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Discovering Psychology 1st Edition Cacioppo Freberg Test Bank

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Discovering Psychology 1st Edition Cacioppo Freberg Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0618185504

ISBN-10: 061818550X

 

Description

Discovering Psychology 1st Edition Cacioppo Freberg Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0618185504

ISBN-10: 061818550X

 

 

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Chapter Eleven: The Developing Mind –

Life-Span Development

Learning Objective Related Questions
Multiple

Choice

Essay
    1.  Evaluate the evidence for innate sensory capacities, preferences, and reflexes in newborn infants.

 

25-32
    2.  Construct a timeline of major physical, cognitive, and social/emotional changes that take place during the prenatal period, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and give examples of ways in which these three trajectories influence each other. 9-24, 33-34, 37-40

81-120

2, 3, 4
    3.  Differentiate Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development (sensorimotor, pre-operational, concrete operational, formal operational), and critique Piaget’s theory using research from alternate approaches. 43-59
    4.  Debate the adaptive function of infant attachment, and analyze the roles of temperament, culture, and parenting in driving individual attachment styles. 60-80
    5.  Illustrate the importance of nature/nurture interaction in development, using specific examples of epigenetic processes, critical/sensitive periods, and the impact of experience on biological development. 1-6, 8, 35-36, 41 1
    6.  Debate the research evidence for continuity versus discontinuity in the trajectories of physical, cognitive, and social/emotional development. 7, 42

 

Chapter Eleven: The Developing Mind – Life-Span Development

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. How can cultures positively influence “emotion knowledge” development in their youth?
a. By focusing on information relevant to the self
b. By teaching broad aspects of information
c. By treating the extended family as a unit
d. By modeling the customary roles of children and adults

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   Prologue

OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. The study of human development considers changes in behavior ____.
a. due to genetic history c. due to experience
b. that correlate with growth or maturation d. that correlate with environmental factors

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Contemporary views on human development focus on age-related changes that occur ____.
a. from infancy to puberty c. until the brain is fully developed
b. during childhood and adolescence d. across the life span

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. With regard to developmental outcomes, your text emphasizes ____.
a. the genetic heritage of individuals
b. the influence of families on behavior
c. the interactions between nature and nurture
d. the environmental influences on development

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Which of the following is true?
a. Epigenetic tags continue to accumulate in response to ongoing experience throughout the life span.
b. Epigenetic tags remain consistent across the life span.
c. Epigenetic tags replace internal signals in driving physical growth after birth.
d. Most epigenetic tags that influence gene expression during prenatal development come from external influences such as the mother’s diet.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. In whose life have epigenetic processes likely played the most dominant role?
a. Five-year-old Blanca, who is a happy girl with many friends
b. Thirty-year-old Tristan, who grew up in a neighborhood of poverty and violence and went on to became a successful architect
c. Thirty-year-old Naomi, who is from a wealthy family that has experienced a number of tragedies
d. Sixty-five old Oliver, who has worked hard as a truck driver since he was 19 years old

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Development is believed to ____.
a. proceed gradually and smoothly over time
b. be continuous in some aspects and discontinuous in others
c. be discontinuous in underlying processes and continuous in their observable aspect
d. proceed somewhat abruptly from one stage to the next

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO6

 

  1. Which scenario best exemplifies an ecological approach to development?
a. Elias first walked on his own around the time of his first birthday.
b. Rowena was born at 40 weeks and weighed 7 pounds.
c. Liam was toilet trained at 18 months, a standard approach for his community.
d. As a newborn, Angelina would grasp her father’s finger when he placed it in her hand.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?       OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. Zygote is the term used to describe a ____.
a. developing organism between eight and approximately forty weeks following conception in humans
b. developing organism in the first two weeks following conception in humans
c. developing organism during the period of greatest growth and maturation in humans
d. developing organism between three and eight weeks following conception in humans

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What term describes a developing organism between the three and eight weeks following conception in humans?
a. embryo c. zygote
b. fetus d. endoderm

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What term describes a developing organism between eight and approximately forty weeks following conception in humans?
a. zygote c. embryo
b. endoderm d. fetus

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. During which stage do cells begin to differentiate into three types: the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm?
a. gestational c. zygote
b. fetus d. embryo

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The ectoderm develops into ____.
a. muscle and skeleton c. external sex organs
b. the nervous system d. internal organs

