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Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum Test Bank

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Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-1464141263

ISBN-10: 1464141266

 

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Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum Test Bank

 

ISBN-13: 978-1464141263

ISBN-10: 1464141266

 

 

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Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition

Sadava • Hillis • Heller • Berenbaum

 

Chapter 6: Cell Membranes

 

 

TEST FILE QUESTIONS

(By Penny Molyneux)

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. Biological membranes are composed of
  2. nucleotides and nucleosides.
  3. enzymes, electron acceptors, and electron donors.
  4. fatty acids.
  5. monosaccharides.
  6. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The compounds in a biological membrane that form a barrier to the movement of hydrophilic materials across the membrane are
  2. integral membrane proteins.
  3. carbohydrates.
  4. lipids.
  5. nucleic acids.
  6. peripheral membrane proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged in a _______, with the _______.
  2. bilayer; fatty acids pointing toward each other
  3. bilayer; fatty acids facing outward
  4. single layer; fatty acids facing the interior of the cell
  5. single layer; phosphorus-containing region facing the interior of the cell
  6. bilayer; phosphorus groups in the interior of the membrane

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the proteins of the plasma membrane and the inner mitochondrial membrane is true?
  2. Both membranes have only peripheral proteins.
  3. Only the mitochondrial membrane has integral proteins.
  4. Only the mitochondrial membrane has peripheral proteins.
  5. All of the proteins from both membranes are hydrophilic.
  6. The function of each membrane determines which proteins are present.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Membrane proteins are asymmetrically distributed according to the function of the membrane and its lipid composition. Which of the following statements about peripheral membrane proteins is true?
  2. They do not contain any hydrophilic regions.
  3. They are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
  4. They are able to move freely within the plasma membrane.
  5. Their charged regions interact with other proteins or with phospholipids.
  6. Their hydrophobic side chains interact with the lipid bilayer.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The plasma membrane of the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is able to remain fluid when it is extremely cold. The bacterium most likely accomplishes this by
  2. increasing the number of cholesterol molecules present.
  3. closing protein channels.
  4. decreasing the number of hydrophobic proteins present.
  5. replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids.
  6. using fatty acids with longer tails.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. How do the cell membranes of a hibernating animal change in colder temperatures?
  2. Cholesterol content is increased.
  3. Saturated fatty acids are more tightly packed.
  4. Integral membrane proteins increase in number.
  5. Unsaturated fatty acids make up more of the lipid composition.
  6. Fatty acids with longer tails increase in number.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which type of membrane protein would likely be removed most easily from a cell membrane in a laboratory experiment?
  2. Integral proteins
  3. Channel proteins
  4. Peripheral proteins
  5. Transmembrane proteins
  6. Gated channels

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. If the hydrophilic side chains of a transmembrane protein were removed, the protein would most likely
  2. remain within the phospholipid bilayer.
  3. extend farther into the cytoplasm.
  4. protrude into the extracellular space.
  5. remain anchored to the cytoskeleton.
  6. become a peripheral protein.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the functional roles of membrane proteins?
  2. Allowing movement of molecules that otherwise would be excluded by the lipid components of the membrane
  3. Transferring signals from outside the cell to inside the cell
  4. Maintaining the shape of the cell
  5. Facilitating the transport of macromolecules across the membrane
  6. Stabilizing the lipid bilayer

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein would most likely be found
  2. only in plasma membranes.
  3. associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
  4. in the interior of the membrane.
  5. exposed on the surface of the membrane.
  6. either on the surface or inserted into the interior of the membrane.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The LDL receptor is an integral membrane protein that extends both outside and into the interior of the cell. The amino acid side chains (R groups) in the region of the protein that crosses the membrane are most likely
  2. polar.
  3. hydrophilic.
  4. hydrophobic.
  5. carbohydrates.
  6. lipids.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. If a cell membrane lacking integral proteins is prepared by freeze fracture and examined under the electron microscope, the exposed interior of the membrane bilayer will
  2. reveal a bumpy surface.
  3. show hydrophobic side chains.
  4. show an asymmetric distribution of proteins.
  5. show cytoskeletal anchors.
  6. look smooth.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Ion channels are formed by a particular kind of membrane protein that allows the passage of a specific ion under certain conditions. This type of protein is most likely a(n)
  2. peripheral protein with additional hydrophobic domains.
  3. integral protein with a transmembrane domain.
  4. phospholipid with hydrophilic domains.
  5. enzyme with an asymmetrical arrangement on either side of the plasma membrane.
  6. membrane protein that is able to move freely within the phospholipid bilayer.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Protein movement within a membrane may be restricted by
  2. glycolipids and glycoproteins.
  3. cell fusion.
  4. the cytoskeleton.
  5. cell adhesion.
  6. peripheral membrane proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If the cytoskeletal proteins within a cell were prevented from attaching to other components of a cell,
  2. peripheral membrane proteins would maintain the cell shape.
  3. membrane proteins would be able to move freely.
  4. unsaturated fatty acids in the cell membrane would increase.
  5. cholesterol in the cell membrane would increase.
  6. lipids within the cell membrane would move more freely.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following molecules can function as a recognition signal for interactions between cells?
  2. RNA
  3. Phospholipids
  4. Cholesterol
  5. Fatty acids
  6. Glycolipids

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Two membrane components that serve as cell recognition sites are
  2. peripheral and integral membrane proteins.
  3. hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains.
  4. carbohydrates and proteins.
  5. glycolipids and glycoproteins.
  6. amino acids and lipids.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When vesicles from the Golgi apparatus deliver their contents to the exterior of the cell, they add their membranes to the existing plasma membrane. This is made possible by the
  2. capacity of lipids to associate with one another.
  3. saturated fatty acid chains and close packing of the fatty acids in the bilayer.
  4. great affinity of cholesterol molecules for fatty acid tails in the plasma membrane.
  5. affinity of polar proteins for fatty acids.
  6. noncovalent interactions of the anchored membrane proteins.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Cell adhesion occurs through the interactions of
  2. glycoproteins.
  3. proteoglycans.
  4. glycolipids.
  5. proteins.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following is not a specialized cell junction?
  2. Gap junction
  3. Tight junction
  4. Desmosome
  5. Connexin
  6. All of the above are specialized cell junctions.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In cell junctions, _______ seal intercellular spaces, _______ reinforce attachments, and _______ allow for communication between cells.
  2. keratins; desmosomes; connexins
  3. tight junctions; desmosomes; gap junctions
  4. cell recognition molecules; adhesion molecules; tight junctions
  5. junction proteins; adhesion molecules; connexins
  6. desmosomes; gap junctions; tight junctions

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Heart muscle cells beat in unison, due to the rapid spread of electrical current through
  2. tight junctions.
  3. desmosomes.
  4. gap junctions.
  5. integral membrane proteins.
  6. neurons.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. You are working in a lab that is studying cell recognition and cell attachment in a red sponge. You need to culture individual cells in a medium that promotes cell recognition and attachment of isolated cells. Which of the following would you add to the culture medium?
  2. Cellulose beads
  3. Glycolipids
  4. Glycoproteins from a different species of sponge
  5. A species-specific polysaccharide
  6. Complementary binding surfaces

