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Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

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Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321927040

ISBN-10: 0321927044

 

 

Description

Human Anatomy and Physiology 10th Edition Marieb Hoehn Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0321927040

ISBN-10: 0321927044

 

 

 

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Human Anatomy & Physiology, 10e, (Marieb)

Chapter 24   Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temperature Regulation

 

24.1   Matching Questions

 

Figure 24.1

 

Using Figure 24.1, match the following:

  1. A) B
  2. B) D
  3. C) E
  4. D) A
  5. E) C

 

1) Ten-step enzymatically driven process that converts glucose into pyruvic acid.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

 

2) Occurs via substrate-level phosphorylation.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

3) Produces the CO2 involved during glucose oxidation.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

4) Where the hydrogen atoms removed during the oxidation of food fuels are combined with O2.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

5) Contains ATP synthase rotor rings.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

6) ATP formed by oxidative phosphorylation.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

7) Involves sugar activation, sugar cleavage, and oxidation and ATP formation.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

Answers: 1) D 2) B 3) A 4) E 5) E 6) C 7) D

 

Match the following:

  1. A) Glycolysis
  2. B) Citric acid (Krebs) cycle
  3. C) Electron transport chain

 

8) Glucose serves as the initial reactant.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

9) Involves the removal of hydrogen electrons and CO2 from the substrate molecule.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

10) Occurs in the cytosol of a cell.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

11) Produces the most ATP.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

12) Involves the use of oxygen to pick up excess hydrogen and electrons.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 8) A 9) B 10) A 11) C 12) C

 

Match the following:

  1. A) glycolysis
  2. B) glycogenolysis
  3. C) gluconeogenesis
  4. D) glycogenesis

 

13) Breakdown of glycogen to release glucose.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

14) Formation of glucose from proteins or fats.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

15) Storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

16) Breakdown of glucose to pyruvic acid.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 13) C 14) B 15) D 16) A

 

Match the following:

  1. A) beta oxidation
  2. B) lipolysis
  3. C) ketogenesis
  4. D) lipogenesis

 

17) Synthesis of lipids from glucose or amino acids.

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

18) Splitting of triglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids.

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

19) Conversion of fatty acids into acetyl groups.

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

20) Formation of ketone bodies.

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.19

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 17) D 18) B 19) A 20) C

 

Match the following:

  1. A) radiation
  2. B) evaporation
  3. C) convection
  4. D) conduction

 

21) Heat transfer into the chair you are sitting on.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

22) Heat exchange when you are under a ceiling fan.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

23) Heat loss in the form of infrared waves.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

24) Heat loss during sweating.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

Answers: 21) D 22) C 23) A 24) B

 

 

24.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Beta oxidation is the initial phase of fatty acid oxidation, and it occurs in the cytoplasm.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

2) The increased use of noncarbohydrate molecules for energy to conserve glucose is called glucose sparing.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

3) Except for lactose and some glycogen, the carbohydrates we ingest are mainly from animals.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.3

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

4) The term essential nutrient refers to the chemicals that can be interconverted in the liver so that the body can maintain life and good health.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.1

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

5) The most abundant dietary lipids in the diets of most Americans are triglycerides.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.4

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

 

6) There are NO nutritionally complete proteins. All animal products should be eaten with plant material to make a nutritionally complete protein.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.5

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

7) The body is considered to be in nitrogen balance when the amount of nitrogen ingested in lipids equals the amount excreted in urine.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

8) The amount of protein needed by each person is determined by their age, size, metabolic rate, and the need to build new proteins (whether the body is in positive nitrogen balance).

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

9) Vitamins are inorganic compounds that are essential for growth and good health.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.2

Learning Outcome:  24.8

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

10) Cellular respiration is an anabolic process.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

 

11) The preferred energy fuel for the brain is fat.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

12) Glycogenesis begins when ATP levels are high, and glucose entering cells is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate and converted to its isomer, glucose-1-phosphate.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

13) Glycogen accounts for 80-85% of stored energy in the body.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

14) In order for amino acids to be oxidized for energy, the amine group (NH2) must be removed.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.6

Learning Outcome:  24.20

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

15) When blood glucose levels are low, the body begins to use more noncarbohydrate fuels for energy production. This process is called glucose activation.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

 

16) Processes that break down complex molecules into simpler ones are anabolic.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

17) For use as fuel, all food carbohydrates are eventually transformed to glucose.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

