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Contemporary Nursing Issues Trends 7th Edition Cherry Jacob Test Bank

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Contemporary Nursing Issues Trends 7th Edition Cherry Jacob Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323390224

ISBN-10: 0323390226

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Contemporary Nursing Issues Trends 7th Edition Cherry Jacob Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323390224

ISBN-10: 0323390226

 

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Chapter 17: Nursing Leadership and Management

Cherry & Jacob: Contemporary Nursing: Issues, Trends, and Management, 7th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. In an attempt to persuade employees to bargain for another type of health insurance, a handout is circulated that describes the present employees’ health care insurance as being insensitive, limiting choices of care providers, and providing inferior care. This reflects which aspect of Lewin’s planned change?
a. Unfreeze
b. Move
c. Refreeze
d. Acceptance

 

 

ANS:  A

Unfreeze is correct because the change agent promotes problem identification and encourages awareness of the need for change. In alignment with Lewin’s stages of change (unfreezing, moving, and refreezing), education and involvement are keys to successful change. People must believe that improvement is possible before they will be willing to consider change.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 311

 

  1. One difference between a leader and a manager is that a:
a. leader has legitimate authority.
b. manager motivates and inspires others.
c. manager focuses on coordinating resources.
d. leader focuses on accomplishing goals of the organization.

 

 

ANS:  C

The terms leadership and management are often used interchangeably, and it is difficult to discuss one without discussing the other. However, these roles have specific traits unique to themselves. The manager is the coordinator of resources (time, people, and supplies) needed to achieve outcomes.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 296

 

  1. The first step in the nursing process and in the problem-solving process is to:
a. identify the problem.
b. gather information.
c. consider the consequences.
d. implement interventions.

 

 

ANS:  B

The nursing process, which is familiar to nurses who address patient care needs, can be applied to all management activities that require decision making and problem-solving. As in the nursing process and the problem-solving process, one must first gather information about the problem or situation.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   pp. 309-310

 

  1. An explosion just occurred at the local factory, and hundreds of employees have sustained varying degrees of injury. Which type of nursing leadership is most effective in this situation?
a. Autocratic
b. Democratic
c. Laissez-faire
d. Referent

 

 

ANS:  A

The dynamics of the situation demand that the leader take control and direct employees to specific actions in response to the emergency.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 300, Box 17-3

 

  1. An RN with excellent assessment and psychomotor skills would derive power on the basis of which source?
a. Rewards
b. Coercion
c. Expert
d. Legitimate

 

 

ANS:  C

Seven primary sources of power are known. Expert power is based on knowledge, skills, and information.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 297

 

  1. Managers who exhibit an authoritative behavioral style are most likely to use which source of power?
a. Informal
b. Expert
c. Coercive
d. Reward

 

 

ANS:  C

Seven primary sources of power are known. Coercive power is based on fear of punishment or failure to comply. Coercive power fits well into the authoritative behavioral style because authoritative managers dictate the work with much control, usually ignore the ideas or suggestions of subordinates, and provide little feedback or recognition for work accomplished.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 300, Box 17-3

 

  1. Florence Nightingale is attributed with being intelligent (she developed statistical methods to evaluate health care), dependable (she often worked long hours to care for the injured), and ambitious (she fought against society’s perception of nursing). Those who depict her as a leader on the basis of these qualities are practicing which leadership theory?
a. Trait
b. Chaos
c. Bureaucracy
d. Organizational

 

 

ANS:  A

Leadership trait theory describes intrinsic traits of leaders and is based on the assumption that leaders were born with particular leadership characteristics. Other traits found to be associated with this leadership theory include intelligence, alertness, dependability, energy, drive, enthusiasm, ambition, decisiveness, self-confidence, cooperativeness, and technical mastery.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 298

 

  1. A nurse manager is concerned with restocking the emergency cart, creating the staff schedule, requesting floor stock from pharmacy, and checking the orders on patient charts. Which type of leader accurately describes this nurse?
a. Transactional
b. Situational
c. Transformational
d. Contemporary

 

 

ANS:  A

The transactional leader is concerned with the day-to-day operations of the facility.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 298, Box 17-1

 

  1. According to the unit’s policy for call-ins, a nurse is suspended for 3 days because of excessive call-ins that occur within 15 minutes of shift change. The nurse states, “You are unfair to me.” Which theory would disprove the nurse’s statement?
a. Authoritative
b. Closed systems
c. Open systems
d. Trait

 

 

ANS:  A

Autocratic/authoritative management style revolves around the assumption that authority confers the right to issue commands within an organization on the basis of impersonal rules and rights, by virtue of the management position rather than any trait ascribed to the person who occupies that position. Other characteristics include the following: Impersonal rules govern the actions of superiors over subordinates, all personnel are chosen for their competence and are subject to strict rules that are applied impersonally and uniformly, and a system of procedures for dealing with work situations is in place.