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Marjorie is in her seventh month of pregnancy with her first child. Which of the following is true regarding her fetus’s development?
a. The fetus started having measurable REM sleep about three months ago.
b. The fetus has not yet had any exposure to food preferences.
c. The fetus is already within the range of a full term birth.
d. The fetus can hear and recognize Marjorie’s voice.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Why does a 40-year-old woman have a greater probability of giving birth to a child with Down syndrome than a 25-year-old woman?
a. The body of a 40-year-old woman is more likely to produce a flawed egg.
b. The eggs of a 40-year-old woman. lack a complete set of chromosomes.
c. A 40-year-old woman has been exposed to more years of environmental influence, possibly including harmful factors, that can lead to faulty cell division.
d. A 40-year-old woman cannot produce eggs rapidly enough to be fully developed at the time of ovulation.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The vast majority of genetic abnormalities in an embryo will result in ____.
a. premature birth c. an infant with birth anomalies
b. spontaneous abortion or miscarriage d. a normal birth

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. During pregnancy, which organ provides the developing fetus with nutrients and oxygen, and protects it from exposure to a variety of toxins and disease-causing agents?
a. placenta c. uterus
b. ovaries d. mammary glands

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

  1. What is a teratogen?
a. A stimulus that results in heightened reflexes in the fetus
b. An abnormality in physiological development
c. A condition resulting from alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
d. A chemical agent that can harm the zygote, embryo, or fetus

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following is in the category of the most common and preventable sources of adverse effects in the developing fetus?
a. Joanne continues to take an antidepressant during her pregnancy.
b. Lucy fears contracting rubella during her pregnancy.
c. Allison and her husband drink a bottle or two of wine every night with dinner.
d. Leah is HIV-positive.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Mia continued to drink heavily with her friends throughout her pregnancy. Her son, now four, has physical abnormalities, including an underdeveloped jaw and thin upper lip, and cognitive and behavioral problems. He most likely has ____.
a. Down syndrome c. hydrocephalus
b. fetal alcohol syndrome d. spina bifida

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. A mother’s use of alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, or cocaine during pregnancy significantly reduces ____.
a. the development of the amygdala in her child’s brain
b. the volume of gray matter in her child’s brain
c. the development of the hippocampus in her child’s brain
d. the volume of white matter in her child’s brain

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Madelyn has increased her salmon consumption during her pregnancy in accordance with her doctor’s instructions. Why?
a. to prevent spina bifida c. to prevent heart disease
b. to promote liver function d. to promote brain and eye development

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Amy loves to eat swordfish in any preparation but decides to avoid it during her pregnancy. Why?
a. It contains too much vitamin A, which can cause vision problems.
b. It contains mercury, which is harmful to heart development.
c. It contains mercury, which is harmful to brain development.
d. It contains too much vitamin A, which can lead to spina bifida.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Bree is HIV-positive and is managing her infection with antiretroviral drugs. She just learned that she is pregnant. Her doctor may advise her to deliver via cesarean section and to avoid breast-feeding in order to ____.
a. reduce the chances of passing the virus to her baby
b. avoid excessive maternal bonding
c. avoid compromising her immunity any further
d. reduce the chances of miscarriage

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do We Change Prenatally?      OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Ethan is just two weeks old. His mother strokes his cheek and he turns toward the touch and opens his mouth. This is called the ____.
a. palmar reflex c. stepping reflex
b. sucking reflex d. rooting reflex

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. What is the likely purpose of the palmar reflex?
a. Unknown as it disappears as nervous system matures
b. A possible evolutionary remnant allowing primates to cling to an adult’s fur
c. A possible evolutionary remnant allowing primates to cling to an adult
d. A behavior that helps the baby nurse

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand     REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Ava is almost one month old. What does she spend most of her day doing?
a. crying c. sleeping
b. eating d. moving her arms and legs

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply             REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Babies can’t talk. Which of the following are ways in which researchers directly assess the sensory capacities of very young babies?
a. measures of heart rate, facial expression, and head movements
b. traditional hearing and vision exams
c. interviews with parents
d. sign language with the baby

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand     REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What role does habituation play in evaluating a baby’s sensory capacities?
a. When the baby cries while looking at an unfamiliar stimulus, he has likely become habituated to it.
b. When the baby cries while looking at a familiar stimulus, he likely is not yet habituated to it.
c. When the baby spends equal time looking at two stimuli, he has likely learned to distinguish between them.
d. When the baby spends equal time looking at two stimuli, he likely cannot tell the difference between them.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. To which of the following tastes will a newborn react most favorably?
a. bitter c. salty
b. sour d. sweet

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember      REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Research has shown that young infants do not see detail at a distance as well as adults do and need more contrast than adults in order to see well. According to the text, what research method was used?
a. Assessment of anxiety levels when the primary caregiver is at various distances
b. Observation of facial expressions and head movements
c. Measurement of the amount of time the baby spends viewing a pattern rather than a uniform screen
d. Qualitative interviews with parents

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand     REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Newborns show an innate preference for looking at faces. This preference ____.
a. is uniquely human
b. lacks an adaptive advantage
c. quickly recedes after the first month
d. provides advantages in social behavior and language learning

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand     REF:   What Can Newborns Do?