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. You are studying the effects of different substances on frog heart muscle cells. You treat the cells with a substance that blocks gap junctions. What do you expect will occur?
  2. The cells will not be able to maintain their structure.
  3. The gap junctions will not be able to provide stability.
  4. The electric current will not spread evenly to adjacent heart cells.
  5. Nutrients will not pass between the cells.
  6. Nerve impulses will not be transmitted to the cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Sponges are multicellular organisms whose bodies allow water to circulate freely. If isolated cells from one species were added to a solution of isolated cells from another species, what would you expect in terms of binding among the cells?
  2. Cells from both species would bind to one another.
  3. Cells from one species would bind only to others of the same species.
  4. Cell binding would occur according to which type of cell was present in greater numbers.
  5. The cells would bind according to size, with no difference in species.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. If tight junctions were replaced by desmosomes in cells lining the bladder,
  2. dissolved substances would move freely through the extracellular matrix.
  3. membrane protein migration would be restricted.
  4. intercellular spaces would be sealed off.
  5. the number of gap junctions would increase.
  6. pressure on the desmosomes would increase.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If integrin could not bind to the extracellular matrix,
  2. cell structure would be lost.
  3. new cells would not develop.
  4. endocytosis of integrin would cease.
  5. cell movement would be impaired.
  6. intracellular actin content would decline.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. A group of transmembrane proteins involved in maintaining cell structure via their interactions with the cytoskeleton are known as
  2. integrins.
  3. desmosomes.
  4. seal tissues.
  5. connexins.
  6. keratins.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The binding of integrin on the cell surface of white blood cells with the extracellular matrix of blood vessel walls is reversible. This reversibility allows for
  2. communication between cells.
  3. homotypic binding.
  4. heterotypic movement.
  5. cell movement.
  6. passage of dissolved materials.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If endocytosis of integrin were blocked, epithelial cells would be unable to
  2. communicate with other cells.
  3. change location within a tissue.
  4. bind heterotypically.
  5. form tight junctions.
  6. allow passage of molecules between cells.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Cells arrange themselves into tissues through
  2. cell-to-cell communication via gap junctions.
  3. the stability provided by desmosomes.
  4. homotypic and heterotypic binding.
  5. the orientation maintained by tight junctions.
  6. cell recognition and cell adhesion.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Biological membranes can control the internal composition of a cell or cell compartment by controlling
  2. membrane lipid composition.
  3. the concentration gradient of a solute.
  4. active transport.
  5. movement of water by carrier proteins.
  6. membrane selective permeability.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the process of diffusion is true?
  2. The concentration gradient of a solute depends on the size of the molecule.
  3. Equilibrium in a solution is the endpoint of diffusion.
  4. The net movement of particles depends on the temperature of the solution.
  5. Diffusion is most efficient over long distances.
  6. Diffusion can reduce selective permeability.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If equal volumes of differently colored solutions are poured into opposite sides of a shallow pool of water, what will be the result at equilibrium?
  2. Each solution will be uniformly distributed in the side of the pool into which it was poured.
  3. The solutions will be uniformly distributed throughout the pool.
  4. Each solution will have moved down its concentration gradient.
  5. The concentration of each solution will be higher in one side of the pool than in the other.
  6. The solutions will have sunk to the bottom of the pool and remained separate.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The process of osmosis allows water molecules to pass through specialized channels in membranes. Which of the following statements about osmosis is true?
  2. Water will move across a membrane to a region with less solute.
  3. Water will move across a membrane to a region with more solute.
  4. The direction of osmosis is temperature dependent.
  5. If the membrane does not allow solutes to pass, water will be equal on both sides.
  6. A higher solute concentration on one side of a membrane indicates a higher water concentration on that side.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Osmosis is a specific form of
  2. diffusion.
  3. facilitated transport.
  4. active transport.
  5. secondary active transport.
  6. movement of water by carrier proteins.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following factors does not affect the rate of diffusion of a substance?
  2. Temperature of the solution
  3. Concentration gradient
  4. Distance traveled
  5. Presence of other solutes in the solution
  6. Molecular diameter of the diffusing material

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If there is a concentration gradient of glucose across a membrane,
  2. there are larger molecules of glucose on one side of the membrane than on the other.
  3. the glucose molecules are more numerous on one side of the membrane than on the other.
  4. there is less water than glucose on both sides of the membrane.
  5. the glucose molecules are more tightly bonded to each other on one side of the membrane than on the other.
  6. there are more glucose molecules anchored to one side of the membrane than to the other.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The difference between osmosis and diffusion is that
  2. diffusion is passive transport, whereas osmosis is active transport.
  3. only in diffusion do molecules move from areas of high concentrations to areas of low concentration.
  4. only diffusion refers to the movement of materials across a semipermeable membrane.
  5. osmosis refers specifically to the movement of water, whereas diffusion is the movement of any molecule.
  6. the process of osmosis varies according to the kinds of particles present.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a hospital patient is mistakenly given an IV of pure water instead of a saline solution that is isotonic to blood, the patient’s red blood cells will
  2. shrink and collapse.
  3. release water to the plasma along its concentration gradient.
  4. absorb water from the plasma and eventually burst.
  5. allow water to move through protein channels in the cell membrane in both directions.
  6. lose their function, and the water level in the plasma will be maintained by white blood cells instead.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Suppose that a new drug shows promise in treating cancer because it can enter cells by simple diffusion. Which of the following statements about the drug is false?
  2. It depends on a specific carrier protein to enter the cells.
  3. Diffusion of the drug will continue until its concentrations across membranes are in equilibrium.
  4. The drug molecules will move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration.
  5. Diffusion of the drug molecules is a random process.
  6. The rate of its diffusion is affected by temperature.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. In facilitated diffusion, the diffusion rate of a specific molecule across a membrane does not continue to increase as the concentration difference of the molecule across the membrane increases. The reason is that
  2. facilitated diffusion requires the use of ATP.
  3. as the concentration difference increases, molecules interfere with one another.
  4. the carrier proteins become saturated.
  5. the transport protein is a channel protein.
  6. the diffusion constant depends on the concentration difference.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements about channel proteins is true?
  2. They have a central pore of polar amino acids and water.
  3. They are anchored in the hydrophobic bilayer of the plasma membrane.
  4. They are surrounded by nonpolar amino acids.
  5. They are usually gated.
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of passive transport?
  2. Facilitated diffusion
  3. The sodium–potassium pump
  4. Turgor pressure
  5. ATP-driven transport
  6. Endocytosis

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The speed and direction of ions as they move into and out of the cell are determined by the
  2. ability of the ion to let go of its water.
  3. concentration gradient and electrochemical imbalances.
  4. number of channel proteins present.
  5. size and charge of the ions.
  6. presence of specific stimuli to open gated channel proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If aquaporins are injected into the membranes of epithelial cells that line blood vessels,
  2. the flow of Na+ through aquaporins will increase.
  3. the intracellular concentration of K+ will increase.
  4. carrier proteins will bind glucose and enter the bloodstream.
  5. the membranes will become more permeable to water.
  6. the electrical properties of the cells will be altered.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. When placed in water, wilted plants regain their turgor because of the
  2. active transport of salts from the water into the plant cells.
  3. active transport of salts from the plant cells into the water.
  4. osmosis of water into the plant cells.
  5. osmosis of water out of the plant cells.
  6. diffusion of water out of the plant cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. What is the membrane property that helps ensure the diffusion of glucose into a cell that has a high energy need?
  2. A glucose pump
  3. Specific carrier proteins found in large muscle cells
  4. A high number of carrier proteins specific for glucose
  5. An extracellular environment high in glucose
  6. Additional pores through which water can flow, carrying dissolved glucose

