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# Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology 7th Edition Edmunds Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323073981

ISBN-10: 0323073980

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# Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

**Edmunds: Introduction to Clinical Pharmacology, 7th Edition**

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**Chapter 07: Review of Mathematical Principles**

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**Test Bank**

**MULTIPLE CHOICE**

- The Roman numeral XLII should be interpreted as which of the following numbers?

a. | 492 |

b. | 92 |

c. | 62 |

d. | 42 |

ANS: D

Roman numerals from the values of 1 to 100 are commonly used as units of the apothecary system of weights and measurements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 71 | Box 7-3

OBJ: 2 TOP: Roman Numerals

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- You would interpret 54 as which of the following Roman numerals?

a. | LIV |

b. | CDV |

c. | LVI |

d. | CDX |

ANS: A

Whenever a smaller Roman numeral comes between two larger Roman numerals, subtract the smaller number from the numeral following it: LIV = 54 (50 + [5 – 1] = 54).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 71 | Box 7-3

OBJ: 2 TOP: Roman Numerals

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following represents the number 564 as written in Roman numerals?

a. | CCIV |

b. | DMLIV |

c. | DLXIV |

d. | MLIV |

ANS: C

Roman numerals from the values of 1 to 100 are commonly used as units of apothecary system of weights and measurements.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 71 OBJ: 2

TOP: Roman Numerals KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following correctly represents the mixed number 6 3/4 expressed as an improper fraction?

a. | 27/4 |

b. | 24/3 |

c. | 22/4 |

d. | 18/4 |

ANS: A

To change the mixed number 6 3/4 to an improper fraction, multiply the denominator of the fraction (4) by the whole number (6), add the numerator (3), and place the sum over the denominator (4); that is, (6 ´ 4) + 3 = 24 + 3 = 27 to yield 27/4. An improper fraction has a numerator the same as or larger than the denominator.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 72 OBJ: 3

TOP: Improper Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following complex fractions is the answer to this problem? 1/2 ÷ 200 = ___.

a. | 1/100 |

b. | 200 |

c. | 1/400 |

d. | 100 |

ANS: C

To divide by 200, or by 200/1, simply invert or reverse the numerator (200) and the denominator (1) and multiply by the result, or by 1/200. 1/2 ÷ 200 = 1/2 ÷ 200/1 = 1/2 ´ 1/200 = 1/2 ´ 200 = 1/400.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 72-73 OBJ: 3

TOP: Complex Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is the solution to the problem? 1/16 + 1/2 + 3/8 = ___.

a. | 5/26 |

b. | 15/16 |

c. | 5/16 |

d. | 17/16 |

ANS: B

If the fractions have different denominators, they must be converted to a number that each denominator has in common, or common denominator; 16 is the smallest common denominator (1/16 + 8/16 + 6/16 = 15/16).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 73 OBJ: 3

TOP: Adding Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is the solution to this problem? 2/7 ´ 1/4 ´ 4 = ___.

a. | 7/28 |

b. | 2/7 |

c. | 2/112 |

d. | 16/32 |

ANS: B

When multiplying fractions, reduce all terms to their smallest form to simplify the calculation. When the fractions are in the simplest form, multiply the numerators, and then multiply the denominators.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 73-74 OBJ: 3

TOP: Multiplying Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is a common denominator with 28?

a. | 14 |

b. | 12 |

c. | 11 |

d. | 13 |

ANS: A

Because 28 is a multiple of 14 (14 ´ 2 = 28), it is a common denominator with 14.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 73 OBJ: 3

TOP: Common Denominators KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is the solution to this problem? 3/5 ÷ 1/2 = ___.

a. | 6/5 |

b. | 3/7 |

c. | 3/10 |

d. | 1 1/5 |

ANS: D

To divide a fraction by a fraction, invert (or turn upside down) the fraction that is the divisor, then first multiply the numerators and then the denominators (3/5 ´ 2/1 = 6/5 = 1 1/5).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 74 OBJ: 3

TOP: Dividing Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is another way of expressing 40%?

a. | 40/10 |

b. | 2/5 |

c. | 40/1000 |

d. | 1/5. |

ANS: B

The term percent or the symbol “%” means parts per hundred. Percentages should also be reduced to their lowest common denominator when appropriate (40 ÷ 100 = 0.4 = 4/10; 4/10 ÷ 2 = 2/5).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 76 OBJ: 3

TOP: Percents KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- The fraction 1/4 is correctly expressed as a decimal fraction by which of the following?