18) Triglycerides and cholesterol do NOT circulate freely in the bloodstream.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

19) The major role of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) is to store energy in the form of fat.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

20) It would not be healthy to eliminate all fats from your diet because they serve a useful purpose in maintaining the body.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

21) Carbohydrate and fat pools are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy, but amino acid pools must first be converted to a carbohydrate intermediate before being sent through cellular respiration pathways.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.22

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

22) High levels of HDLs are considered good.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

23) Diets high in cholesterol and saturated fats tend to produce high HDL concentrations.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

24) Ghrelin, produced by the stomach, is a powerful appetite stimulant.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.9

Learning Outcome:  24.27

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

25) Peptides called NPY (neuropeptide Y) and AgRP (agouti-related peptides) are powerful appetite enhancers.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.9

Learning Outcome:  24.27

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

 

26) The primary function of carbohydrates is energy production within cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

1.3   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood cells is ________.

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) protein
  3. C) fat
  4. D) acetyl CoA

Answer:  A

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

2) Which of the choices below is NOT a fate of carbohydrate taken into the body?

  1. A) amino acid synthesis
  2. B) direct conversion to a nucleic acid
  3. C) lipogenesis
  4. D) ATP production
  5. E) glycogenesis

Answer:  B

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.22

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

3) Which of the following is the major role of leptin in the body?

  1. A) protect against weight loss during nutritional deprivation
  2. B) increase appetite and food intake
  3. C) promote weight loss with activity
  4. D) shrink fat stores

Answer:  B

Section:  24.9

Learning Outcome:  24.27

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

4) Cholesterol, though it is NOT an energy molecule, has importance in the body because it ________.

  1. A) is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of steroid hormones
  2. B) helps mobilize fats during periods of starvation
  3. C) helps provide essential nutrients to the brain and lungs
  4. D) enters the glycolytic pathway without being altered

Answer:  A

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

5) Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?

  1. A) derived from meat and fish only
  2. B) must contain all the body’s amino acid requirements for tissue maintenance and growth
  3. C) derived only from legumes and other plant material
  4. D) meets all the minimum daily requirements for a healthy diet

Answer:  B

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.5

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

6) The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

  1. A) a measure of carbohydrate utilization, typically involving measurement of calories
  2. B) the number of calories it takes to keep from shivering on a cold day
  3. C) the sum of all biochemical reactions in the body
  4. D) the length of time it takes to digest and absorb fats

Answer:  C

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

7) When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is mostly ________.

  1. A) ammonia
  2. B) ketone bodies
  3. C) urea
  4. D) acetyl CoA

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Learning Outcome:  24.20

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

8) It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

  1. A) very few foods contain vitamins
  2. B) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients
  3. C) all vitamins are water soluble and pass out of the body too quickly to ensure utilization
  4. D) vitamins provide protection against the common cold

Answer:  B

Section:  24.2

Learning Outcome:  24.9

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

9) Minerals required by the body in moderate amounts include all of the following EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) sulfur and potassium
  2. B) sodium and chlorine
  3. C) calcium and phosphorus
  4. D) iron and selenium

Answer:  D

Section:  24.2

Learning Outcome:  24.10

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

10) Which of the choices below describes the pathway of cellular respiration (the complete oxidation of glucose)?

  1. A) lipolysis, glycogenolysis, beta oxidation
  2. B) glycogenesis, lipogenesis, electron transport chain
  3. C) glycolysis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation
  4. D) gluconeogenesis, citric acid (Krebs) cycle, lipolysis

Answer:  C

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

11) Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

  1. A) structural proteins are used as a potential energy source
  2. B) ketone bodies are formed
  3. C) carbohydrate utilization increases
  4. D) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

Answer:  D

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

12) Catabolism would be best described as a process that ________.

  1. A) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones
  2. B) elevates glucagon levels
  3. C) builds up triglycerides during the postabsorptive state
  4. D) causes a decline in circulating ketone bodies

Answer:  A

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

13) The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

  1. A) break down food molecules and generate ATP
  2. B) provide the body with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals
  3. C) efficiently monitor the energy needs of the body
  4. D) determine the amount of heat needed by the human body

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

14) The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.

