tidal wave wipes out the entire population of mice living on an island. This is an example of
A) Type III survivorship.
B) a density-dependent effect.
C) the effects of abiotic factors.
D) the interaction between density-dependent and abiotic factors.
21) In the logistic growth model, as population size increases, birth rates
A) remain constant and death rates increase.
B) decline but death rates remain steady.
C) and death rates increase.
D) decline and/or death rates increase.
22) Which of the following is most clearly a case of density-dependent population regulation?
A) the summer drying of savanna grass for an insect that feeds on grass sap
B) a dangerous new flu strain that is transmitted among humans by sneezing
C) the first hard frost of fall for a population of annual morning glory vines
D) the occurrence of rainstorms for an opportunistic desert annual
23) In terms of population dynamics, what is ʺboom-and-bustʺ cycling?
A) a situation in which a population moves back and forth between rapid growth and decline
B) a situation in which a growing population overshoots the carrying capacity of its environment and
experiences a crash before stabilizing
C) a situation in which the sex ratio in a population shows repeated oscillations
D) a situation in which the populations of a predator species and a prey species oscillate in unison
24) An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controlling the
population of a particular rabbit species. The first step in testing this hypothesis would be to determine
A) whether populations of the rabbit that live outside the range of the owl have higher population densities.
B) whether the owls eat the rabbits.
C) to which diseases the rabbit population is subject.
D) what food the rabbits eat.
25) An ecologist hypothesizes that predation by a particular owl species is the major factor controlling the
population of a particular rabbit species. If this is the case, which of the following population effects could be
expected in this rabbit-owl pair?
A) A fall in the owl population should cause a fall in the rabbit population.
B) A fall in the rabbit population should cause an increase in the owl population.
C) An increase in the incidence of disease in the rabbit population should not change the owl population.
D) An increase in the owl population should cause a fall in the rabbit population.
26) An r-selected species typically
A) offers considerable parental care to offspring.
B) has an advantage in habitats that experience unpredictable disturbances.
C) is large-bodied and long-lived.
D) lives in stable climates.
27) Which of the following organisms best illustrates K-selection?
A) the production of thousands of eggs every spring by frogs
B) mice that produce three litters of 10-15 babies in the course of a summer
C) a polar bear producing one or two cubs every three years
D) a species of weed that quickly spreads into a region of cleared trees
28) Guppies from Trinidad form two distinct populations that differ in several life history traits that appear to
relate to the local predator populations, pike-cichlids or killifish. Which of the following experiments would
test the heritability of these traits?
A) Raise both populations with cichlids to see if the population of smaller, faster-maturing guppies
reproduces more quickly.
B) Raise both populations without predators to see if they maintain their life history traits.
C) Introduce cichlids into a habitat with killifish.
D) Provide additional food to the guppies from cichlid habitats to see if they will grow to the same size as
guppies from the killifish habitat.
29) Which of the following will likely decrease a populationʹs size?
A) improving the quality of its habitat
B) increasing the size of its habitat
C) practicing sustainable resource management in its habitat
D) decreasing the food supply available to the population
30) Which of the following statements about insecticides is true?
A) To control agricultural pests, pest management uses biological controls, chemicals, or cultural methods,
but never a combination of these.
B) Simply killing many individuals is often the best way to reduce the size of a pest population.
C) Most insecticides kill the pest but not the pestʹs natural predators.
D) Prey species often have a higher reproductive rate than do predators.
31) Which of the following statements about human population growth is true?
A) Human population size on Earth today is at equilibrium.
B) Demographic transition is a transition from high birth rates and high death rates to low birth rates and
low death rates.
C) During a demographic transition, birth rates typically drop first due to the availability of reliable
D) Human population size has increased faster and faster throughout human history.
32) A demographic tool used to predict a populationʹs future growth is
A) a hairline growth curve.
B) demographic transition.
C) age structures.
D) maximum sustained growth.
33) What is the age structure of a population?
A) the curve that results when the likelihood of dying is plotted as a function of age
B) the curve that results when the likelihood of being alive is plotted as a function of age
C) the proportion of individuals in different age groups
D) the difference in the age distribution of a population at two different points in time
34) If most of the individuals of a human population are in their pre-reproductive years, you would expect the
population size to ________ after 20 years.
A) stay the same
D) decrease and then stabilize
35) Which of the following statements about human demographic trends is true?
A) As womenʹs status and education increase, they choose to have more children.
B) After 1950, mortality rates increased rapidly in most developing countries.
C) A human population in which women reproduce at an later age will experience slower population
D) The movement from high birth rates and low death rates to low birth rates and high death rates is called
the demographic transition.
Topic: 36. 9
36) The age structure of the United States in 2010 shows
A) a broad base, suggesting a high birth rate.
B) a broad base, suggesting a low birth rate.
C) that a greater proportion of the population is elderly now than in earlier decades.
D) that the United States has not yet gone through a demographic transition.
37) The world human population
A) is growing faster now than ever before.
B) is growing, but at a slower rate than in the last century.
C) has leveled off at carrying capacity.
D) is starting to decline.
38) The human population on Earth is expected to reach 9.5 billion people by
39) An ecological footprint
A) is a means of determining increases in populations that lived in the past.
B) is a means of understanding resource availability and usage.
C) measures dispersion and adaptability.
D) will estimate population movements.
40) According to this graph of the population growth of fur seals, in what year did the population first reach its
41) According to this graph of population growth in Mexico, in what year was the rate of population increase in
Mexico the greatest?
After reading the paragraph, answer the question(s) that follow.
Youʹre a member of an influential African family thatʹs been displaced from your home by civil war. Youʹre trying to select a
new country in which to settle to gain better economic opportunities. You know that Nigeria is a large country with rich
natural resources and are considering it for your new home. Youʹve learned some basic principles of population growth and
did some research on the Internet. Among the data you found was the following diagram of the current age structure of the
42) The age structure data for Nigeria shows that the country has many more individuals under the age of 15 than
over the age of 40. What does this imply about the future population of Nigeria?
A) the population will probably remain stable
B) the population will probably decrease
C) the population will probably grow rapidly
D) the number of older people will probably increase rapidly
43) Based on the age structure of the country, which of the following situations would be most likely over the next
A) strong economic gains stimulated by population growth
B) an increased demand for resources based on population growth
C) a decreased demand for medical services due to the small number of elderly citizens
D) a decline in housing prices based on lack of demand
Topic: 36.9, 36.10