Represents the systems theory of the organization.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 300, Box 17-3

 

  1. A nurse is reading about positive reinforcement with the goal of increasing staff motivation. Which action would demonstrate positive reinforcement?
a. Every morning at shift change, thank each employee for an excellent job.
b. Rotate a monthly “employee recognition award” among all employees on the unit.
c. Wait until the annual performance review to recognize accomplishments.
d. Give spur-of-the-moment recognition to an employee who has accomplished a goal.

 

 

ANS:  D

To be effective, positive reinforcement should (1) be specific, with praise given for a particular task done well or a goal accomplished; (2) occur as close as possible to the time of the achievement; (3) be spontaneous and unpredictable (praise given routinely tends to lose value); and (4) be given for a genuine accomplishment.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   p. 306

 

  1. Which action represents the key management function of strategic planning?
a. Determining that all nurses on the unit understand the current organizational philosophy
b. Evaluating the communication process between the pharmacy and the nursing departments
c. Monitoring data from the quality management initiative related to the last three orientation programs
d. Developing a 5-year plan that will incorporate the clinical nurse leader as a part of all nursing units

 

 

ANS:  D

A strategic plan is a written document that details organizational goals, allocates resources, assigns responsibilities, and determines time frames. The strategic plan generally looks 3 to 5 years into the future.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   pp. 301-302

 

  1. A hospital’s policy requires that all nurse managers must have a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in nursing. A BSN nurse new to the hospital has recently been hired as nurse manager for the oncology unit. An RN who has worked on this unit for many years is unable to be promoted to a nurse manager position because of his educational status and has been commenting to physicians and staff, “The new nurse manager has book sense but no leadership abilities.” What is the best approach that can be used by the new nurse manager who is attempting to gain the trust and respect of the nursing staff on the unit?
a. Send memos to all staff except the upset nurse to invite them to a luncheon.
b. Ask management to transfer the upset nurse to another unit.
c. Assign the upset nurse to committees that do not directly affect that nursing unit.
d. Acknowledge the clinical expertise of the upset nurse and clearly explain the expectations for teamwork and open, honest communication.

 

 

ANS:  D

The best way for the new nurse manager to communicate with this employee, who may be an informal leader, is to show respect for the individual’s clinical expertise and experience through clear and direct communication. The new nurse manager should attempt to identify the staff nurse’s power as an informal leader, should involve him and other staff members in decision-making and change-implementation processes, and should clearly communicate goals and work expectations to all staff members.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   pp. 297-298

 

  1. A clinical nurse leader (CNL) enters the workforce and hopes to use her interdisciplinary skills to participate on a quality improvement committee. The coordinator of the quality group invites the CNL to join the group. Which type of power is demonstrated by the coordinator of the group?
a. Coercive
b. Transformational
c. Laissez-fair
d. Legitimate

 

 

ANS:  D

The coordinator of the committee has an official position within the organizational committee.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 297

 

  1. A director of nursing (DON) asks the staff to list how their nursing unit can help the organization meet its goal to “provide quality patient care with attention to compassion and excellence.” An ad hoc committee is formed to develop a timeline of identified actions. The DON coaches the committee to reach desired outcomes. This DON is demonstrating which other role of leadership and management?
a. Transactional
b. Clinical consultant
c. Corporate supporter
d. Autocratic

 

 

ANS:  C

The manager is embracing the mission of the organization by supporting achievement of goals noted in the mission statement.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 311

 

  1. A staff nurse provides care based on intuition and always seems to be in control of her personal and professional life—serving on the board of the state nurses association, serving as the nursing unit’s representative on the ethics committee, and coaching her daughter’s soft ball team. Many of the staff observes how she manages time and provides care. This nurse’s power comes from which type of power?
a. Referent
b. Legitimate
c. Information
d. Connection