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Amino acids enter cells against their concentration gradients by means of
  2. simple diffusion.
  3. facilitated diffusion.
  4. primary active transport.
  5. secondary active transport.
  6. osmosis.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Transporters that move two substances at once are known as
  2. uniporters.
  3. facilitated transporters.
  4. secondary active transporters.
  5. coupled transporters.
  6. directional transporters.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the intestine, Na+ and an amino acid bind to the same transport protein that moves the two substances in the same direction. This type of active transport is called
  2. a symporter.
  3. an antiporter.
  4. secondary active transport.
  5. facilitated transport.
  6. a diffusion mechanism.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Active transport usually moves molecules
  2. in the same direction as diffusion moves them.
  3. in a direction opposite to the one in which diffusion moves them.
  4. in a direction that tends to bring about equilibrium.
  5. toward a higher pH.
  6. toward a higher osmotic potential.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not involved in secondary active transport?
  2. The direct use of ATP
  3. Coupling to another transport system
  4. Use of an existing concentration gradient
  5. The bilayer membrane
  6. The ability to concentrate the transported molecule

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In the parietal cells of the stomach, the uptake of chloride ions is coupled to the transport of bicarbonate ions out of the cell. This type of transport system is called
  2. a uniporter.
  3. a symporter.
  4. an exchange channel.
  5. diffusion.
  6. an antiporter.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. For each molecule of ATP consumed during active transport of sodium and potassium, there is an import of _______ ion(s) and an export of _______ ion(s).
  2. two Na+; three K+
  3. two Na+; one K+
  4. one K+; three Na+
  5. two K+; three Na+
  6. three K+; two Na+

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The sodium‒potassium pump found in animal cells is a(n)
  2. uniporter.
  3. carrier protein.
  4. symporter.
  5. peripheral membrane protein.
  6. antiporter.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The sodium‒potassium pump changes shape in response to
  2. the binding of ions.
  3. the hydrolysis of ATP and phosphorylation.
  4. the release of Na+ ions outside the cell.
  5. the influx of K+ ions.
  6. secondary active transport.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Unlike simple diffusion, active membrane transport is directional and moves a substance where it is needed. If you were designing a drug with an intracellular target, which type of transport system would be most specific for delivering the drug?
  2. An antiporter
  3. A uniporter
  4. A symporter
  5. A coupled transporter
  6. Facilitated diffusion

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. If a cell is bathed in an extracellular solution high in Na+, what type of ion movement would maintain the proper balance of Na+ ions between the inside and the outside of the cell?
  2. Active transport against the concentration gradient of Na+
  3. Facilitated diffusion through ion channels
  4. Secondary active transport for diffusion of K+
  5. Simple diffusion
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If hydrolysis of ATP is temporarily blocked, such that transport processes requiring an energy source are halted, what will most likely happen to the ionic concentrations of Na+ and K+ inside the cell?
  2. The cytoplasm will be high in Na+ and low in K+.
  3. The cytoplasm will be high in Na+, since it will be able to diffuse into the cell.
  4. The cytoplasm will be low in Na+ and high in K+.
  5. Diffusion will progress toward equilibrium between the inside and the outside of the cell.
  6. The normal ion concentrations will be maintained by secondary active transport.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the mechanism for the import of
  2. clathrin.
  3. all macromolecules.
  4. large ions.
  5. cholesterol.
  6. integral membrane proteins.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Regardless of the specific type of molecule or particle being transported, endocytosis always involves
  2. phagocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. receptor proteins.
  5. membrane invagination.
  6. phagosomes.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis all involve
  2. the intake of large particles.
  3. invagination of the plasma membrane.
  4. the export of macromolecules.
  5. the presence of receptor proteins.
  6. the intake of fluids by the cell.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Bacteria and other foreign particles that enter the body can be made harmless by
  2. phagocytosis by white blood cells.
  3. pinocytosis, which dissolves the foreign material.
  4. active transport of the foreign particles by a membrane pump.
  5. exocytosis through vesicles that fuse with the cell membrane.
  6. specific receptors that mediate their entry into a cell.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a cell requires a particular small amino acid that exists in low extracellular concentration, which method of uptake would be most efficient when the amino acid is present after feeding?
  2. Active transport of all nutritious particles
  3. Diffusion of the amino acid along its concentration gradient
  4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of the amino acid
  5. Phagocytosis of all digested particles in the extracellular fluid
  6. Endocytosis of macromolecules present after feeding

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating

 

  1. If a cell needs to acquire dissolved solutes rapidly, which process will likely be accelerated?
  2. Osmosis
  3. Diffusion
  4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  5. Phagocytosis
  6. Pinocytosis

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. A selectively permeable membrane ensures that
  2. a cell can maintain its ion concentrations by diffusion.
  3. macromolecules can be obtained through active transport.
  4. dissolved substances can be taken up by pinocytosis.
  5. essential macromolecules cannot leave the cell by diffusion.
  6. fluids can be obtained rapidly.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following experimental observations would suggest that a cellular organism is protecting itself against a bacterium that is present in its environment?
  2. An increase in the number of membrane transporter proteins for the bacterium
  3. An increase in the rate of endocytosis of macromolecules
  4. An increase in the rate of phagocytosis of the bacterium
  5. Changes in the plasma membrane composition to prevent diffusion of the bacterium
  6. An increase in the number of vesicles releasing the bacterium into the extracellular fluid

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. People with familial hypercholesterolemia have very high levels of cholesterol because of
  2. hyperactive aquaporins.
  3. the inability to hydrolyze ATP.
  4. deficient LDL receptor proteins.
  5. malformed gap junctions.
  6. defective ion channels.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A specific ligand in receptor-mediated endocytosis is most likely
  2. an ion.
  3. glucose.
  4. a bacterium.
  5. cholesterol.
  6. a macromolecule.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a cell needs to acquire cholesterol, it is usually transported into the cell by
  2. endocytosis.
  3. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  4. pinocytosis.
  5. active transport.
  6. phagocytosis.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An important difference between phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
  2. phagocytosis engulfs particles more quickly.
  3. vesicles form in receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  4. dissolved substances can be taken up by phagocytosis.
  5. macromolecules can enter the cell through receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  6. receptor-mediated endocytosis is more specific in terms of what it brings into the cell.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Cells secrete materials through the process of
  2. exocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. phagocytosis.
  5. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  6. endocytosis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements does not correctly describe the processes by which materials are taken up by the cell?
  2. Vesicles touch the cell membrane and release their contents through a pore.
  3. The plasma membrane forms small vesicles around fluids and dissolved substances.
  4. Bacteria are engulfed by the plasma membranes of white blood cells.
  5. Specific molecules are transported through receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  6. Phagosomes formed by the plasma membrane fuse with lysosomes.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

Fill in the Blank

 

  1. Biological membranes are composed of a continuous phospholipid bilayer in which proteins are embedded. This general design is known as the _______ model.

Answer: fluid mosaic

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Because the lipids composing biological membranes contain a phosphate group in their hydrophilic head, they are called _______.

Answer: phospholipids

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The region of the phospholipid that is electrically charged is the _______ domain.

Answer: hydrophilic

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Membrane proteins covalently bonded to carbohydrates are called _______.

Answer: glycoproteins

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Membrane lipids covalently bonded to carbohydrates are called _______.

Answer: glycolipids

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When cells arrange themselves into groups through cell recognition and specific types of binding, the connections between the cells are further strengthened by _______.

Answer: cell adhesion

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Cell adhesion molecules of the same type on each of two cells are called _______ molecules.