OBJ:   LO1

 

  1. Sofia was six pounds at birth. She is a healthy baby. How much does she likely weigh now that she is one year old?
a. 10 pounds c. 18 pounds
b. 15 pounds d. 24 pounds

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. During what time period does the human brain show rapid growth in gray matter?
a. During the final trimester of the pregnancy
b. In the latter months of pregnancy and for the first 18 months of life
c. From birth to age 12 months
d. For the first 18 months of life

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. We produce many more synapses than we need, and then retain only those that are used in a “use it or lose it” fashion. What does this demonstrate?
a. The discontinuous model of development
b. The universal approach to development
c. The dominance of nature over nurture
d. The important role of experience in wiring the brain

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. A spurt in myelination occurs between the ages of 6 and 13 years in parts of the brain associated with ____.
a. visual acuity c. language and spatial relations
b. emotional functioning d. memory

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. According to research (Fox, Hershberger, & Bouchard, 1996), who is most likely to reach milestones in motor development at the same time?
a. fraternal twins c. identical twins
b. two brothers d. two sisters

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. In what order do the following steps of development occur?
a. roll, sit, crawl, hop, raise head, walk c. raise head, crawl, sit, roll, hop, walk
b. raise head, roll, sit, crawl, walk, hop d. sit, crawl, roll, raise head, hop, walk

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Lucas is in first grade and works hard to print his alphabet letters on the lines on his notebook paper. In which direction is this motor development proceeding?
a. from toe to head c. from extremities in to midline
b. from midline outward d. from head to toe

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The average age at which each motor milestone is met ____.
a. applies equally to almost all children
b. falls within a wide range of normal development
c. varies greatly depending on culture
d. is a fairly precise measure of how each child is likely to develop

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. In some cultures, children are encouraged to walk earlier or later than what would be considered the average age in the U.S. (Super, 1976). With this in mind, which of the following statements is accurate?
a. Changes in the developmental timeline are virtually imperceptible because motor milestones are genetic.
b. Changes in the developmental timeline are generally quite dramatic depending on the culture.
c. Changes in the developmental timeline are usually slight because myelination of motor nerves usually just precedes the achievement of a new skill.
d. Changes in the developmental timeline can only take place during the spurt of myelination that occurs between ages 6 and 13.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   What Physical Changes Occur in Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO5

 

  1. According to Piaget’s theory, cognitive abilities develop through regular stages. This idea is a classic example of ____.
a. the continuity approach c. the ecological approach
b. the conservation approach d. the discontinuity approach

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the definition of assimilation?
a. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema that requires revision of the schema
b. The ability to understand that changing the form or appearance of an object does not change its quantity
c. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema, without the need to revise the schema
d. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. What is the definition of accommodation?
a. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
b. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema, without the need to revise the schema
c. The ability to understand that changing the form or appearance of an object does not change its quantity
d. The incorporation of new learning into an existing schema that requires revision of the schema

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Little Joey is visiting the zoo for the first time and sees a zebra. He says, “Look, Mommy, a horse.” This is an example of ____.
a. adaptation c. accommodation
b. assimilation d. conservation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Which of the following describes Piaget’s sensorimotor stage of development?
a. The stage of development beginning at the age of 6 years and ending at the age of 12 years and characterized by logical but not abstract reasoning
b. The stage of development beginning at birth and ending at the age of 2 years and characterized by active exploration of the environment
c. The stage of development beginning at age 12 and extending through adulthood and characterized by mature reasoning capabilities
d. The stage of development beginning at the age of 2 years and ending at the age of 6 years and characterized by use of symbols, egocentrism, and limits on the ability to reason logically

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is object permanence?
a. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
b. The ability to understand the concept of “me” and “it”
c. The ability to incorporate new learning into an existing schema without the need to revise the schema
d. The ability to understand that changing the form or appearance of an object does not change its essence

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. What is Piaget’s name for the stage of development that begins at the age of two years and ends at the age of six years and is characterized by use of symbols, egocentrism, and limits on the ability to reason logically?
a. formal operational stage c. sensorimotor stage
b. concrete operational stage d. preoperational stage

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Ava, age five, and her mother are playing with clay. They make two round balls of the same size. Ava flattens one into a pancake shape and says “Look, Mommy, now this one has more clay.” In this context, Ava does not yet understand ____.
a. assimilation c. conservation
b. egocentrism d. object permanence