  1. A) fat utilization
  2. B) lipogenesis
  3. C) gluconeogenesis
  4. D) lipolysis

Answer:  D

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

15) Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

  1. A) oxidative phosphorylation
  2. B) oxidation reactions
  3. C) lactic acid production
  4. D) substrate-level phosphorylation

Answer:  A

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.15

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

16) Lipogenesis occurs when ________.

  1. A) glucose levels drop slightly
  2. B) excess proteins are transported through the cell membrane
  3. C) there is a shortage of fatty acids
  4. D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

Answer:  D

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

17) Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

  1. A) muscles
  2. B) brain
  3. C) liver
  4. D) blood

Answer:  C

Section:  24.6

Learning Outcome:  24.20

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

18) Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

  1. A) period when the metabolic rate is lowest
  2. B) postabsorptive state
  3. C) starvation period
  4. D) absorptive state

Answer:  D

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

19) Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting center?

  1. A) vasodilation of cutaneous blood vessels
  2. B) sympathetic sweat gland activation
  3. C) increase in ADH production
  4. D) release of epinephrine

Answer:  D

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS3

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

20) Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

  1. A) glucose is converted into carbon dioxide and water
  2. B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate molecules
  3. C) glycogen is formed
  4. D) glycogen is broken down to release glucose

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

21) Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

  1. A) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid
  2. B) conversion of glucose into carbon dioxide and water
  3. C) formation of sugar
  4. D) conversion of pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and water

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

22) What is the outcome of ketosis?

  1. A) glucogenesis
  2. B) water retention and edema
  3. C) metabolic acidosis
  4. D) glycogen buildup
  5. E) metabolic alkalosis

Answer:  C

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.19

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

23) Which of the choices below happens during the absorptive state?

  1. A) Only glucose metabolism occurs.
  2. B) Catabolic processes exceed anabolic ones.
  3. C) Anabolic processes exceed catabolic ones.
  4. D) No metabolism occurs.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

24) In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the body for all of the following EXCEPT ________.

  1. A) production of enzymes, clotting factors, and antibodies
  2. B) production of energy
  3. C) formation of functional molecules like hemoglobin and cytochromes
  4. D) production of some hormones

Answer:  B

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

25) The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

  1. A) phospholipids
  2. B) fatty acids
  3. C) triglycerides
  4. D) cholesterol

Answer:  C

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.4

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

26) The ingestion of which nutrient type results in the greatest food-induced thermogenesis?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) vitamins
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) lipids

Answer:  C

Section:  24.10

Learning Outcome:  24.28

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

27) Which hormone directs essentially all the events of the absorptive state?

  1. A) epinephrine
  2. B) growth hormone
  3. C) thyroid hormone
  4. D) insulin

Answer:  D

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

28) Prostaglandins play a role in ________.

  1. A) noninflammatory responses
  2. B) control of blood volume
  3. C) skeletal muscle contraction
  4. D) control of blood pressure

Answer:  D

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

29) As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, the ________ continues to burn glucose while virtually every other organ in the body switches to fatty acids as its major energy source.

  1. A) pancreas
  2. B) spleen
  3. C) liver
  4. D) brain

Answer:  D

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

30) In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted to glucose.

  1. A) glucagon
  2. B) glycerol
  3. C) glycogen
  4. D) acetyl Co A

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

31) In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.

  1. A) pyruvic acid
  2. B) oxaloacetic acid
  3. C) glyceraldehyde
  4. D) ammonia

Answer:  D

Section:  24.6

Learning Outcome:  24.20

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

32) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat production?

  1. A) enhanced thyroxine release
  2. B) sweating
  3. C) vasoconstriction of cutaneous blood vessels
  4. D) shivering

Answer:  B

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

33) Heat-loss mechanisms do NOT include ________.

  1. A) reducing activity
  2. B) the evaporation of sweat
  3. C) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels
  4. D) behavior measures such as wearing light, loose clothing

Answer:  C

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

34) The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in determining basal metabolic rate (BMR).

  1. A) prolactin
  2. B) norepinephrine
  3. C) ADH
  4. D) thyroxine

Answer:  D

Section:  24.10

Learning Outcome:  24.28

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

35) When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates increased metabolism of ________.

  1. A) amino acids
  2. B) lactic acid
  3. C) glycogen
  4. D) fatty acids

Answer:  D

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.19

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

36) Many factors influence basal metabolic rate (BMR). What is the most critical factor?