Answer: homotypic

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Binding that occurs between different molecules on different cells that have an affinity for each other, such as a mammalian egg and sperm cell, is referred to as _______ binding.

Answer: heterotypic

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The cells of the intestinal epithelium are linked together in order to prevent substances from passing between them. The type of cell junction linking these cells is called a(n) _______.

Answer: tight junction

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Channels that run between pores of adjacent cells are called _______.

Answer: gap junctions

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The process of random movement of molecules toward a state of equilibrium is called _______.

Answer: diffusion

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The property of biological membranes that allows passage of some materials more readily than others is called _______.

Answer: selective permeability

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Diffusion is the net movement of particles from regions of _______ concentration to regions of _______ concentration.

Answer: greater (or higher); lesser (or lower)

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. If a cell placed within a solution shrinks in volume, the solution is _______ relative to the cell.

Answer: hypertonic (or more concentrated)

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. When plant cells are placed in a hypotonic solution, water enters the cells and exerts pressure against the cell wall. This force is called _______ pressure.

Answer: turgor

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The protein that moves glucose and sodium ions into intestinal epithelial cells simultaneously is an example of a(n) _______.

Answer: symporter

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The sodium–potassium pump of cell membranes is an example of a class of membrane protein called a(n) _______.

Answer: antiporter

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Primary active transport requires energy from the hydrolysis of _______.

Answer: ATP

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The process of _______ involves coated pits, clathrin, and coated vesicles.

Answer: receptor-mediated endocytosis

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The process by which the plasma membrane engulfs large particles or even whole cells is called _______.

Answer: phagocytosis

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

Diagram

 

1.‒2. Refer to the diagram below showing the fluid mosaic model.

 

 

  1. Which of the labeled components is a transmembrane protein?

Answer: B

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the labeled components affects the fluidity of the membrane according to the numbers of this component that are present, as well as other characteristics?

Answer: C

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements about the phospholipid bilayer shown below is false?

 

 

  1. The area labeled A contains hydrophilic portions of fatty acids.
  2. The area labeled A contains polar groups that can interact with water.
  3. The area labeled B contains hydrophobic regions of fatty acids.
  4. The area labeled B allows for the movement of charged particles.
  5. The area labeled B allows for the diffusion of lipid-soluble particles.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The type of cell junction shown in the figure below is most efficient in

 

 

  1. cells that must exchange a lot of material with adjacent cells.
  2. cells that conduct electrical activity, as in the heart.
  3. muscles, where rapid reflexes are required.
  4. epithelial cells that line body cavities.
  5. skin cells that receive stress.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The type of cell junction shown in the figure below is most efficient in

 

 

  1. cells that require a tight structure.
  2. cells that conduct electrical activity, as in the heart.
  3. muscles, where rapid reflexes are required.
  4. epithelial cells that line body cavities.
  5. skin cells that receive stress.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The interaction of which two substances shown in the diagram below controls cell movement?

 

 

Answer: Integrin and the extracellular matrix

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the sequence of events shown in the figure below is true?

 

 

  1. The cell in condition C has been immersed in a hypertonic solution.
  2. The concentration of solutes inside the cell in condition C is higher than the solution surrounding the cell.
  3. The cell in condition A has been immersed in a hypotonic solution.
  4. Osmosis occurs when going from condition B to C but not from B to A.
  5. Diffusion of solutes out of the cell is causing the events shown in the transition from condition B to A.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding the sequence of events shown in the figure below is true?

 

 

  1. The cells in condition B have less turgor pressure than the cells in condition A.
  2. The cells in condition A have been placed in a hypotonic solution.
  3. The cells in condition C have been placed in a hypertonic solution.
  4. The cells in condition C have been placed in an isotonic solution.
  5. The cells in condition C have greater turgor pressure than the cells in condition B.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding channel proteins (shown below) is false?

 

 

  1. Channel proteins can assist polar molecules to cross the plasma membrane by facilitated diffusion.
  2. The gated ion channel can allow ions to pass when stimulated to open.
  3. The surface of a channel protein in contact with the bilayer would likely have hydrophilic amino acids.
  4. Water plays a role in determining which ions are allowed to pass through an ion channel.
  5. Aquaporins facilitate the diffusion of water across membranes.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

10.–11. The graph below shows the relationship between glucose concentration outside a cell and the rate of glucose diffusion across a cell membrane that has carrier proteins to facilitate diffusion.

 

 

  1. Which label in the graph represents saturation of the carrier proteins?

Answer: D

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. According to the graph, as the number of glucose molecules increases, the rate of diffusion
  2. increases indefinitely.
  3. decreases.
  4. increases until a plateau is reached.
  5. can either increase or decrease.
  6. remains the same.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Name the three types of proteins involved in active transport, represented by A, B, and C in the diagram below.

 

 

Answer: A: uniporter; B: symporter; C: antiporter

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The figure below shows the process of receptor-mediated endocytosis. Which of the following statements regarding this process is false?

 

 

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis requires receptor proteins located on the cell’s surface.
  2. Coated pits are lined on their cytoplasmic surface by clathrin.
  3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is important in cellular uptake of cholesterol.
  4. Coated vesicles eventually become part of the endoplasmic reticulum.
  5. Coated vesicles contain previously extracellular material.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave Cells?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

 

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Penny Molyneux)

 

  1. The structure of a biological membrane is best described by the _______ model.
  2. plasma membrane
  3. phospholipid bilayer
  4. fluid mosaic
  5. hydrophilic core
  6. fatty acid

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Biological membranes are composed primarily of
  2. phospholipids, receptors, and fatty acids.
  3. hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of receptors.
  4. lipids with fatty acid tails and phosphorus-containing heads.
  5. proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids.
  6. cholesterol, receptors, carbohydrates.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. _______ proteins are not found in or associated with biological membranes.
  2. Transmembrane
  3. Cytoskeletal
  4. Peripheral
  5. Integral
  6. Plasma

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Carbohydrates play a role in the biological membrane as recognition sites for other cells and molecules. They are able to bind with a protein in the membrane to form
  2. transmembrane proteins.
  3. glycoproteins.
  4. phospholipids.
  5. plasma bilayer.
  6. lipid proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All of the following processes occur in normal cell development and metabolism. Which of these pairs of processes is most important when cells are forming into tissues?
  2. Carbohydrate signaling and cell movement
  3. Diffusion and cell binding
  4. Interaction of proteins and binding of lipids
  5. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic movement of molecules
  6. Cell recognition and cell adhesion

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Cells that bind together to form tissues may use _______ and _______ binding.
  2. heterotypic, homotypic
  3. hydrophilic, hydrophobic
  4. ligand, receptor
  5. monosaccharide, oligosaccharide
  6. recognition, adhesion

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Adjacent animal cells maybe bound together by _______, _______, and _______.
  2. recognition, adhesion, ligand-binding
  3. tight junctions, gap junctions, desmosomes
  4. ligands, receptors, transmembrane proteins
  5. epithelial cells, proteoglycans, polysaccharides
  6. desmosomes, cell junctions, tight junctions

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Integrins are transmembrane proteins that can reversibly bind the cytoskeleton of a cell to the extracellular matrix. When the two elements are not bound together, the result may be
  2. decreased diffusion of water into the cell.
  3. increased communication through gap junctions.
  4. more stability provided to the cytoskeleton.
  5. cell movement through the extracellular matrix.
  6. the binding of integrins to form tight junctions.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of passive transport?
  2. Facilitated diffusion
  3. The sodium–potassium pump
  4. Phagocytosis
  5. Exocytosis
  6. Pinocytosis

