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Fundamentals of General Organic Biological Chemistry 7th Edition McMurry Hoeger Test Bank

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Fundamentals of General Organic Biological Chemistry 7th Edition McMurry Hoeger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321776129

ISBN-10: 0321776127

 

 

Description

Fundamentals of General Organic Biological Chemistry 7th Edition McMurry Hoeger Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321776129

ISBN-10: 0321776127

 

 

 

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Fundamentals of General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, 7e (McMurry)

Chapter 24   Lipid Metabolism

 

1) In order for dietary lipids to be transported in an aqueous system, they are solubilized by

  1. A) lipoproteins.
  2. B) cholesterol.
  3. C) lipases.
  4. D) bile.
  5. E) glycolipids.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  24.1

 

2) Where do the first chemical changes in the digestion of dietary fats take place?

  1. A) mouth
  2. B) stomach
  3. C) small intestine
  4. D) large intestine
  5. E) liver

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.1

 

3) Enzymes that hydrolyze lipids are ________; substances that emulsify lipids are ________.

  1. A) insulin derivatives; lecithins
  2. B) pancreatic lipases; bile salts
  3. C) lipoproteins; lipases
  4. D) proteases; chylomicrons
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.1

 

4) Which of the following substances are produced from hydrolysis of dietary fats in the small intestine?

  1. A) bile salts
  2. B) triglycerides
  3. C) fatty acids
  4. D) amino acids
  5. E) monosaccharides

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.1

 

5) Digestion of lipids begins in the ________, in a process catalyzed by ________.

  1. A) mouth; salivary amylase
  2. B) stomach; hydrochloric acid
  3. C) small intestine; pancreatic lipases
  4. D) large intestines; bile acids
  5. E) adipocytes; triacylglycerol lipase

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  24.1

 

6) Which of the following lipoproteins is used solely for the transport of lipids in the blood?

  1. A) chylomicrons
  2. B) ultra-high-density lipoproteins
  3. C) high-density lipoproteins
  4. D) low-density lipoproteins
  5. E) very low-density lipoproteins

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  24.2

 

7) Which lipoprotein transports cholesterol to the liver to be recycled or excreted?

  1. A) chylomicrons
  2. B) ultra-high-density lipoproteins
  3. C) high-density lipoproteins
  4. D) low-density lipoproteins
  5. E) very low-density lipoproteins

Answer:  C

Diff: 1

Section:  24.2

 

8) Which lipoprotein transports cholesterol from the liver to sites where it is used in cell membranes or in steroid synthesis?

  1. A) chylomicrons
  2. B) ultra-high-density lipoproteins
  3. C) high-density lipoproteins
  4. D) low-density lipoproteins
  5. E) very low-density lipoproteins

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  24.2

 

9) Which is the correct term for the micelle-like structures which transport triglycerides in the bloodstream after digestion?

  1. A) very low-density lipoproteins
  2. B) low-density lipoproteins
  3. C) high-density lipoproteins
  4. D) liposomes
  5. E) chylomicrons

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  24.2

 

10) Chylomicrons are the least dense of all the lipoprotein/lipid combinations because

  1. A) their lipoproteins nest together easily.
  2. B) they have a high ratio of cholesterol to triacylglycerols.
  3. C) they have the highest proportion of less dense lipid molecules.
  4. D) there are many carbohydrate groups included in the external structure.
  5. E) their amino acids are mostly hydrophobic.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.2

 

11) What is the role of a chylomicron?

  1. A) to transport triacylglycerols in the bloodstream
  2. B) to synthesize cholesterol and other steroids
  3. C) to move triacylglycerol across the cell membrane
  4. D) to store excess triacylglycerols until they are needed
  5. E) to transport acetyl-CoA from the cytosol to the mitochondria

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.2

 

12) High density lipoproteins contain a greater amount of ________ than do low density lipoproteins.

  1. A) protein
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) triglycerides
  4. D) cholesterol
  5. E) fatty acids

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.2

 

13) Which of the following is considered to be the so-called “good cholesterol”?

  1. A) HDL
  2. B) LDL
  3. C) VLDL
  4. D) Chylomicrons

Answer:  A

Diff: 1

Section:  24.2

 

14) The hormones ________ and ________ control the release of energy from stored triacylglycerol.

