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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 6th Edition Johnson Test Bank

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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 6th Edition Johnson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 9780321701671

 

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Human Biology Concepts and Current Issues 6th Edition Johnson Test Bank

ISBN-13: 9780321701671

 

 

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Chapter 13

Exam
Name___________________________________
MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.
1)
The international pharmaceutical giant Eli Lilly & Company announced its decision to halt
1)
production of inhaled insulin product because
A)
the potential for profit from the product was deemed too low even if used by many diabetics.
B)
the public displayed virtually no interest in using the product.
C)
the powdered hormone was found to be potentially toxic to many individuals, particularly
children.
D)
the product never gained full approval from the Food and Drug Administration.
E)
All of the above are correct.
Answer:
B
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2)
Hormones are specific to particular tissues because
2)
A)
they will only interact with target cells at a synpase.
B)
they can only be released following depolarization of the target cell.
C)
they are released next to target tissues, so they cannot interact with other cells.
D)
target tissues display the appropriate receptor for a particular hormone.
E)
All of the above are correct.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3)
Uptake of blood glucose by liver cells is stimulated by
3)
A)
insulin.
B)
glucagon.
C)
ADH.
D)
prolactin.
E)
parathyroid hormone.
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
1
4)
Until recently, athletes who have attempted to cheat by taking growth hormone (GH) thought it
4)

was undetectable. However, anti
doping agencies can now detect in blood samples because
A)
the synthetic form of GH does not bind to the same cell receptors that natural GH does.
B)
synthetic GH is structurally unique compared to the naturally produced hormone.
C)
all major sports leagues in the world have agreed to at least random testing of athletes for GH.
D)
the body produces multiple forms of the hormone, so by comparing the ratios of these
different forms, it is possible to determine whether a pure synthetic form is present.
E)
synthetic GH will bind fluorescent beads, whereas naturally produced hormone does not, and
thus a blood sample can be examined for fluorescence.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5)
Insulin helps regulate blood sugar at homeostatic levels by
5)
A)
promoting the entry of glucose into cells.
B)
stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
C)
stimulating alpha cells of the pancreas to produce more hormone.
D)
activating hormone production in the posterior pituitary gland.
E)
promoting the breakdown of fat.
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6)
Which of the following is true regarding estrogen and progesterone?
6)
A)
They stimulate development of female secondary sex characteristics.
B)
They regulate the menstrual cycle.
C)
They are released during a female’s reproductive years.
D)
They are secreted by the ovaries.
E)
A
ll of the above are correct.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
2
7)
Which of the following is required in the diet in order for active thyroid hormones to be produced?
7)
A)
phosphorus
B)
zinc
C)
iodine
D)
calcium
E)
iron
Answer:
C
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8)
An individual, driving through his neighborhood, suddenly jams on his car brakes to avoid hitting
8)
a child who runs into the road after a ball. A few seconds later, the driver finds that he is shaking
and his heart is pounding. This is primarily due to the secretion of
A)
norepinephrine from the adrenal cortex.
B)
thyroxine from the thyroid.
C)
insulin from the pancreas.
D)
epinephrine from the adrenal medulla.
E)
cortisol from the adrenal cortex.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
9)
Hyposecretion of ADH results in
9)
A)
diabetes insipidus
.