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Osmosis is a specific form of
  2. active transport.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. diffusion.
  5. secondary active transport.
  6. movement of water by carrier proteins.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about diffusion is false?
  2. Facilitated diffusion does not require ATP.
  3. Diffusion continues until the molecular concentrations are in equilibrium.
  4. Molecules move from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration.
  5. Diffusion is due to random movement of molecules.
  6. Simple diffusion depends upon specific carrier proteins.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The speed and direction of ions as they move through channels in the cell membrane are determined by the
  2. ability of the ions to bind water.
  3. concentration gradient.
  4. number of channel proteins present.
  5. size and charge of the ions.
  6. presence of specific stimuli to open gated channel proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a cell has an increased need for a particular molecule that already is present in a higher concentration within the cell than in the extracellular fluid, the cell might use active transport, which usually moves molecules
  2. in the same direction as diffusion moves them.
  3. in a direction opposite to the one in which diffusion moves them.
  4. in a direction that tends to bring about equilibrium.
  5. toward higher pH.
  6. from inside to outside the cell.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Which of the following is typically the driving force for active transport?
  2. A concentration gradient
  3. ADP hydrolysis
  4. ATP hydrolysis
  5. Phosphorylation
  6. GTP–GDP exchange

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following is not involved in secondary active transport?
  2. The direct use of ATP
  3. Coupling to another transport system
  4. The use of an existing concentration gradient
  5. Diffusion
  6. The ability to concentrate the transported molecule

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. In the intestine, Na+ and an amino acid bind to the same transport protein that moves the two substances in the same direction. This transporter is a(n)
  2. carrier.
  3. channel.
  4. symporter.
  5. antiporter.
  6. sodium pump.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Phagocytosis, pinocytosis, and receptor-mediated endocytosis all involve
  2. the intake of large particles.
  3. invagination of the plasma membrane.
  4. the export of macromolecules.
  5. the presence of receptor proteins.
  6. the intake of specific fluids by the cell.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The only process that can bring glucose molecules into cells without directly using metabolic energy provided by ATP is
  2. phagocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. active transport.
  5. diffusion.
  6. osmosis.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the mechanism for transport of
  2. clathrin.
  3. all macromolecules.
  4. ions.
  5. cholesterol.
  6. integral membrane proteins.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following processes does not involve the uptake of materials into the cell?
  2. Exocytosis
  3. Pinocytosis
  4. Endocytosis
  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  6. Phagocytosis

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

 

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)

(By Penny Molyneux)

 

  1. The main components in biological membranes are
  2. nucleotides and nucleosides.
  3. lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
  4. cholesterol and polar water molecules.
  5. monosaccharides and polysaccharides.
  6. enzymes, electron acceptors, and electron donors.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. A barrier to the rapid movement of hydrophilic compounds across biological membranes is made up chiefly of
  2. integral membrane proteins.
  3. carbohydrates.
  4. peripheral membrane proteins.
  5. polar molecules.
  6. lipids.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In biological membranes the lipid bilayer contains phospholipids, each with a head and two fatty acid tails. They are arranged so that the
  2. fatty acid tails point toward each other.
  3. fatty acid heads are oriented head-to-head.
  4. fatty acids face the interior of the cell.
  5. nonpolar tails extend into the cytoplasm.
  6. nonpolar tails extend into the extracellular fluid.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The fluid mosaic model of a biological membrane suggests that the membrane is made up of discrete units that can move freely. Which components determine the fluidity of the membrane?
  2. Integral membrane proteins
  3. Hydrophobic carbohydrates
  4. Phospholipids
  5. Peripheral membrane proteins
  6. Cholesterol molecules

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Membrane fragments from different areas of a cell are constantly breaking down, moving, and in some cases fusing with other parts of a membrane. This is possible because of
  2. protein interactions in each fragment.
  3. glycolipids recognizing another binding site.
  4. the splitting of the lipid bilayer to allow additional membrane fragments to enter.
  5. a change in the hydrophilic head regions of the fatty acids.
  6. the ability of lipids to associate with one another and seal themselves.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Temperature has an effect on the fluidity of plasma membranes. Some organisms are able to maintain their membrane’s fluidity when it is extremely cold by
  2. replacing saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids.
  3. closing protein channels.
  4. increasing the number of transmembrane protein channels.
  5. increasing the number of cholesterol molecules present.
  6. using fatty acids with longer tails.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A hibernating animal must make changes at the cellular level to prevent damage in colder temperatures. How might cell membranes of these animals be affected?
  2. Membranes would have increased cholesterol content.
  3. Saturated fatty acids would be more tightly packed to retain heat.
  4. Integral membrane proteins would increase in number.
  5. Fatty acids with longer tails would increase in number.
  6. Unsaturated fatty acids would replace saturated fatty acids.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A protein that forms an ion channel in a membrane is most likely to be
  2. a peripheral protein.
  3. a transmembrane protein.
  4. a phospholipid.
  5. an enzyme.
  6. entirely outside the phospholipid bilayer.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A transmembrane protein may contain one or more hydrophilic side chains. If these were removed, the rest of the protein molecule would
  2. remain anchored to the cytoskeleton.
  3. extend into the cytoplasm.
  4. protrude into the extracellular space.
  5. remain inside the membrane.
  6. become a peripheral protein.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A cell membrane contains many types of proteins. Which type of protein would most easily be removed from the cell membrane in aqueous conditions in a laboratory experiment?
  2. Peripheral proteins
  3. Channel proteins
  4. Integral proteins
  5. Transmembrane proteins
  6. Gated channels

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The hydrophilic regions of a membrane protein are most likely to be found
  2. on the exterior surface of the membrane.
  3. associated with the fatty acid region of the lipids.
  4. restricted to the interior of the membrane.
  5. restricted to membrane fragments.
  6. either on the exterior surface or inserted into the interior surface of the membrane.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Protein movement within a membrane may be restricted by
  2. glycolipids and glycoproteins.
  3. interactions with cytoskeletal proteins on the membrane’s inner face.
  4. closure of gated channel oligosaccharides.
  5. oligosaccharides.
  6. hydrophilic regions within the membrane.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Cytoskeletal proteins are important for maintaining the structure of the cell, but some of their components also have other functions affecting the cell membrane. If cytoskeletal proteins were temporarily disrupted, what might take place in the cell membrane?
  2. The fatty acid tails would drift apart.
  3. Some attached membrane proteins would be able to detach and move freely.
  4. Unsaturated fatty acids would increase.
  5. Cholesterol levels in the membrane would increase to maintain shape.
  6. The number of polar molecules would increase.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Freeze-fracturing is a useful tool for revealing which type of membrane protein?
  2. Peripheral proteins
  3. Proteins with hydrophilic domains
  4. Asymmetric proteins
  5. Cytoskeletal proteins
  6. Transmembrane proteins

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following can function as a recognition signal for interactions between cells?
  2. RNA
  3. Phospholipids
  4. Cholesterol
  5. Fatty acids
  6. Glycoproteins