  1. A) an individual’s body weight
  2. B) the way skeletal muscles break down glycogen
  3. C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body
  4. D) the way an individual metabolizes fat

Answer:  C

Section:  24.10

Learning Outcome:  24.28

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

37) The ________ acts as the body’s thermostat.

  1. A) hypothalamus
  2. B) skin
  3. C) liver
  4. D) epithalamus

Answer:  A

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

38) Which of the choices below is NOT a mechanism of heat transfer used by the body?

  1. A) shivering
  2. B) evaporation
  3. C) conduction/convection
  4. D) radiation

Answer:  A

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

39) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) Excess carbohydrate and fat can be stored as such, whereas excess amino acids are oxidized for energy or converted to fat or glycogen for storage.
  2. B) Fats and carbohydrates are oxidized directly to produce cellular energy.
  3. C) The amino acid pool is the body’s total supply of amino acids in the body’s proteins.
  4. D) Amino acids can be used to supply energy only after being converted to a citric acid cycle intermediate.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.22

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

40) Which of the following is a source of complex carbohydrates?

  1. A) soda
  2. B) fruit juice
  3. C) potatoes
  4. D) pudding

Answer:  C

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.3

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

41) Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when metabolized?

  1. A) vitamins and minerals
  2. B) proteins
  3. C) foods and beverages high in caffeine
  4. D) fats

Answer:  D

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

42) Which of the following does NOT occur in the mitochondria?

  1. A) glycolysis
  2. B) electron transport
  3. C) formation of malic acid from fumaric acid
  4. D) citric acid (Krebs) cycle

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

43) Which of the following is NOT true of beta oxidation?

  1. A) Fatty acids are broken into acetic acid fragments.
  2. B) It involves the anabolism of fats.
  3. C) It occurs in the mitochondria.
  4. D) The carbon in the beta (third) position is oxidized during the process.

Answer:  B

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.18

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

44) Select the correct statement about proteins.

  1. A) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are ingested.
  2. B) All proteins can be synthesized in the body if most of the amino acids are present.
  3. C) Strict vegetarians need not worry about adequate protein intake, as most vegetables are almost perfect sources of amino acids.
  4. D) Catabolic steroids (hormones) accelerate the rate of protein synthesis.

Answer:  A

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.7

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

45) Oxidation reduction reactions ________.

  1. A) occur via the gain of hydrogen or the loss of oxygen
  2. B) utilize hydrogenases
  3. C) are rarely coupled together
  4. D) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

Answer:  D

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.13

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

46) What process primes a molecule to change in a way that increases its activity, produces motion, or does work?

  1. A) beta oxidation
  2. B) cellular respiration
  3. C) phosphorylation
  4. D) glycolysis

Answer:  C

Section:  24.3

Learning Outcome:  24.12

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

47) Which of the choices below is NOT a source of blood glucose during the postabsorptive state?

  1. A) absorption of glucose from the GI tract
  2. B) glycogenolysis in the liver
  3. C) lipolysis in adipose tissues and the liver
  4. D) catabolism of cellular protein

Answer:  A

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

48) Which of the following is correct?

  1. A) Most of the ATP are produced by substrate-level phosphorylation.
  2. B) Glycolysis relies on substrate-level oxidation for the four ATP produced in this pathway.
  3. C) Each FADH2 yields about 1.5 ATP via oxidative phosphorylation.
  4. D) Most ATP from cellular respiration are produced directly in the citric acid (Krebs) cycle.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

49) Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

  1. A) egg yolk, fish roe, and grains
  2. B) corn, cottonseed oil, soy oil, and wheat germ
  3. C) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish
  4. D) lima beans, kidney beans, nuts, and cereals

Answer:  C

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.5

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

50) Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include ________.

  1. A) ammonia combining with oxygen to form urea
  2. B) adequate essential amino acids
  3. C) adequate fat calories to provide adequate ATP formation
  4. D) excessive amounts of protein in the diet

Answer:  D

Section:  24.6

Learning Outcome:  24.20

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

51) Glucose can be obtained from ________.

  1. A) triglyceride anabolism
  2. B) glycogenolysis
  3. C) lipogenesis
  4. D) protein anabolism

Answer:  B

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  1 Knowledge

 

52) Which of the following is NOT a function of low-density-lipoproteins (LDLs)?