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. What is egocentrism in Piaget’s view?
a. The limited ability to understand the point of view of other people
b. The ability to form mental representations of objects that are no longer present
c. The emotional bonding between an infant and a parent or caregiver
d. The ability to understand that others have thoughts that are different from one’s own.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Luis is eight years old. He is becoming quite good at arguing with his parents over what his bedtime should be, whether he has eaten enough of his supper to have dessert, etc. He loves toys and projects that involve hands-on learning. According to Piaget, Luis is in the ____ of cognitive development.
a. formal operational stage c. preoperational stage
b. sensorimotor stage d. concrete operational stage

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Alexa is 15 years old. She is very involved in environmental issues, including issues such as the finding alternatives to fossil fuels and the protection of biodiversity on the planet. According to Piaget, Alexa is in the ____ of cognitive development.
a. concrete operational stage c. sensorimotor stage
b. formal operational stage d. preoperational stage

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Which of the following is a criticism of Piaget’s theories?
a. Piaget overestimated the capabilities of young children.
b. Piaget viewed the developing child in relative isolation from his or her family, community, and culture.
c. Piaget specified the wrong mechanisms responsible for moving from one stage to the next.
d. Piaget focused too much on the variability of individual cognitive development.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. Which of the following is true of Lev Vygotsky’s view of cognitive development?
a. A child gains knowledge of the world by interacting socially and collaboratively with parents, teachers, and other members of the community.
b. A child learns to understand the world by actively exploring it, like a miniature scientist.
c. A child has a “zone of proximal development” in which to learn how to accomplish tasks independently.
d. A child develops according to a species perspective, largely independent of culture.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. When Zach started elementary school, he was able to focus very attentively on class projects, but only for limited periods of time. By about sixth grade, his attention span started to lengthen significantly each year. Which model or theory does this exemplify?
a. theory of mind c. information processing model
b. zone of proximal development d. naive theories

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Which of the following reflects the view of contemporary developmental psychologists and is in contrast to Piaget’s analysis?
a. Children’s abilities to understand objects in their world depend on their development of language abilities.
b. Very young children seem to understand a great deal about objects and how they work, even before they have had much experience interacting with them.
c. Very young children seem to understand a great deal about objects and how they work, once they have gained substantial experience interacting with them.
d. Children’s abilities to understand objects in their world develop slowly over time.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. What is an important elaboration of Piaget’s concept of egocentrism?
a. naive theories c. attachment theory
b. the information processing model d. theory of mind

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. In which of the following two scenarios does Grace demonstrate that she has developed theory of mind?

(1) Grace accidentally pops Max’s red balloon. Max is furious and heartbroken. Grace tells her mother “Max thinks I did it on purpose.”

(2) Grace and Max play contentedly side by side with their blocks. Max builds a tower and Grace builds two small houses.

a. Scenario (1) only c. Scenarios (1) and (2)
b. Scenario (2) only d. Neither scenario

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. A failure to develop a typical theory of mind has been linked to the development of ____ (Gopnik, Capps, & Meltzoff, 2000).
a. Down syndrome c. autism
b. depression d. language anomalies

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO3

 

  1. The temperament traits of children, which are visible within the first few months of life, have been described along three dimensions (Mary Rothbart et al., 2007): surgency or extroversion, negative affect or mood, and ____.
a. innate resilience c. empathy
b. effortful control d. agreeableness

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Individual differences in temperament may emerge early in life (Thomas & Chess, 1977, 1989). These traits ____.
a. will likely be substantially modified by adulthood
b. are not valid indicators of later psychological disorders
c. are impacted very little by environmental factors
d. most likely represent genetic differences

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Jack was a very timid child, both physically and socially. His parents gently encouraged him to participate in activities with other children. Over time he became quite adept at playing team sports. This is an example of ____.
a. egocentrism c. goodness of fit
b. avoidant attachment d. theory of mind

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. The emotional bonding between an infant and a parent or caregiver is called ____.
a. attachment c. dependency
b. reinforcement d. goodness of fit

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which of the following is a finding from Harry Harlow’s study (1958) of rhesus monkeys and attachment?
a. The pleasure obtained through feeding formed the basis of the mother-infant bond.
b. The wire mothers with an attached milk bottle were the preferred source of comfort for food and emotional needs.
c. The infant was positively reinforced with food for staying near the mother.
d. The mother’s ability to provide contact comfort was critical in forming a strong attachment on the part of her infant.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which scenario exemplifies a key factor in predicting the timing of attachment?
a. Jayce has learned to sit up.
b. Jayce can say small sentences.
c. Jayce is starting to crawl.
d. Jayce can grasp his mother’s hoop earring but does not let go.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

  1. About the same time that infants begin to crawl, usually between 6 and 8 months, they also begin to show separation anxiety. This indicates that they ____.
a. now recognize who does and does not belong in their social world
b. have not bonded with any particular person or persons
c. have an insecure form of attachment
d. have an avoidant form of attachment