  1. A) insulin; cortisone
  2. B) adrenalin; glucagon
  3. C) norepinephrine; cortisone
  4. D) insulin; glucagon
  5. E) adrenalin; norepinephrine

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  24.3

 

15) The first chemical step in the breakdown of triacylglycerols is

  1. A) complete hydrolysis to fatty acids and glycerols.
  2. B) partial hydrolysis to fatty acids, phosphates, and diacylglycerols.
  3. C) oxidation of alcohol groups to carbonyls.
  4. D) rearrangement to cholesterol derivatives.
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.3

 

16) When fats are metabolized, the fatty acids enter the reactions of the

  1. A) electron transport chain.
  2. B) citric acid cycle.
  3. C) glycolysis pathway.
  4. D) β-oxidation process.
  5. E) gluconeogensis.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.3

17) All of the following are possible metabolic fates of the acetyl-SCoA intermediate except

  1. A) synthesis of cholesterol.
  2. B) the citric acid cycle and production of ATP.
  3. C) gluconeogenesis.
  4. D) lipogenesis.
  5. E) ketogenesis.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.3

 

18) When energy from stored triacylglycerols is needed, they are ________, and then transported in the bloodstream via ________ as fatty acids.

  1. A) hydrolyzed; high-density lipoproteins
  2. B) hydrolyzed; albumins
  3. C) oxidized; chylomicrons
  4. D) oxidized; albumins
  5. E) polymerized; high-density lipoproteins

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.3

 

19) Glycerol produced as a byproduct of metabolism of lipids is converted to ________, which can be isomerized to a compound that can enter glycolysis or gluconeogenesis.

  1. A) fatty acids
  2. B) citrate
  3. C) dihydroxyacetone phosphate
  4. D) acetone
  5. E) carbon dioxide

Answer:  C

Diff: 3

Section:  24.3

 

20) Fatty acids from triacylglycerols can be ________ when energy is plentiful or ________ when energy is needed.

  1. A) oxidized to produce acetyl-SCoA; stored as triacylglycerols in adipose tissue
  2. B) stored as triacylglycerols in adipose tissue; oxidized to produce acetyl-SCoA
  3. C) stored as cholesterol derivatives in adipose tissue; oxidized to produce glucose
  4. D) reduced to hydrocarbons; isomerized to lower energy forms
  5. E) diverted to gluconeogenesis; hydrolyzed to smaller molecules

Answer:  B

Diff: 3

Section:  24.3

21) Triacylglycerols are stored in

  1. A) liposomes.
  2. B) adipocytes.
  3. C) high-density lipoproteins.
  4. D) low-density lipoproteins.
  5. E) membranes.

Answer:  B

Diff: 1

Section:  24.5

 

 

22) After digestion and absorption, the molecules from dietary fats and oils are transported in the bloodstream as

  1. A) glycerol.
  2. B) fatty acids.
  3. C) cholesterol.
  4. D) citric acid.
  5. E) enzymes.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

23) In the synthesis of triacylglycerides, fatty acids must react with ________ before they can attach to the glycerol backbone.

  1. A) ATP
  2. B) cholesterol
  3. C) carnitine
  4. D) coenzyme A
  5. E) glycerol 3-phosphate

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

24) Which molecule is not associated with synthesis of triacylglycerides?

  1. A) glycerol 3-phosphate
  2. B) NADH
  3. C) coenzyme A
  4. D) carnitine
  5. E) fatty acids

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

25) Which molecule is associated with transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix?

  1. A) glycerol 3-phosphate
  2. B) NADH
  3. C) coenzyme A
  4. D) carnitine
  5. E) fatty acids

Answer:  D

Diff: 1

Section:  24.5

 

 

26) Where in the cell does beta-oxidation of fatty acids occur?

  1. A) cell wall
  2. B) cytosol
  3. C) nucleus
  4. D) mitochondria
  5. E) liposome

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

27) Each oxidation during fatty acid catabolism directly produces one molecule of ________ and a fatty acid molecule that has been shortened by ________ carbon atom(s).