  1. A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver
  2. B) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for membrane formation
  3. C) make cholesterol available to tissue cells for hormone synthesis
  4. D) assist in the storage of cholesterol when supply exceeds demand

Answer:  A

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

53) Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

  1. A) A negative nitrogen balance is normal and is a way of maintaining homeostasis.
  2. B) It is a condition usually caused by having a diet low in fish and meat.
  3. C) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.
  4. D) It occurs when amino acids are broken down by liver enzymes and carried to the bloodstream.

Answer:  C

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.6

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

54) Red blood cells lack mitochondria. As a result, ATP production is solely through ________.

  1. A) glycolysis
  2. B) electron transport chain
  3. C) citric acid (Krebs) cycle
  4. D) aerobic respiration

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

55) In India, rice is a large part of the diet. Lack of which vitamin in rice would lead to higher levels of blindness in this population?

  1. A) vitamin A
  2. B) vitamin E
  3. C) vitamin C
  4. D) vitamin D

Answer:  A

Section:  24.2

Learning Outcome:  24.9

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

56) Which term describes the action of an endurance runner the night before the race as she “carbo-loads” when eating a large pasta dinner?

  1. A) glycogenesis
  2. B) glycogenolysis
  3. C) glycolysis
  4. D) gluconeogenesis

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.17

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

57) Several hours after your last meal, declining blood glucose levels stimulate release of the hormone ________, which stimulates glycogenolysis, lipolysis and fat mobilization, and gluconeogenesis.

  1. A) glucagon
  2. B) thyroxine
  3. C) cortisol
  4. D) insulin

Answer:  A

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

58) At the conclusion of glycolysis, most of glucose’s chemical energy is found in the ________.

  1. A) NADH
  2. B) ATP
  3. C) acetyl CoA
  4. D) pyruvic acid molecules

Answer:  D

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

59) While traveling abroad in Africa you observe a large number of people with goiter (enlarged thyroid). Which mineral deficiency could be responsible for this?

  1. A) iodine
  2. B) chromium
  3. C) fluorine
  4. D) iron

Answer:  A

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

60) A recent health screening revealed a low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) level over 130. Which of the following should be prescribed?

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) statins
  3. C) iron
  4. D) glucagon

Answer:  B

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

 

1.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) A friend expresses concern that their family hardly ever consumes fruits and vegetables and is not eating healthy. Use the USDA’s MyPlate food guide to help your friend understand how to improve this family’s diet.

Answer:  The USDA’s guidelines are represented by a dinner plate that suggests how to plan meals relative to amounts and varieties of foods from each group. The plate depicts approximately 30% grains, 30% vegetables, 20% fruits, and 20% protein. A cup nearby represents dairy. The plate illustrates that half of your foods should be fruits and vegetables. Many people consume less than this recommended amount.

Section:  24.1

Learning Outcome:  24.2

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

2) Your car breaks down along the highway on a cold winter afternoon. As you wait for help to arrive, the temperature drops significantly inside the car. Describe two involuntary adjustments an adult body will make in order to maintain core body temperature.

Answer:  1. Constriction of cutaneous blood vessels: Sympathetic fibers cause vasoconstriction of the blood vessels in skin in order to reduce heat otherwise lost through radiation from the skin. 2. Shivering: Brain centers controlling muscle tone are activated which eventually cause heat generation from the involuntary contraction of skeletal muscles.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS3, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application

 

3) What are the four mechanisms of heat exchange and how are they defined?

Answer:  (1) Radiation is the loss of heat as thermal energy. (2) Conduction is the transfer of heat between objects that are in direct contact with each other. (3) Convection is the process of replacing the warm air around the body with cooler air and thus removing body heat. (4) Evaporation cools by removing large amounts of heat as water changes state from liquid to gas.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

4) Define amino acid pool and explain how the pool is maintained even though we excrete amino acids daily.

Answer:  The amino acid pool consists of the body’s total supply of free amino acids needed to resynthesize body proteins. Even though a small amount of amino acids and proteins is lost daily in urine, these are replaced through diet. If they are not replaced, the amino acids resulting from tissue breakdown become a part of the pool.

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.22

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

5) Megadoses of vitamin supplements may have serious consequences. Extreme excess of which vitamin group, water or fat soluble, is most likely to cause serious health problems, and why?

Answer:  Fat-soluble vitamins are most likely to cause serious health problem such as damage to the brain, kidneys, liver, bone, and cardiovascular system, because they are stored in the body and excesses are not removed.