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. A pattern of infant-caregiver bonding in which children explore confidently and return to the parent or caregiver for reassurance is called ____.
a. avoidant attachment c. secure attachment
b. insecure attachment d. disorganized attachment

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. What is the pattern of infant-caregiver bonding that can take several different forms, but is generally characterized as less desirable for the child’s outcomes than secure attachment?
a. disorganized attachment c. anxious-ambivalent attachment
b. insecure attachment d. avoidant attachment

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Rosa is 15 months of age. A new babysitter came to the house so Rosa’s mother could focus on her writing in her office upstairs. Rosa was fine while her mother was still in the room with them but cried and cried when she left. Her mother returned an hour later and Rosa ran over to her right away. What pattern of attachment is this?
a. avoidant c. disorganized
b. anxious-ambivalent d. secure

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Marcus is about 1-1/2 years old. His mother left him at a friend’s house to play for the first time while she took the family car in for maintenance. Marcus did not show distress when his mother left nor did he immediately approach her when she returned. What pattern of attachment is this?
a. avoidant c. disorganized
b. secure d. anxious-ambivalent

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Avoidant or anxious-ambivalent attachment is more common in children with ____.
a. low intrinsic motivation c. high intrinsic motivation
b. low negative affect d. high negative affect

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true regarding studies that compared the frequencies of Ainsworth’s three attachment types in the United States to frequencies in Japan and Germany?
a. The German sample had about the same number of securely attached infants as in the United States.
b. The German sample had many more infants with avoidant attachment than in the United States.
c. The Japanese sample had zero cases of anxious-ambivalent attachment.
d. The Japanese sample had higher proportions of avoidant attachments.

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Joshua is three years old. He often whines, and constantly demands attention from his parents, not venturing far from them at the park. Which of the following would most likely describe the parenting style of Joshua’s parents?
a. strict and punitive c. unresponsive or inconsistent
b. attentive and available d. anxious and overprotective

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Parenting styles can be divided into four categories, which vary along ____ (Baumrind, 1975; Maccoby & Martin, 1983).
a. four dimensions: empathy, recognition, discipline, and expectations
b. two dimensions: support and behavioral regulation
c. three dimensions: empathy, supervision, and expectations
d. two dimensions: recognition and expectations

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. The parenting style that combines high behavioral regulation with low support is ____.
a. authoritative c. authoritarian
b. indulgent d. uninvolved

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

  1. Mario is a high school sophomore. His parents are strict but loving. They provide clear standards that are reasonable for his age and enforce them fairly. Their parenting style is ____.
a. authoritarian c. indulgent
b. authoritative d. uninvolved

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Ashley is a senior in high school. Her parents enjoy her company and have an “open door” policy where her friends are concerned. They are fine with her friends drinking and smoking in the basement as long as one person refrains as the designated driver. Their parenting style is ____.
a. authoritative c. authoritarian
b. uninvolved d. indulgent

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Ryan grew up in a family of four boys. He and his brothers have never engaged in “acting out” behaviors, such as excessive drinking or drug use. However, now in their teens, they tend to be depressed and withdrawn from their peers. Their parents are most likely ____.
a. authoritarian c. indulgent
b. uninvolved d. authoritative

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. Rachel is in junior high school. Her father drinks heavily and is frequently out of work. Her mother is very depressed and spends much of the day in front of the TV. Rachel spends as much time as she can outside of their home. Her parents’ style of parenting is ____.
a. indulgent c. authoritarian
b. authoritative d. uninvolved

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

  1. According to the work of Jean Rich Harris (1998), correlations between parenting styles and child outcomes are due to ____.
a. environmental factors c. the particular parenting style
b. genetics d. peer influence

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   How Do Social and Emotional Behaviors Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. How can adolescence best be described?
a. A period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity
b. A period of social development ending in one’s mid-20s
c. A period of development beginning at puberty and ending at young adulthood
d. A period of increasing maturity and assumption of adult responsibilities

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. A period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity is called ____.
a. adolescence c. menarche
b. secondary sex characteristics d. puberty

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Dylan is 16. He is finally taller than his sister and is experiencing muscular development, maturity of the external genitalia, growth of facial hair, and enlargement of the larynx, which has caused his voice to deepen. These are called ____.
a. primary sex characteristics c. static sex characteristics
b. secondary sex characteristics d. dynamic sex characteristics

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The obvious evolutionary purpose of puberty is to prepare an individual for ____.
a. adulthood c. parenthood
b. sex d. leadership

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. At the onset of puberty, ____.
a. the brain is fully adult c. there is substantial gray matter growth
b. the risk of schizophrenia decreases d. brain development is virtually complete

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Myelination of the frontal lobes is much greater in adults aged 23 to 30 than in youth between the ages of 12 and 16. Unfortunately, the adolescent’s white matter is more susceptible than an adult’s to damage from ____.
a. schizophrenia c. marijuana use
b. unprotected sex d. binge drinking