  1. A) ATP; two
  2. B) acetyl-SCoA; two
  3. C) ATP; one
  4. D) acetyl-SCoA; one
  5. E) CO2; three

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

28) The activation of a fatty acid prior to entering into the beta-oxidation cycle requires the presence of what coenzyme?

  1. A) malonyl CoA
  2. B) FAD
  3. C) ATP
  4. D) cyclic AMP

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

29) The complete metabolism of one molecule of stearic acid, a fatty acid with 18 atoms of carbon, would require ________ turns of the beta-oxidation cycle.

  1. A) 8
  2. B) 9
  3. C) 10
  4. D) 16
  5. E) 18

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

 

30) The first step of the beta-oxidation cycle which is a dehydrogenation requires what coenzyme?

  1. A) ATP
  2. B) FAD
  3. C) NAD+
  4. D) NADP+

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

31) The complete metabolism of one molecule of stearic acid, a fatty acid with 18 atoms of carbon, would produce ________ molecules of acetyl-SCoA.

  1. A) 8
  2. B) 9
  3. C) 10
  4. D) 16
  5. E) 18

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

32) The complete metabolism of one molecule of myristic acid, a fatty acid with 14 atoms of carbon, would require ________ turns of the beta-oxidation cycle.

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 12
  4. D) 14
  5. E) 16

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

33) The complete metabolism of one molecule of myristic acid, a fatty acid with 14 atoms of carbon, would produce ________ molecules of acetyl-SCoA.

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 7
  3. C) 8
  4. D) 12
  5. E) 14

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

 

34) Which statements are true for the process of β-oxidation?

  1. It occurs in the mitochondria.
  2. Acyl carrier proteins are involved.

III.   NADPH is the coenzyme.

  1. The molecule increases in length by two carbons.
  2. Energy is released in the process.
  3. A) I, III, V
  4. B) II, IV
  5. C) I, V
  6. D) I, II, III, IV, V
  7. E) II, III, IV

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

35) Which type of molecule is the major form for long term storage of chemical energy in the body?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) triglycerides
  4. D) steroids
  5. E) waxes

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

 

36) Fatty acids are activated for breakdown by conversion to ________.

  1. A) fatty acid SCoA’s
  2. B) triacylglycerides
  3. C) fatty acid glycerol phosphates
  4. D) fatty acid alkyl esters
  5. E) none of the above

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.5

37) The correct order for these three processes leading from a fatty acid molecule in a cell needing energy to high energy molecules capable of meeting the energy need is

  1. activation by reaction with coenzyme A
  2. oxidation to acetyl-SCoA and reduced coenzymes

III.   transport from cytosol into mitochondrial matrix

  1. A) I, II, III.
  2. B) II, III, I.
  3. C) III, I, II.
  4. D) I, III, II.
  5. E) III, II, I.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3

Section:  24.5

 

38) In comparing the potential energy of lipids and carbohydrates on a weight basis, it is correct to say that lipids provide

  1. A) considerably less energy than carbohydrates.
  2. B) slightly less energy than carbohydrates.
  3. C) almost the same amount of energy as carbohydrates.
  4. D) slightly more energy than carbohydrates.
  5. E) considerably more energy than carbohydrates.

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  24.6

 

39) If lipid catabolism produces more acetyl-SCoA than the citric acid cycle can consume, but there is still a need for energy, the process of ________ takes over.

  1. A) gluconeogenesis
  2. B) ketogenesis
  3. C) lipogenesis
  4. D) steroid synthesis
  5. E) transamination

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.6

 

40) How many molecules of NADH are produced by the oxidation of a 10-carbon fatty acid?

  1. A) 6
  2. B) 10
  3. C) 4
  4. D) 3
  5. E) 15

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.6

41) Which has greater “energy density,” carbohydrates or fats.  Explain your answer in terms of molecular structure and net energy production.

Answer:  Fats have a greater energy density than carbohydrates.  Fats provide nine Calories energy per gram, and carbohydrates only four Calories per gram.  In addition, in considering a carbohydrate and a fat of similar molecular mass, the fat contains more carbon atoms and those carbon atoms are more highly reduced (and therefore of higher energy) than the carbon atoms in the carbohydrate.

Diff: 3

Section:  24.6

 

 

42) Ketone bodies are primarily produced in ________ cells.