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The plasma membrane contains carbohydrates, which can serve as recognition sites for other molecules. The carbohydrates may be bonded to
  2. peripheral and integral membrane proteins.
  3. hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions of fatty acids.
  4. carbohydrates in the cytoskeleton.
  5. amino acids and lipids.
  6. lipids and proteins.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In the fluid mosaic model, some proteins are able to move freely within the membrane, while others, such as proteins in a muscle cell membrane, are anchored or restricted in their movement. What is the best explanation for their restriction to a specific region?
  2. Proteins moving too freely would disrupt the cytoskeleton.
  3. Proteins need to be available for cell–cell adhesion.
  4. The proteins may be transported to the nucleus.
  5. A protein’s function may depend on its presence in a specific location.
  6. The concentration of the proteins in the membrane has to be kept constant.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Cell adhesion often occurs through the interactions of
  2. organelles.
  3. receptors.
  4. lipids.
  5. cytoskeletons.
  6. carbohydrates.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Tissues are made up of specialized groups of cells with similar functions. The cells are able to arrange themselves through
  2. cell recognition and cell adhesion.
  3. stability provided by desmosomes.
  4. active transport of vesicles.
  5. orientation maintained by tight junctions.
  6. communication between cells via gap junctions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. You are conducting an experiment in which you have isolated individual cells from a red marine sponge. These cells will be able to join together again if you provide _______to promote cell recognition.
  2. cellulose beads
  3. glycolipids
  4. glycoproteins from a different species of sponge
  5. a species-specific polysaccharide
  6. integrin molecules

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Specialized cells in the heart are able to maintain a rhythmic heartbeat due to the rapid spread of electrical current through
  2. tight junctions.
  3. desmosomes.
  4. neurons.
  5. integral membrane proteins.
  6. gap junctions.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All of the following are specialized cell junctions except:
  2. gap junctions.
  3. tight junctions.
  4. desmosomes.
  5. connexins.
  6. plasmodesmata.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Tight junctions and desmosomes are both abundant in epithelial tissues, but they are different from each other in their roles of
  2. allowing rapid communication between cells.
  3. cell recognition.
  4. species-specific cell binding.
  5. allowing movement of dissolved materials through the extracellular matrix.
  6. interactions with carbohydrates on the surface of cells.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Male and female reproductive cells can recognize each other by specific glycoproteins that bind different molecules on different cells, known as _______ binding.
  2. recognition
  3. species-specific
  4. homotypic
  5. heterotypic
  6. complementary

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Different molecules on different cells may contain chemical groups with an affinity for one another. What type of binding would this favor?
  2. Irreversible
  3. Recognition
  4. Homotypic
  5. Heterotypic
  6. Complementary

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Heart muscle cells are known to contain an abundance of gap junctions to maintain a coordinated rhythm of contraction. If you injected a substance that acts as a gap junction blocker, what is likely to happen?
  2. Nerve impulses in the heart muscle would cease.
  3. The heart rate would speed up.
  4. The cells would not contract in unison.
  5. Nutrients would not pass between cells.
  6. The cells would detach from one another.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. You are analyzing the transmembrane proteins in cells from a developing mouse embryo and find that there are many integrins in the membrane and also in the cytoplasm. How would you explain their presence in the cytoplasm, given what you know about the roles of integrins?
  2. The integrins are removed from the membrane and sent to cytoplasm to be digested.
  3. Development requires frequent cell movement and therefore endocytosis of integrin molecules.
  4. The extracellular matrix is too immature for integrins to attach, so they must stay in the cytoplasm.
  5. A developing embryo requires additional integrins for the cytoskeleton.
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Depending on a cell’s job, it might require a certain kind of junction to ensure proper function. If tight junctions were replaced by desmosomes in cells lining the bladder, what might be the result?
  2. Bladder cell contents would move through the extracellular matrix.
  3. Migration of proteins in the bladder cell membranes would be restricted.
  4. Intercellular spaces between the bladder cells would be sealed off.
  5. The number of gap junctions in the bladder cells would increase.
  6. Fewer integrins would be needed to anchor the bladder cells.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Integrin can bind with the extracellular matrix and aid in adhesion, but it may also unbind and be brought back into the cytoplasm.This reversible binding can allow
  2. communication between cells.
  3. homotypic binding of glycoproteins.
  4. heterotypic movement of integrins.
  5. cell movement by integrin attachment.
  6. passage of dissolved materials.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A group of transmembrane proteins that plays a role in cell adhesion and cell structure is (are) known as
  2. integrins.
  3. glycolipids.
  4. proteoglycans.
  5. connexins.
  6. gap junctions.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Epithelial cells will sometimes relocate integrin from the surface of the cell membrane into the cytoplasm. If the endocytosis of integrin were blocked, epithelial cells would not be able to
  2. communicate with other cells.
  3. change location within a tissue.
  4. bind heterotypically.
  5. withstand mechanical stresses.
  6. be attached to the extracellular matrix.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. An important characteristic of the structure of biological membranes is selective permeability, which takes place
  2. in water molecules.
  3. in blood plasma.
  4. in the nucleus.
  5. in the phospholipid bilayer.
  6. along a concentration gradient.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Biological membranes can control the internal composition of a cell through
  2. maintaining the lipid composition.
  3. establishing a concentration gradient of a solute.
  4. selective permeability.
  5. movement of water by carrier proteins.
  6. changing the composition of the extracellular fluid.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. The process of diffusion leads to
  2. a solute moving against its concentration gradient.
  3. a reduction in the energy used in active transport.
  4. an increase in the random movement of particles.
  5. achieving equilibrium of solute particles in a solution.
  6. a reduction in the selective permeability of the plasma membrane.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In an experiment you have two identical solutions of glucose, called A and B, that are separated in a dish by a membrane that will allow the movement of particles and water. You want to establish a concentration gradient so that the glucose in B will move across into A. How could you manipulate your experimental setup so that the glucose will move in that direction?
  2. Add more water to compartment B.
  3. Add more glucose to compartment A.
  4. Remove the membrane.
  5. Heat the solutions.
  6. Add more water to compartment A.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If a shallow pan is filled with water, a drop of red ink is placed in one end of the pan, and a drop of green ink is placed in the other end, which of the following will be true at equilibrium?
  2. Each ink will move down its concentration gradient.
  3. The concentration of each ink will be higher at one end of the pan than at the other.
  4. The inks will move until they meet and then interfere with each other’s movement.
  5. The red ink will be uniformly distributed in one half of the pan, and the green ink will be uniformly distributed in the other half.
  6. The red and green inks will be uniformly distributed throughout the pan.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. When a severely dehydrated patient is brought to the hospital, an intravenous drip of saline is started immediately. Sterile deionized water is not used because
  2. it would cause water to leave the cells of the patient, and the cells would collapse.
  3. nutrients are provided by the saline.
  4. it would cause the patient’s blood cells to swell and eventually burst.
  5. saline is already sterile.
  6. sterile water would not be able to enter the cells.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Osmosis moves water across membranes from a _______ to a(n) _______.
  2. high concentration of dissolved material; low concentration of dissolved material
  3. low concentration of dissolved material; high concentration of dissolved material
  4. hypertonic solution; hypotonic solution
  5. hypertonic solution; isotonic solution
  6. low concentration of water; high concentration of water