 

 

ANS:  A

Referent power comes from the followers’ identification with the leader. Referent leaders are admired and respected and able to influence other nurses because of their desire to emulate her.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 297

 

  1. A staff nurse states, “I really enjoyed having dinner with the Chief of Medical Staff and the President of the hospital. We hope to meet again soon.” Which source of power does this nurse possess?
a. Expert
b. Legitimate
c. Connection
d. Reward

 

 

ANS:  C

Connection power results from knowing or associating with power people such as the upper administration.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   pp. 297-298

 

  1. A nurse manager wants his nursing unit to be a place where all nurses want to work, where patient satisfaction is high, and care is innovative and interdisciplinary. Staff are encouraged to chair taskforces to improve quality of care and he counsels staff in areas of measuring patient outcomes. Other managers want to mimic this manager’s approach to improve their own units. This nurse is which type of leader?
a. Transformational
b. Transactional
c. Laissez-faire
d. Authoritative

 

 

ANS:  A

Transformational leaders mentor followers through a vision and are admired and emulated.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 298

 

  1. A hospital recently learned that their scorecard did not meet the national benchmark for patient satisfaction and brought in a professional change agent to determine what their issues were and how they could improve their score. The agent collected data and recommended that nurses participate in interdisciplinary walking rounds and allow the patient and family to be participants. Nurses now round every shift and perform “huddles to update the team” as needed throughout the shift as part of best practices. Random visits are made to nursing units to ensure all nurses are participating and patients are interviewed for their involvement. This stage of Lewin’s change is:
a. unfreeze.
b. moving.
c. refreeze.
d. resistance.

 

 

ANS:  C

In the refreezing stage, change becomes status quo and the agent reinforces until the change is part of the daily process as in the above situation.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 311

 

  1. A manager just finished the last annual performance review of the staff, reviews the unexpected expenditures for the month due to use of agency nurses, and shares the latest quality indicators with the staff nurses. This manager is performing which management function?
a. Directing
b. Planning
c. Organizing
d. Controlling

 

 

ANS:  D

Controlling is the final management function. It includes performance evaluations, financial activities, and tracking outcomes of care to ensure quality.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 307

 

MULTIPLE RESPONSE

 

  1. Registered nurses who are entering the workforce will have expanded leadership responsibilities that include: (select all that apply)
a. serving on interdisciplinary care teams.
b. being competent to work in several areas independently when dictated by patient census.
c. attending a meeting to plan advanced training for unlicensed assistive personnel.
d. evaluating outcomes of care that are reported to a standing committee.
e. managing units with higher acuity, shorter length of stay, and more diverse patients and staff.

 

 

ANS:  A, C, D, E

The new nurses will be placed in many situations that require leadership and management skills: for example, managing a group of assigned patients, serving on a task force or committee, acting as team leaders or charge nurses, and supervising unlicensed assistive personnel and licensed vocational/practical nurses. Diverse patients have comorbidities and require complex interventions delivered during shorter stays with an ever-increasing diverse staff. The new nurses will be placed in many situations that require leadership and management skills, for example, managing a group of assigned patients, serving on a task force or committee, acting as team leaders or charge nurses, and supervising unlicensed assistive personnel and licensed vocational/practical nurses. The new nurses will be placed in many situations that require leadership and management skills, for example, managing a group of assigned patients, serving on a task force or committee, acting as team leaders or charge nurses, and supervising unlicensed assistive personnel and licensed vocational/practical nurses. The new nurses will be placed in many situations that require leadership and management skills, for example, managing a group of assigned patients, serving on a task force or committee, acting as team leaders or charge nurses, and supervising unlicensed assistive personnel and licensed vocational/practical nurses.

 

DIF:    Application    REF:   pp. 296-297

 

  1. A nurse asks, “What is meant by ‘internal’ customers?” The correct response is: (select all that apply)
a. insurance companies
b. accreditors such as The Joint Commission
c. X-ray technicians
d. clinical pharmacist
e. chief financial officer

 

 

ANS:  C, D, E

Internal customers are employees of an organization at all levels. An x-ray technician is an example of an internal customer. Internal customers are employees of an organization at all levels. A clinical pharmacist is an example of an internal customer. Internal customers are employees of an organization at all levels. A chief financial officer is an example of an internal customer.

 

DIF:    Comprehension                               REF:   p. 308