Section:  24.2

Learning Outcome:  24.9

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

6) What is obesity, and what health problems accompany or follow its onset?

Answer:  Obesity is a BMI (body mass index) greater than 30. Health problems accompanying or following obesity include a higher incidence of arteriosclerosis, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and diabetes mellitus.

Section:  24.9

Learning Outcome:  24.27

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

7) How is the postabsorptive state controlled and initiated?

Answer:  The postabsorptive state is controlled by the interaction of the sympathetic nervous system and several hormones, especially glucagon. The trigger for initiating postabsorptive events is damping of insulin release, which occurs as blood glucose levels begin to drop. Insulin levels decline, and the insulin-induced cellular responses are inhibited.

Section:  24.7

Learning Outcome:  24.23

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

8) What is the significance of the fact that monosaccharides are phosphorylated immediately upon entry into cells?

Answer:  Monosaccharides are phosphorylated immediately upon entry into cells so that entry into metabolic pathways is possible. Additionally, phosphorylation, to change the structure of glucose, allows the maintenance of a diffusion gradient for simple glucose. Phosphorylation also prevents glucose from leaving the cell.

Section:  24.4

Learning Outcome:  24.16

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

 

1.5   Clinical Questions

 

1) After chopping wood for about 2 hours on a hot but breezy afternoon, John stumbled into the house and immediately fainted. His T-shirt was wringing wet with perspiration, and his pulse was faint and rapid. What is your tentative diagnosis? Explain your reasoning and note what you should do to help John’s recovery.

Answer:  John was suffering from heat exhaustion due to excessive loss of body fluids (indicated by his wet T-shirt); his low blood pressure; and cool, clammy skin. To help his recovery, he should be given fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy and should be cooled down.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  4 Analysis

 

2) Harry is hospitalized with bacterial pneumonia. When you visit him, his teeth are chattering, his skin is cool and clammy to the touch, and he complains of feeling cold, even though the room is quite warm. Explain his symptoms.

Answer:  Harry’s symptoms indicate a fever caused by his bacterial pneumonia. The white cells battling the pneumonia release pyrogens that act directly on the hypothalamus, causing its neurons to release prostaglandins. The prostaglandins reset the hypothalamic thermostat to a higher temperature, causing the body to initiate heat-promoting mechanisms including shivering and vasoconstriction that causes a decline of heat loss from the body surface, cooling of the skin, and shivering.

Section:  24.11

Learning Outcome:  24.30

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS3, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  4 Analysis

 

3) The patient is a 28-year-old female with type-1 diabetes mellitus. She developed viral gastroenteritis with nausea and vomiting. She did not take her insulin and she became increasingly nonresponsive. Her husband called 911 and she was taken to the emergency room. Her pulse rate was 128 and her respiratory rate was 28, deep, and smelled fruity (Kussmaul breathing). Her urinary glucose and ketone levels were both 4+. Her pH was dangerously low. Explain how the body attempted to compensate for the low serum pH.

Answer:  Ketosis leads to metabolic acidosis. The deep, rapid respirations were the body’s attempt to compensate for the extremely low pH by blowing off CO2, resulting in less carbonic acid that in turn caused pH to rise.

Section:  24.5

Learning Outcome:  24.19

Global LO:  G2, G7, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS5, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  4 Analysis

 

4) What are four possible complications of obesity from a medical standpoint?

Answer:  Obesity contributes to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus; the obese also have a higher incidence of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart disease, and osteoarthritis.

Section:  24.9

Learning Outcome:  24.27

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  2 Comprehension

 

5) The patient is 52 years old and has a history of hypertension. His cholesterol level is 245. He states his job is very stressful and he is recently going through a divorce. He admits to being overweight and has an inactive lifestyle. His father died of a stroke at age 60. He is worried about having a heart attack and/or stroke and wishes to change his lifestyle. Among other advice, the nurse encourages the patient to eat more cold-water fish such as salmon. Explain why eating more fish would be of benefit for this patient.

Answer:  The omega-3 fatty acids in cold-water fish lower the proportions of both saturated fats and cholesterol, make blood platelets less sticky, thus helping to prevent spontaneous clotting that can block blood vessels and they also appear to lower blood pressure.

Section:  24.8

Learning Outcome:  24.25

Global LO:  G2, G8

HAPS LO:  HAPS1, HAPS6, HAPS11

Bloom’s Level:  3 Application