B)
over
stimulation of cell division.
C)
reduced uptake of
blood glucose.
D)
stimulation of protein synthesis.
E)
an
increase in the mass and length of bones.
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
3
10)
Nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones in that
10)
A)
they bind to an intracellular receptor.
B)
they activate enzymes in the cell membrane.
C)
they are water insoluble.
D)
they bind to a receptor on the outer surface of the cell membrane.
E)
they cause a change to occur in the target cell.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
11)
Which of the following organs is part of the forebrain?
11)
A)
hypothalamus
B)
anterior pituitary
C)
thyroid
D)
posterior pituitary
E)
thymus
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
12)
Thyroxine is released from the thyroid gland in response to the presence of
12)
A)
FSH.
B)
ACTH.
C)
TSH.
D)
LH.
E)
GH.
Answer:
C
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
13)
The anterior pituitary gland produces
13)
A)
PRL.
B)
LH.
C)
TSH.
D)
ACTH.
E)
A
ll of the above are correct.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
4
14)
During times of stress, the ________ releases CRH to stimulate the anterior pituitary to release
14)
cortisol.
A)
adrenal medulla
B)
hypothalamus
C)
anterior pituitary
D)
pancreas
E)
posterior pituitary
Answer:
B
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
15)
Luteinizing hormone is considered a gonadotropin because
15)
A)
it triggers the production of gonadotropin hormones.
B)
it stimulates the growth but not the development of gonads in males.
C)
it promotes growth of reproductive organs in both males and females.
D)
it stimulates the growth and development of gonads, but only in females.
E)
it functions to complement the activity of TSH.
Answer:
C
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
16)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned that glucose monitoring devices are
16)
inaccurate by as much as 30% between different manufacturers. However, if the FDA requires new
standards for these devices, a potential new problem arises.
A)
There is no agency responsible for checking the accuracy of the devices in the first place,
therefore there will be no way of knowing that the devices are actually more accurate.
B)
With increased accuracy, far more people may be diagnosed with type I diabetes.
C)
The cost of glucose monitoring devices will increase, potentially leading some people to stop
using them all together.
D)
With increased accuracy, far more people may be diagnosed with type II diabetes.
E)
More sophisticated monitoring devices will require more complicated calibration for the
units.
Answer:
C
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
5
17)
The ovaries of women function as endocrine organs by producing
17)
A)
estrogen and progesterone.
B)
ADH.
C)
oxytocin.
D)
growth hormone.
E)
prostaglandins.
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
18)
The thymus produces two peptides that function to
18)
A)
regulate thyroxine release.
B)
increase blood calcium levels.
C)
promote the break down of bone.
D)
regulate iodine levels in the thyroid.
E)
aid in the maturation of T lymphocytes.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
19)
When oxytocin is released during childbirth, the hormone targets cells in the
19)
A)
breasts.
B)
kidney.
C)
uterus.
D)
hypothalamus.
E)
both the
breasts and uterus.
Answer:
C
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
20)
FSH is a hormone important to the proper functioning of the ovary. This hormone will not be
20)
released from the anterior pituitary until ________ is released from the hypothalamus.
A)
LH
B)
PRL
C)
TSH
D)
ACTH
E)
GnRH
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
6
21)
During negative feedback control of thyroxine secretion
21)
A)
a drop in thyroxine plasma concentration results in a suppression of hypothalamus activity.
B)
a rise in TSH levels stimulates increases in thyroxine.
C)
increased levels of thyroxine inhibit releasing hormone levels.
D)
a drop in plasma levels of thyroxine increases activity in the thyroid gland if TSH levels also
drop.
E)
a rise in thyroxine inhibits TSH levels.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
22)
Which of the following is caused by the secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone by the heart?
22)
A)
decrease in kidney function
B)
decrease in blood pressure
C)
increase of blood sugar level
D)
increased production of fats and proteins
E)
decrease in blood calcium level
Answer:
B
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
23)
Cortisol is a glucocorticoid that helps maintain blood glucose levels by
23)
A)
stimulating the synthesis of fatty acids.
B)
inhibiting glucose utilization in muscle cells.
C)
promoting the conversion of amino acids into proteins in muscle tissues.
D)
promoting fat utilization.

E)
increasing the glucose
dependent inflammatory response.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
7
24)
The endocrine system has certain characteristics that set it apart from the nervous system. Which
24)
characteristics are typical of the endocrine system, but not the nervous system?
A)
Hormones rely on cell receptors to transfer a message but neurotransmitters do not require
them.
B)
Hormones typically act on any cell they make contact with.
C)
The chemicals used for communication reach nearly every living cell
except brain and
reproductive tissues.
D)
Hormones can interact with the neurons, but neurons cannot communicate with endocrine
cells.
E)
The agents of communication are always in the form of a chemical.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
25)
The following is a list of events involved in the activation of a cell by a steroid hormone. Which of
25)
the following answers best represents the order in which the steps occur?
1. cellular response to the hormone
2. activation of a gene