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Jenny, age 16, and her mother Alice are looking at family photographs and focus on one of Arthur (Jenny’s dad and Alice’s husband). They interpret the expression on his face very differently. When Arthur gets home, he confirms Alice’s interpretation of the picture. Jenny’s error can be explained by the fact that ____.
a. Alice has more gray matter than Jenny
b. Jenny’s amygdala has matured before her frontal lobes
c. Jenny’s frontal lobes has matured before her amygdala
d. Jenny has more white matter than Alice

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. During adolescence, which of the following reach(es) adult levels?
a. working memory and reaction time c. ability to use executive processes
b. problem solving abilities d. analytical thinking

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Chris and Ivan are fourteen. Chris dares Ivan by saying, “Let’s take a bottle of wine from your grandmother’s house; she’ll never notice.” According to Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.
a. postconventional morality c. preconventional morality
b. semiconventional morality d. anticonventional morality

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Justin is nineteen. In the past, he drove at an abnormally high speed if no police cars were in sight. Now he believes it is in everybody’s best interests to obey speed limits and other traffic rules. According to Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning, this represents ____.
a. postconventional morality c. preconventional morality
b. semiconventional morality d. conventional morality

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Mahatma Gandhi employed non-violent civil disobedience in his efforts towards India’s independence from foreign powers. These actions reflects Kohlberg’s stage of ____.
a. conventional morality c. anticonventional morality
b. postconventional morality d. preconventional morality

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Kohlberg’s postconventional reasoning has been criticized as not representing a universal stage of moral development, but rather being ____ (Murphy, Gilligan, & Puka, 1994).
a. overly feminine in some aspects
b. too dependent on interpersonal factors
c. a characteristic of males in Europe and the United States
d. overly rigid and sensitive to public opinion

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. In Erikson’s work (Erikson, 1968), a consistent, unified sense of self is called ____.
a. self-esteem c. individualism
b. moral experience d. identity

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Teens begin to form an identity by asking “Who am I?” and “What kind of person do I want to be?” According to Erikson, failure to achieve a stable identity leads to ____.
a. a sense of stagnation
b. role confusion and problems with subsequent stages
c. the potential for feelings of despair
d. feelings of loneliness and isolation

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Research suggests that African American and Hispanic youth who identify with an ethnic group during adolescence and young adulthood have ____ (Erol and Orth, 2011).
a. higher grade point averages c. higher overall self-esteem
b. more encounters with law enforcement d. greater generative capacity

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Teens tend to spend more time with peers and less with family. Research has indicated that teens have a lower risk for substance abuse when they ____ (Fulkerson et al., 2006).
a. have older siblings c. spend substantial time with peers
b. eat meals regularly with family d. have a number of friendships

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Jenna is a very rebellious teenager. Just about everything she says and does worries her parents. Her values are most likely ____.
a. far more conservative than her parents c. far more liberal than her parents
b. the opposite of her parents d. not too different from her parents

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?                          OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding young adulthood?
a. It emerges gradually in industrialized countries.
b. It takes place from age 22 to age 33.
c. In developing countries, it is typically marked by gaining the right to vote.
d. It is a phase determined by biology.

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Gabriel is 25 years old, 6 foot 3 inches, and 185 pounds.  He is an accomplished lacrosse player and continues to play in a competitive league. Gabriel ____.
a. can expect to make enormous gains in his muscle strength and speed
b. does not yet need to worry about lifestyle factors
c. is most likely at the peak of his physical fitness
d. is well beyond the peak of his physical fitness

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Eduardo’s father, a heavy smoker, died fairly young from lung cancer. Eduardo looks at his small children and wants to lead a long and healthy life. What should be his focus?
a. researching his father’s health history c. periodic screening tests
b. avoiding unnecessary risks d. lifestyle factors

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Professor Edokpa teaches college classes in an evening program, and has students of all ages. Tonight they are discussing whether human rights are universal or vary according to cultural values. One student, Harry, clearly enjoys debating the pros and cons of each position, while another student, Carl, expresses frustration that he can’t figure out the correct answer. Harry is engaging in ____.
a. formal thought c. conventional thought
b. postformal thought d. anticonventional thought

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. According to Erikson, one key to successful intimacy in adulthood is to ____.
a. have established a solid identity in adolescence
b. be among the majority in forms of intimacy
c. have had many relationships as a teenager
d. spend time with family as well as peers

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Couples typically experience a drop in marital satisfaction after the birth of a first child. In a longitudinal study that followed two cohorts of participants (Lawrence, et al., 2008), marital satisfaction continued to drop up to ____.
a. the first child’s 7th birthday c. the birth of the second child
b. the first child’s 15th birthday d. the child’s departure for college