a. | 0.02 |

b. | 2.50 |

c. | 0.25 |

d. | 0.40 |

ANS: C

A decimal fraction has a denominator of 10 or a multiple of 10. Instead of a denominator, a decimal point is added to the numerator (1/4 = 25/100 = 0.25).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 74 OBJ: 3

TOP: Decimal Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following represents
*x*in the proportion “10 : 100 :: 5 :*x*”?

a. | 50 |

b. | 25 |

c. | 20 |

d. | 40 |

ANS: A

A proportion is a way of expressing a relationship of equality between two ratios. In other words, the first ratio listed is equal to the second ratio listed, with the product of the extremes (10 and *x* in this example) equaling the product of the means (100 and 5 in this example). The proportion above is read as “10 is to 100 as 5 is to* x*.” The colon (:) means division. The double colon (::) means “as.” Solve as follows: 10/100 = 5/*x*, 10*x* = 500, *x* = 500/10, *x* = 50.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: pp. 75-76 OBJ: 3

TOP: Proportions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following expresses the fraction 9/10 as a percent?

a. | 900% |

b. | 9% |

c. | 90% |

d. | 99% |

ANS: C

To change a fraction to a percent, divide the numerator by the denominator, multiply the quotient (result) by 100, and add a percent sign (%) (9 ÷ 10 = 0.9; 0.9 ´ 100 = 90).

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 76 OBJ: 3

TOP: Percents KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following represents 20% as reduced to its lowest term?

a. | 1/6 |

b. | 1/5 |

c. | 2/5 |

d. | 2/4 |

ANS: B

A percentage converted to a fraction should also be reduced to its lowest common denominator when appropriate; 20% is 20/100 or 1/5.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 74 | Box 7-4

OBJ: 3 TOP: Percents KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following represents 4/8 raised to a higher term?

a. | 8/16 |

b. | 4/16 |

c. | 1/16 |

d. | 2/16 |

ANS: A

The same number may raise fractions to higher terms by multiplying both terms of the fraction.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 72 OBJ: 3

TOP: Fractions KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

** **

** **

** **

** **

**MULTIPLE RESPONSE**

- Which of the following numbers is/are equally divisible by the number 9?
*(Select all that apply.)*

a. | 9 |

b. | 81 |

c. | 84 |

d. | 18 |

ANS: A, B, D

The numbers 9, 81, and 18 can be divided evenly by the number 9. The results (1, 9, and 2, respectively) are expressed in whole numbers.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 71 | Box 7-1

OBJ: 1 TOP: Division KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- The decimal 0.30 is expressed as what percent of 100 and as which of the following common fractions?
*(Select all that apply.)*

a. | 0.30% |

b. | 30% |

c. | 1/3 |

d. | 3/10 |

ANS: B, D

To change a decimal to a percent, move the decimal point two places to the right, and add the % sign. To change a decimal to a common fraction, omit the decimal point, place the number over the appropriate denominator (100), and reduce to the lowest terms.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Application REF: p. 77 | Box 7-4

OBJ: 3 TOP: Changing Decimals

KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following represents a step in the process of changing 2/5 to a percentage of 40%?
*(Select all that apply.)*

a. | Add a percent sign. |

b. | 5 ÷ 2. |

c. | 2 ÷ 5. |

d. | Multiply by 100. |

ANS: A, C, D

To change a fraction to a percentage, divide the numerator by the denominator, multiply the quotient (results) by 100, and add a percent sign (%). For example: 2 ÷ 5 = 0.4; 0.4 ´ 100 = 40%.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 77 | Box 7-4

OBJ: 3 TOP: Percentages KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A

- Which of the following is/are equivalent expressions for the ratio 1:5?

a. | 20% |

b. | 15% |

c. | 0.20 |

d. | 1/20 |

e. | 1/5 |

ANS: A, C, E

A percentage may easily be expressed as a decimal, a fraction, or a ratio. In this example, 20% = 0.20 = 2/100 = 1/5 = 1:5. To change a ratio to a percentage, divide the first term by the second term; move the decimal point two places to the right in the answer, and add a percent sign. To change a ratio to a decimal fraction, divide the first term by the second term. To change a ratio to a fraction, write the numbers with a dividing line or slash instead of a colon.

DIF: Cognitive Level: Knowledge REF: p. 77 | Box 7-4

OBJ: 3 TOP: Ratios KEY: Nursing Process Step: N/A

MSC: NCLEX: N/A