3. formation of a hormone
receptor complex
4. diffusion of the hormone through a target cell membrane
5. production of a protein
A)
2, 5, 4, 3, 1
B)
5, 3, 4, 1, 2
C)
4, 3, 2, 1, 5
D)
4, 3, 2, 5, 1
E)
2, 5, 1, 3, 4
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
26)
Which of the following hormones stimulates the production of testosterone in males?
26)
A)
LH
B)
FSH
C)
growth hormone
D)
prolactin
E)
aldosterone
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
8
27)
If diabetes is left untreated, which of the following could develop as a result?
27)
A)
kidney failure
B)
blindness
C)
neural disorders
D)
cardiovascular disorders
E)
A
ll of the above are correct.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
28)
Which of the following nonhormonal chemical messengers is important in local control of blood
28)
flow and blood clotting?
A)
prostaglandins
B)
tumor angiogenesis growth factor
C)
nerve growth factor
D)
epidermal growth factor
E)
histamine
Answer:
A
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
29)
The action of nonsteroid hormones often results in conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP, which then
29)
functions
A)
to stimulate the release of the original hormone from the cell surface receptor.
B)
as an enzyme in the generation of ATP.
C)
as an internal receptor for steroid hormones.
D)
as a secondary hormone released into the bloodstream.
E)
to initiate a cascade of enzyme activations.
Answer:
E
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
9
30)
Insufficient production of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary may result in
30)
A)
gigantism.
B)
dwarfism.
C)
acromegaly.
D)
a drop in blood glucose levels.
E)
diabetes insipidus.
Answer:
B
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
31)
A goiter results from low dietary iodine levels
31)
A)
due to ADH levels rising controllably.
B)
as glucagon levels elevate.
C)
due to the activity of the anterior pituitary gland.
D)
because thyroxine cannot be made, which results in high levels of TSH.
E)
because
the hypothalamus cannot be inhibited without iodine.
Answer:
D
Explanation:
A)
B)
C)
D)
E)
SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.
32)
________ of growth hormone results in pituitary dwarfism.
32)
Answer:
Hyposecretion
Explanation:
33)
________ cells function in both the nervous and endocrine systems.
33)
Answer:
Neuroendocrine
Explanation:
34)
Agromegaly is caused by hypersecretion of ________ hormone in adults.
34)
Answer:
growth
Explanation:
35)
Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are carried to the anterior
35)
pituitary gland by the ________.
Answer:
pituitary portal system
Explanation:
10
Figure 13.2
Match each event labeled on the graph with the description of what is occurring in relation to blood glucose levels.
36)
pancreas stops secretion of insulin
36)
Answer:
D
Explanation:
37)
Hormones important in maintaining homeostasis are generally part of a ________ feedback
37)
loop.
Answer:
negative
Explanation:
38)
Although most of the estrogen and testosterone produced in the human body is made by
38)
the ovaries and testes respectively, small amounts of these hormones are also produced by
the ________.
Answer:
adrenal cortex
Explanation:
39)
The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in small groupings throughout the organ
39)
known as the ________.
Answer:
islets of Langerhans
Explanation:
11
Figure 13.1
Using the figure above, identify each endocrine gland (A

G).
40)
thyroid gland
40)
Answer:
B
Explanation:
41)
A student just finished a delicious breakfast of pancakes with syrup, orange juice, and
41)
Danish pastries. Because his blood sugar level has increased, the pancreas will secrete
________.
Answer:
insulin
Explanation:
42)
Lymphocytes mature into T cells within the ________.
42)
Answer:
thymus
Explanation:
43)
The pineal gland secretes ________, also known as the “hormone of darkness.”
43)
Answer:
melatonin
Explanation:
44)
Neuroendocrine cells are located in the ________.
44)
Answer:
hypothalamus
Explanation:
12
45)
The effect of parathyroid hormone is to ________ blood calcium levels.
45)
Answer:
raise
Explanation:
Figure 13.1
Using the figure above, identify each endocrine gland (A

G).
46)
testes
46)
Answer:
G
Explanation:
47)
Nonsteroid hormones require a ________ on the cell surface to communicate with cells.
47)
Answer:
receptor
Explanation:
48)
Nonsteroid hormones are ________ acting than steroid hormones because they activate
48)
enzyme cascades within a cell.
Answer:
faster
Explanation:
49)
Steroid hormones depend on receptors inside the cell because these hormones are
49)
________.