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is It Like to Be a Young Adult?                               OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. What is the best description of the starting point for midlife?
a. It begins with certain physical changes.
b. It begins at age 40.
c. It does not have a reliable set of indicators.
d. It is indicated by a growing sense of mortality.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Midlife is most often a time of ____.
a. midlife crisis c. smooth sailing
b. many challenges d. great joy

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. According to an influential model of relationships, the persistence of a relationship is a direct result of the partners’ commitment, which in turn is determined by the partners’ satisfaction with the relationship, the amount of investment they have already put into their relationship, and ____ (Rusbult, Martz, & Agnew, 1998).
a. their age c. support from peers
b. parental support d. the quality of their alternatives

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The major theme of physical and cognitive development in midlife is ____.
a. stability c. abrupt change
b. sharp decline d. increasing health

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The complete cessation of a woman’s menstrual cycles is called ____.
a. menarche c. menopause
b. hormonal death d. perimenopause

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Warren is 80 years old and has just married his third wife, a 30 year old. She would like to have children. As compared to a 25-year-old man, Warren’s fertility is about ____.
a. 10% c. 50%
b. 25% d. 100%

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Children grow up and move out, leaving their parents at midlife with an “empty nest.” Michael’s parents, Americans, are quite cheerful about it. Rumi’s parents, from India and now living in Canada, are quite disappointed. This difference in reaction most likely reflects ____.
a. marital satisfaction c. gender stereotypes
b. educational bias d. cultural variation

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

  1. When in college, Greg dreamed of rowing in the Olympics and becoming a surgeon. Now at age 48, he continues to enjoy rowing, although he never made it to the Olympics and he works as an anesthesiologist. His wife and kids are healthy and he is basically content. According to Erikson, he is most likely to experience ____.
a. integrity c. stagnation
b. generativity d. role confusion

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Happens During Midlife?        OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. The starting point of late adulthood is best described as ____.
a. becoming eligible for Medicare c. vague
b. retirement age d. between age 70 and 72

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Results from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (2000) show that healthy aging is accompanied by ____.
a. a significant and rapid decline in the speed of learning and problem solving
b. a steady and debilitating decline in cognition, vision, and hearing from age 50 onwards
c. very mild changes in the speed of learning and problem solving and that most of these observable changes occur very late in life
d. deep changes in intellect and sensory capacities, some of which are remediable

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Who is among those least likely to develop dementia as he or she ages?
a. Jane, who loves to cook favorites such as fish and chips, fried chicken, and homemade donuts
b. Jack, who participates in 20 minutes or more of tai chi and brisk walking every day
c. Frank, who enjoys life by drinking, smoking, and relaxing on the couch in the evenings
d. Peg, whose mother and aunt had dementia

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following types of intelligence is most likely to change due to aging?
a. crystallized intelligence c. general intelligence
b. emotional intelligence d. fluid intelligence

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Arthur is a retired auto mechanic who proudly owned his own auto repair shop, which his sons now run. He and his wife enjoy their grandchildren and enjoy spending the winters in Florida. In Erikson’s stages of social development, he is likely to experience ____.
a. despair c. integrity
b. generativity d. identity

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Apply

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

 

  1. According to research (Kessler et al., 2003), who is least likely to experience depression?
a. a 65-year-old male c. a 30-year-old male
b. a 65-year-old female d. a 30-year-old female

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Which of the following best describes the relationships of older adults?
a. Older adults have more friendships than younger adults.
b. Older adults are more likely than younger adults to form new friendships.
c. Older adults do not gain significant benefits from their friendships.
d. Older adults often find their relationships with siblings especially meaningful.

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Human beings are somewhat unusual among primates in the length of their life span beyond their productive years. This may have provided an adaptive advantage over the course of evolution and is known as ____.
a. the wisdom of elders c. survival of the fittest
b. the grandmother effect d. the grandfather effect

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Remember

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Long-term marriage partners show more similarities with each other due to a lifetime spent in each other’s company, along with a(n) ____.
a. accurate assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of their relationship
b. a decrease of the opportunity of other relationships
c. lack of attention to past negative events and personality traits
d. healthy engagement in conflict when necessary

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand

REF:   What Is Late Adulthood Like?         OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. The text raises three potential dichotomies in development across the life span: nature/nurture, continuity/discontinuity, and universal/ecological. Describe them briefly and provide an example of each.

 

ANS:

Nature/nurture. Nature describes the contributions of heredity to our physical structure and behaviors. Nurture describes the contributions of environmental factors and experience to our physical structure and behaviors. Contemporary psychologists view the contributions of nature and nurture to be closely intertwined as opposed to somehow competing with each other for control over behavior. An example is the way in which the underlying DNA that makes up our genes is turned on or off by the surrounding chemical tags (the epigenome) that accumulate through life. External environmental factors can chemically “tag” our DNA, including diet, nurture, and stress.