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Osmosis, the movement of water though specialized membrane channels, is a specific form of
  2. movement of water by carrier proteins.
  3. facilitated transport.
  4. active transport.
  5. secondary active transport.
  6. diffusion.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. All of the following affect the rate of diffusion of a substance except
  2. temperature of the solution.
  3. concentration gradient of the substance.
  4. the difference between the regions of greater or lesser concentration of the substance.
  5. presence of other solutes in the solution.
  6. diameter of the molecules or ions.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. The main difference between osmosis and diffusion is that
  2. diffusion is passive transport, whereas osmosis is active transport.
  3. diffusion is more efficient over longer distances.
  4. osmosis refers to the movement of materials across a semipermeable membrane, but diffusion does not involve a membrane.
  5. osmosis refers specifically to the movement of water, whereas diffusion refers to the movement of any molecules.
  6. the process of osmosis varies according to the kinds of particles present, but diffusion does not.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In animals, the solute balance of the plasma surrounding blood cells must be carefully maintained so that the blood cells are not affected by changes in fluid or solute balance. If the plasma becomes hypotonic compared to the blood cells, what would be the effect?
  2. The blood cell would swell and possibly burst.
  3. The blood cell would lose water and shrink.
  4. Water would move from the blood cell into the plasma.
  5. Solutes would move from the blood cell into the plasma.
  6. Solutes would move from the plasma into the blood cell.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. All of the following statements about diffusion are true except:
  2. During diffusion, the cell membrane becomes less permeable, due to the increased concentration gradient of the diffusing molecule.
  3. Diffusion continues until the concentrations are in equilibrium.
  4. During diffusion, molecules move from areas of greater concentration to areas of lesser concentration.
  5. Movement of molecules during diffusion is random.
  6. The rate of simple diffusion can be changed.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. All of the following are involved in facilitated diffusion except
  2. ligands.
  3. ATP, which is used as an energy source.
  4. gated channels.
  5. carrier proteins.
  6. channel proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Plant cells depend on the net movement of water to maintain _______, which maintains cell shape and drives cell growth.
  2. osmosis
  3. aquaporins
  4. turgor pressure
  5. simple diffusion
  6. the lipid bilayer

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about channel proteins is true?
  2. They have a central pore of polar amino acids and water.
  3. They are integral membrane proteins.
  4. They aid in facilitated diffusion.
  5. Both b and c
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. In facilitated diffusion, the diffusion rate of a specific molecule across a membrane does not continue to increase as the concentration gradient of the molecule across the membrane increases. This is because
  2. each cell has a certain number of carrier proteins, and once these are saturated, the rate of diffusion does not continue to increase.
  3. as the concentration gradient increases, molecules compete with one another.
  4. carrier proteins are limited in number and can become fully loaded, or saturated, with solute particles.
  5. the cell will switch to using active transport when the increased rate of diffusion slows.
  6. the rate of diffusion depends on temperature.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The ion channels in a biological membrane are highly specific. Entry into the cell by a particular ion such as K+, while excluding others, occurs because of the
  2. ability of the ion to bind water.
  3. size and charge of the ion.
  4. number of channel proteins present.
  5. number of ions waiting to enter.
  6. presence of specific stimuli to open gated channel proteins.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Aquaporins are membrane channels that are highly specific to the movement of water. If aquaporins are injected into the membranes of a cell that does not normally contain them,
  2. the flow of Na+ through aquaporins will increase.
  3. the intracellular concentration of K+ will increase.
  4. carrier proteins will bind water and leave the cell.
  5. the membranes will become more permeable to water.
  6. the electrical properties of the cells will be altered.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a beneficial drug needs a carrier protein for it to enter the target cells in muscles, a good protein to ensure the highest rate of delivery would be
  2. a carrier protein with a glucose binding site.
  3. specific carrier proteins found in muscle cells.
  4. one that is present in the target cell membrane in high numbers.
  5. bound to ATP to supply energy for rapid diffusion.
  6. specific carrier proteins found in the brain for rapid diffusion.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. If a cell needs a particular amino acid for a physiological process, how can it acquire more when the amino acid is more concentrated inside the cell than in the extracellular fluid?
  2. Simple diffusion
  3. Facilitated diffusion
  4. Synthesis
  5. Active transport
  6. Osmosis

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Transporters that move two substances in the same direction are known as
  2. active transporters.
  3. facilitated transporters.
  4. uniporters.
  5. directional transporters.
  6. symporters.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Many animal cells have a sodium–potassium pump that moves Na+ ions out of the cell and K+ ions in. This is an example of a(n)
  2. uniporter.
  3. carrier protein.
  4. symporter.
  5. peripheral membrane protein.
  6. antiporter.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Active transport usually moves molecules
  2. in the same direction as diffusion moves them.
  3. in a direction opposite to the one in which diffusion moves them.
  4. into the cytoplasm.
  5. toward the region with a higher pH.
  6. toward the region of lower concentration of the molecule.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. There are two basic types of active transport. A main difference between them is
  2. one uses hydrolysis of ATP as an energy source.
  3. one uses coupled transporters for moving ions across the gradient.
  4. ones use the existing concentration gradient to move the ions across the membrane.
  5. the composition of the plasma membrane involved.
  6. the ability to concentrate the transported molecule.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In cells lining the stomach, the movement of chloride ions into the cells is coupled to the transport of bicarbonate ions out of the cells. This type of transport system most likely uses
  2. a uniporter.
  3. a symporter.
  4. a protein pump.
  5. an antiporter.
  6. graded diffusion.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. An experimental cancer therapy requires the active transport of lipid-insoluble drugs into the cytoplasm of dividing cancer cells. This treatment could fail if
  2. carrier proteins block diffusion of the drugs.
  3. membrane proteins carry the drugs via a uniporter that moves ions into the cancer cell.
  4. the drugs diffuse out of the cancer cells via simple diffusion.
  5. membrane proteins actively transport the drugs out of the cancer cells via transporters.
  6. the concentration of the drug inside the cell exceeds that in the extracellular fluid.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If a cell is bathed in an extracellular solution high in Na+, it would use _______ to maintain its normal intracellular concentration of Na+.
  2. active transport against the concentration gradient of Na+
  3. diffusion as the primary means of Na+ transport
  4. secondary active transport for passive diffusion of K+
  5. carrier proteins to increase rate of diffusion
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The sodium–potassium pump is an integral membrane protein that functions as an antiporter. Which type(s) of transport does it use to establish the proper ion concentrations?
  2. Diffusion along a concentration gradient and primary active transport
  3. The hydrolysis of ATP and phosphorylation
  4. Hydrolysis of ADP and diffusion
  5. Primary and secondary active transport
  6. Diffusion and secondary active transport

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If hydrolysis of ATP is temporarily blocked, what will be the primary effect on the sodium–potassium pump?
  2. It will release ADP.
  3. It will allow K+ to diffuse into the cell.
  4. It will not be phosphorylated.
  5. It will allow Na+ to exit the cell, but not K+.
  6. Its activity will be maintained by secondary active transport.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Secondary active transport, as in the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream, uses energy gained from primary active transport by the sodium–potassium pump. Which statement best describes the use of this energy?
  2. The concentration gradient of Na+ drives glucose transport.
  3. Hydrolysis of ATP provides energy for glucose uptake.
  4. The diffusion of K+ into the cell establishes a concentration gradient for glucose to follow.
  5. The phosphorylation of the sodium-potassium pump allows glucose to diffuse into the cell.
  6. Antiporters move Na+ out of the cell and glucose molecules in.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. The sodium–potassium pump is an example of a system that uses primary active transport to set up conditions that will allow secondary active transport, in this case, of glucose. All of the following about the sodium–potassium pump are true except:
  2. The Na+–K+ pump is an antiporter fueled by the hydrolysis of ATP.
  3. The subsequent movement of glucose into the cell is against its concentration gradient.
  4. The pump exports Na+ ions to the outside of the cell and establishes a concentration gradient for Na+.
  5. K+ and Na+ both diffuse into the cell along their concentration gradients and drive the transport of glucose.
  6. The movement of glucose is coupled to the movement of Na+ by a symporter protein.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.4 What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Cells secrete materials to the exterior environment through the process of
  2. exocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. phagocytosis.
  5. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  6. endocytosis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Phagocytosis is a process that takes place in the cell membrane to allow movement of molecules into the cell. The membrane initially surrounds the molecule during the stage of
  2. exocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. receptor-mediated phagocytosis.
  5. invagination.
  6. endocytosis.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following processes does not involve the uptake of materials into the cell?
  2. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  3. Pinocytosis
  4. Endocytosis
  5. Exocytosis
  6. Phagocytosis