Answer:
lipid
soluble
Explanation:
13
Figure 13.2
Match each event labeled on the graph with the description of what is occurring in relation to blood glucose levels.
50)
glucagon secretion is inhibited
50)
Answer:
A
Explanation:
Figure 13.1
Using the figure above, identify each endocrine gland (A

G).
51)
thymus
51)
Answer:
C
Explanation:
14
52)
pancreas
52)
Answer:
E
Explanation:
53)
ovaries
53)
Answer:
F
Explanation:
54)
adrenal gland
54)
Answer:
D
Explanation:
Figure 13.2
Match each event labeled on the graph with the description of what is occurring in relation to blood glucose levels.
55)
adipose tissues use glucose to produce fats for storage
55)
Answer:
C
Explanation:
56)
Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are secreted in response to the presence of
56)
________ from the hypothalamus.
Answer:
releasing hormones
Explanation:
57)
Diabetes type _____ occurs when the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin.
57)
Answer:
1
Explanation:
15
Figure 13.2
Match each event labeled on the graph with the description of what is occurring in relation to blood glucose levels.
58)
peak glucose levels in plasma
58)
Answer:
B
Explanation:
Figure 13.1
Using the figure above, identify each endocrine gland (A

G).
59)
pituitary
59)
Answer:
A
Explanation:
16
TRUE/FALSE. Write ‘T’ if the statement is true and ‘F’ if the statement is false.
60)
During fasting, cortisol promotes utilization of fats by stimulating the conversion of proteins to
60)
amino acids in muscle.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
61)
The secretion of oxytocin during childbirth stimulates ADH release by the anterior pituitary gland.
61)
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
62)
The number of cases of type 2 diabetes is increasing mainly due to an increase in three major risk
62)
factors: obesity, insufficient exercise, and unhealthy diets.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
63)
The alpha, beta, and delta cells located in the islets of Langerhans of the thyroid produce three
63)
different hormones that are important in the regulation of sodium and potassium levels of the
blood.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
64)
Nitric oxide helps regulate the contraction of smooth muscle in the digestive tract as well as local
64)
blood flow in various tissues of the body.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
65)
The levels of potassium and sodium in the body are regulated primarily by the hormone
65)
aldosterone.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
66)
Steroid hormones typically move across the cell and nuclear membranes to bind to receptors in the
66)
nucleus.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
67)
Steroid hormones bind to receptors in the nucleus to activate or deactivate genes.
67)
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
68)
Somatostatin functions to inhibit both insulin and glucagon.
68)
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
69)
When the amount of thyroxine in the body increases, the basal metabolic rate of the body also
69)
increases.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
17
70)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland enhance the response of the
70)
parasympathetic nervous system.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
71)
In females, LH promotes the monthly development of the egg and FSH causes release of the egg
71)
from the ovary.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
72)
In order for all hormones to cause a response, they must first bind to an appropriate receptor on the
72)
target cell’s membrane.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
73)
The responsiveness of cells to calcitonin increases as an individual ages; maximum responsiveness
73)
occurs in elderly individuals as a mechanism to improve the stability and strength of bones.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
74)
Disorders associated with the endocrine system can be caused by problems with hormone
74)
production or lack of receptors for the hormones on the target cells.
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
75)
Insulin helps regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of glucose from glycogen stores.
75)
Answer:
True
False
Explanation:
MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.
Match each of the following hormones to its target organ.
76)
gastrin
A)
stomach
76)
Answer:
A
B)
anterior pituitary
77)
GnRH
77)
Answer:
B
18
Match each of the following hormones to its function:
78)
promotes sodium uptake and
A)
insulin
potassium excretion
78)
Answer:
B
B)
aldosterone
79)
lowers blood calcium levels
C)
calcitonin
79)
Answer:
C
80)
stimulates cell uptake of glucose by
cells throughout the body
80)
Answer:
A
Match each of the following hormones to its target organ.
81)
thyrotropin
A)
kidney
81)
Answer:
E
B)
ovary, testis
82)
ADH
82)
Answer:
A
C)
adrenal cortex
83)
LH
D)
breasts
83)
Answer:
B
E)
thyroid
84)
ACTH
84)
Answer:
C
85)
prolactin
85)
Answer:
D
Match each of the following hormones to its function:
86)
stimulates the release of
A)
oxytocin
glucocorticoids from the adrenal
86)
cortex
B)
ACTH
Answer:
B
87)
causes ejection of milk into ducts