 

Continuity/discontinuity refers to whether development is gradual and continuous or abrupt and discontinuous. The continuity-discontinuity debate does not have a “right answer.” Some features appear to be more continuous in their developmental course, such as the gradual development of infant temperament into later personality. Other features seem to appear out of nowhere, such as the development of a sense of object permanence at about the age of eight months.

 

Universal/ecological. Psychologists taking the universal approach to development look for age-related behaviors that are found across the entire human species, whereas psychologists taking an ecological view ask questions about the impact of culture and environment on development. Although there are universals of development, such as the age at which most children begin walking unassisted, it is also evident that children growing up in cultures where early walking is encouraged walk at slightly younger ages than children growing up in cultures where restricting infant movement is the norm. Although a consideration of human universals is useful, most contemporary psychologists would be unwilling to consider many behaviors outside their context of social relationships and culture.

 

Note: student examples will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Analyze         REF:   What Does It Mean to Develop?

OBJ:   LO5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Define adolescence and puberty. What is the endpoint of adolescence? Discuss why adolescence seems to be starting earlier and ending later than in the past.

 

ANS:

Adolescence is a period of development beginning at puberty and ending at young adulthood. Puberty is a period of physical changes leading to sexual maturity. Adolescence is an artificial, arbitrary period of development that is a relatively recent phenomenon in human experience. In hunter-gatherer societies, sexual maturity at puberty signaled the young person’s entry into adult roles, privileges, and expectations. Our word “puberty” comes from the Latin word for “adult.”

 

Although adolescence is assumed to begin with puberty, we do not have much consensus regarding its endpoint. Legally, an 18-year-old is an adult in the United States. However, we restrict legal alcohol consumption to those over 21, and rental car companies rarely rent cars to young adults under the age of 25. Lifestyle factors associated with adulthood, such as financial independence from parents, separate living arrangements, marriage, and parenthood, are far more descriptive of the end of adolescence than age.

 

Two factors have resulted in an extended period of adolescence in modern, industrial societies, such that it starts earlier and ends later than in the past. One is the dramatic decrease in the age at which puberty occurs. Over the last 100 years, the average age of puberty in the United States has dropped from about age 16 to around age 12. For people living 100 years ago, taking on adult roles around the age of puberty was much more realistic than it would be today. Recent evidence shows that this trend is ongoing. We do not know exactly why puberty is occurring earlier. A second factor contributing to the length of modern adolescence is the extended period of education and training needed in technological societies. Youth at puberty are simply not prepared to assume adult roles in most modern cultures.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Does It Mean to Be an Adolescent?

OBJ:   LO2

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Describe the change in reproductive status that women undergo in midlife and the experience of menopause. Describe the change in reproductive status of men starting in midlife.

 

ANS:

The most significant physical change in midlife for women is the end of their ability to reproduce. Menopause is the point where menstruation stops. For most women, menopause is complete in their early 50s, but loss of fertility is a very gradual process beginning many years earlier. Menstrual cycles may become irregular in a woman’s 40s as her sex hormone levels that regulate the cycles begin to drop. During the period of transition between the start of irregular periods and the final disappearance of menstruation, women can experience a number of physical and psychological symptoms. Hot flashes, night sweats, headaches, joint pain, mood swings, and sleep disturbances are common complaints, and the severity of these issues can range from barely noticeable to nearly disabling. Hormone treatments to offset these symptoms are used quite cautiously, as they can also increase a woman’s risk of stroke, heart attack, breast cancer, and later dementia.

 

Men experience much more gradual changes in their reproductive status through the remainder of their lives. Sperm quantity may be reduced, but men in their 80s remain half as fertile as men who are 25. Most men experience little if any decreases in testosterone over the course of the midlife years, although other conditions, such as diabetes, can interfere with the maintenance of an active sex life. For both men and women in midlife, the availability of a partner is much more predictive of sexual activity than any health issues.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Understand    REF:   What Happens During Midlife?

OBJ:   LO2

 

  1. Psychologists like Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson theorized that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking or cognitive development, and Erikson described stages of personality or psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? What stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant?  Which stages will you go through as you develop into adulthood and old age?

 

In a multi-paragraph essay, describe all the different stages of cognitive and psychosocial development throughout your lifespan. Be sure to provide examples to illustrate the thoughts, emotions, and behavior typical of each stage. Include details from class materials, readings, and research on human development to support your discussion.

 

ANS:

Answers will vary.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    Evaluate

REF:   How Does Cognition Change During Infancy and Childhood?

OBJ:   LO2               MSC:  Vantage