  1. A) brain
  2. B) heart
  3. C) liver
  4. D) kidney
  5. E) red blood

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

 

43) Ketogenesis occurs from a(an)

  1. A) underproduction of ketone bodies.
  2. B) consumption of too much sugar.
  3. C) overproduction of acetyl CoA.
  4. D) underproduction of acetyl CoA.
  5. E) overproduction of ketone bodies.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

 

44) High concentrations of ketone bodies in the bloodstream may indicate

  1. A) diabetes mellitus.
  2. B) starvation.
  3. C) a decrease in the pH of the blood.
  4. D) All responses are correct.
  5. E) No responses are correct.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

45) The molecule that is a precursor to the other ketone bodies is

  1. A) acetone.
  2. B) acetoacetate.
  3. C) 3-hydroxybutyrate.
  4. D) malonyl-ACP.
  5. E) malonyl-SCoA.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

 

 

46) When fatty acid metabolism creates more acetyl-CoA than can be handled in the citric acid cycle, the excess acetyl-CoA is converted into ________.

  1. A) ketone bodies
  2. B) amino acids
  3. C) cholesterol
  4. D) fatty alcohols
  5. E) glycerol

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

 

47) Which molecule is not a ketone body?

  1. A) acetoacetate
  2. B) acetone
  3. C) 3-hydroxybutyrate
  4. D) methyl ethyl ketone
  5. E) They are all ketone bodies.

Answer:  D

Diff: 2

Section:  24.7

 

48) Which factor is the same in both lipogenesis and β-oxidation of fatty acids?

  1. A) They occur in the same location in the cell.
  2. B) They use the same enzymes.
  3. C) They both involve NADPH and FAD.
  4. D) They both depend on coenzyme A
  5. E) They both occur two carbon atoms at a time.

Answer:  E

Diff: 1

Section:  25.8

49) Which statements are true for the process of lipogenesis?

  1. It occurs in the mitochondria.
  2. Acyl carrier proteins are involved.

III.   NADPH is the coenzyme.

  1. The molecule increases in length by two carbons.
  2. Energy is released in the process.
  3. A) I, III, V
  4. B) II, IV
  5. C) I, III
  6. D) I, II, III, IV, V
  7. E) II, III, IV

Answer:  E

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

 

 

50) The intermediate that carries two-carbon units to be added to a fatty acid chain is

  1. A) malonyl-SCoA.
  2. B) fatty acyl-SCoA.
  3. C) carnitine.
  4. D) ATP.
  5. E) glycerol 3-phosphate

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

 

51) Fatty acid synthesis occurs in the ________.

  1. A) cytosol
  2. B) mitochondria
  3. C) cell membrane
  4. D) endoplasmic reticulum
  5. E) cell nucleus

Answer:  A

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

 

52) The synthesis of fatty acids

  1. A) takes place by simply the reverse reactions of the fatty acid spiral.
  2. B) takes place in the same location within a cell as the fatty acid spiral.
  3. C) takes place by different reactions than the reverse of the fatty acid spiral and in a different cellular location.
  4. D) More than one response is correct.
  5. E) No response is correct.

Answer:  C

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

53) The formation of malonyl CoA from acetyl CoA and CO2 also requires the presence of

  1. A) cyclic AMP.
  2. B) ATP.
  3. C) glucose.
  4. D) FAD.

Answer:  B

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

 

 

54) Compare the processes of β-oxidation of fatty acids and lipogenesis of fatty acids.

Answer:

 

Note also that different enzymes are used in each pathway.

Diff: 2

Section:  24.8

 

Match the following.

 

  1. A) results from increased concentrations of ketone bodies in the blood
  2. B) the catabolic reaction in which fatty acids are broken down two carbons at a time
  3. C) the anabolic process of synthesizing fatty acids
  4. D) presence of ketone bodies in the urine

 

55) beta oxidation

Diff: 1

Section:  24.5

 

56) lipogenesis

Diff: 1

Section:  24.8

 

57) ketoacidosis

Diff: 1

Section: 24.8

 

58) ketonuria

Diff: 1

Section:  24.8

 

Answers: 55) B   56) C   57) A   58) D