during breast
87)
feeding
Answer:
A
Match each of the following hormones to its target organ.
88)
growth hormone
A)
muscles and bones
88)
Answer:
A
19
Match each of the following hormones to its function:
89)
causes release of the egg from the
A)
LH
ovary
89)
Answer:
A
ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.
90)
Following a very large meal that was loaded with carbohydrates, how would you expect your body to respond
to the excess sugars being absorbed into the bloodstream?
Answer:
The human body must maintain a homeostatic level of sugar in the blood. When the levels become too
high, the pancreas will produce and release the hormone insulin. Insulin functions to stimulate glucose
uptake by almost all cells in the body, thereby reducing the levels of sugar until reaching the “normal”
range.
91)
Nonsteroid hormones cannot cross the plasma membrane of cells, yet still have the ability to influence cell
activity. Explain how this is possible.
Answer:
For most nonsteroid hormones, binding to the cell surface receptor is just the beginning of the cell
changes that will follow. These hormones tend to rely on second messengers
chemical agents that carry
the message provided by the hormone (the first messenger). The second messenger typically activates a
cascade of enzyme driven pathways, which ultimately lead to a change in cell activity.
92)
The endocrine and nervous systems functions to coordinate and regulate the activities of cells and tissues
throughout the body. To achieve these types of control, both systems rely on chemical agents, but the chemicals
function differently at the cellular level. Describe the functional differences between hormones and
neurotransmitters.
Answer:
Hormones travel through blood over long distances, whereas neurotransmitters are released only at
synapses. Neurotransmitters are designed to convey a message very quickly so that an immediate
response can be generated. In contrast, hormones are much slower acting, priming the target for a later
developmental event. Both require receptors to trigger a cellular response, but the specificity of hormones
comes about from unique receptors on target cells throughout the body.
20
Answer Key
Testname: C13
1)
B
2)
D
3)
A
4)
D
5)
A
6)
E
7)
C
8)
D
9)
A
10)
D
11)
A
12)
C
13)
E
14)
B
15)
C
16)
C
17)
A
18)
E
19)
C
20)
E
21)
E
22)
B
23)
D
24)
E
25)
D
26)
A
27)
E
28)
A
29)
E
30)
B
31)
D
32)
Hyposecretion
33)
Neuroendocrine
34)
growth
35)
pituitary portal system
36)
D
37)
negative
38)
adrenal cortex
39)
islets of Langerhans
40)
B
41)
insulin
42)
thymus
43)
melatonin
44)
hypothalamus
45)
raise
46)
G
47)
receptor
48)
faster

49)
lipid
soluble
50)
A
21
Answer Key
Testname: C13
51)
C
52)
E
53)
F
54)
D
55)
C
56)
releasing hormones
57)
1
58)
B
59)
A
60)
TRUE
61)
FALSE
62)
TRUE
63)
FALSE
64)
TRUE
65)
TRUE
66)
TRUE
67)
TRUE
68)
TRUE
69)
TRUE
70)
FALSE
71)
FALSE
72)
FALSE
73)
FALSE
74)
TRUE
75)
FALSE
76)
A
77)
B
78)
B
79)
C
80)
A
81)
E
82)
A
83)
B
84)
C
85)
D
86)
B
87)
A
88)
A
89)
A
90)
The human body must maintain a homeostatic level of sugar in the blood. When the levels become too high, the
pancreas will produce and release the hormone insulin. Insulin functions to stimulate glucose uptake by almost all
cells in the body, thereby reducing the levels of sugar until reaching the “normal” range.
91)
For most nonsteroid hormones, binding to the cell surface receptor is just the beginning of the cell changes that will
follow. These hormones tend to rely on second messengers
chemical agents that carry the message provided by the
hormone (the first messenger). The second messenger typically activates a cascade of enzyme driven pathways, which
ultimately lead to a change in cell activity.
22
Answer Key
Testname: C13
92)
Hormones travel through blood over long distances, whereas neurotransmitters are released only at synapses.
Neurotransmitters are designed to convey a message very quickly so that an immediate response can be generated. In
contrast, hormones are much slower acting, priming the target for a later developmental event. Both require receptors
to trigger a cellular response, but the specificity of hormones comes about from unique receptors on target cells
throughout the body.
23