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. White blood cells can defend the body against invaders through
  2. phagocytosis.
  3. pinocytosis.
  4. active transport.
  5. exocytosis.
  6. receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If a person becomes dehydrated and needs to acquire dissolved solutes rapidly, which cellular process would likely be accelerated?
  2. Osmosis
  3. Diffusion
  4. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  5. Phagocytosis
  6. Pinocytosis

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. An important difference between phagocytosis and receptor-mediated endocytosis is that
  2. in phagocytosis, the membrane forms coated vesicles.
  3. vesicles do not form in receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  4. dissolved substances can be taken up by phagocytosis.
  5. receptor-mediated endocytosis is more specific.
  6. macromolecules can enter through receptor-mediated endocytosis.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. A specific ligand in receptor-mediated endocytosis is most likely
  2. a dissolved solute that enters the membrane.
  3. clathrin-coated pits on the membrane.
  4. a bacterium that is capable of being phagocytosed.
  5. free cholesterol that is unpackaged.
  6. a specific macromolecule.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which is the most likely method for a cell to acquire a highly specific large molecule from the environment?
  2. Formation of membrane vesicles
  3. Phagocytosis
  4. Active transport
  5. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  6. Fusion with lysosomes

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. If a cell needs to acquire cholesterol from the bloodstream, what changes will it make to its membrane?
  2. The membrane will form vesicles to trap cholesterol.
  3. The membrane will allow cholesterol to diffuse into the cytoplasm.
  4. Membrane receptors will actively transport the cholesterol.
  5. The membrane will surround cholesterol molecules via phagocytosis.
  6. Specific receptors for cholesterol will be inserted into the membrane.

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If a macromolecule required by a cell exists in low extracellular concentrations, which method of uptake would be most efficient?
  2. Active transport
  3. Receptor-mediated endocytosis
  4. Diffusion
  5. Antiporter transport
  6. Endocytosis

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. The function of the clathrin molecules that coat vesicles in receptor-mediated endocytosis is to
  2. recognize specific molecules.
  3. provide strength and stability.
  4. contain dissolved substances.
  5. fuse with the plasma membrane.
  6. fuse with a lysosome.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Persons with the inherited disease familial hypercholesterolemia have very high levels of cholesterol because of
  2. an inability of the liver to release cholesterol into the blood.
  3. the inability to produce cholesterol.
  4. deficient LDL receptor proteins that bind cholesterol in the liver.
  5. deficient lysosomes in the liver.
  6. defective clathrin-coated vesicles.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. In receptor-mediated endocytosis, a ligand will bind its receptor at a specific area of the cell membrane known as a coated pit. Which of the following is a function of the proteins coating the coated pits?
  2. Supporting the receptors
  3. Fusing with a lysosome
  4. Providing stability for the vesicle
  5. Targeting the coated vesicle to the lysosome
  6. All of the above

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Hard

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Mammalian cells are able to capture specific macromolecules from their environment by the process of
  2. pinocytosis.
  3. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  4. vesicle transport.
  5. phagocytosis.
  6. diffusion.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Easy

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following steps can occur in both endocytosis and exocytosis?
  2. Materials are released into the cytoplasm.
  3. Membrane receptors bind to specific ligands.
  4. Fusion of vesicles with the exterior of the plasma membranes.
  5. Fusion of lysosomes and cell membranes.
  6. Vesicles cause pores to form in the plasma membrane.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. If you are exposed to invading bacteria that start to make you feel weak and dehydrated, what responses would you hope that your body would begin to have at the cellular level?
  2. Osmosis of dissolved solutes and endocytosis of water
  3. Diffusion of the bacteria and increased turgor pressure
  4. Pinocytosis of dissolved solutes and phagocytosis of the bacteria
  5. Decreased vesicle fusion and increased clathrin-coated vesicles
  6. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of the bacteria and increases exocytosis of water

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Difficulty: Medium

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

 

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS

(By Laurel Hester)

 

  1. Which of the following statements regarding cellular membranes is false?
  2. The hydrophobic nature of the phospholipid tails limits the migration of polar molecules across the membrane.
  3. Integral proteins and phospholipids move fluidly throughout the membrane.
  4. Membrane phospholipids flip back and forth from one side of the bilayer to the other.
  5. Glycolipids and glycoproteins serve as recognition sites on the cell membrane.
  6. All of the above are true; none is false.

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Which of the following contributes to differences in the two sides of the cell membrane?
  2. Differences in peripheral proteins
  3. Different domains expressed on the ends of integral proteins
  4. Differences in phospholipid types
  5. Differences in the carbohydrates attached to membrane proteins
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Which of the following cell membrane components serve as recognition signals for interactions between cells?
  2. Cholesterol
  3. Glycolipids
  4. Phospholipids
  5. Carrier proteins
  6. All of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.1 What Is the Structure of a Biological Membrane?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following would most likely disable a cell’s ability to move without affecting other cellular processes?
  2. Removing the carbohydrate parts from cell glycoproteins
  3. Breaking the desmosome linkages between cells
  4. Preventing the formation of new integrin–actin bonds
  5. Disabling the gap junctions
  6. Dissolving the extracellular matrix surrounding the cell

Answer: c

Textbook Reference: 6.2 How Is the Plasma Membrane Involved in Cell Adhesion and Recognition?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. You are monitoring the diffusion of a molecule across a membrane. Of the options listed below, the fastest rate of diffusion would result from an internal concentration of _______ and an external concentration of _______.
  2. 5; 60
  3. 35; 40
  4. 50; 40
  5. 50; 50
  6. 100; 120

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. If a red blood cell with an internal salt concentration of about 0.85 percent is placed in a saline solution that is 4 percent, the
  2. cell will lose water and shrivel.
  3. cell will gain water and burst.
  4. turgor pressure in the cell will increase greatly.
  5. turgor pressure in the cell will decrease greatly.
  6. cell will remain unchanged.

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Solution X is hypotonic relative to solution Y if solution X has a solute concentration that is _______ solution Y.
  2. greater than that of
  3. lower than that of
  4. the same as that of
  5. Both a and c
  6. Both b and c

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following statements about osmosis is false?
  2. Osmosis refers to the movement of water along a concentration gradient.
  3. In osmosis, water moves to equalize solute concentrations on either side of the membrane.
  4. The movement of water across a membrane can affect the turgor pressure of some cells.
  5. If osmosis occurs across a membrane, then diffusion is not occurring.
  6. Water moves through membrane channels during the process of osmosis.

Answer: d

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Channel proteins allow ions that would not normally pass through the cell membrane to pass through via the channel. The property of the channel protein that makes this possible is its pore, which is composed of
  2. polar amino acid groups.
  3. hydrophobic amino acid groups.
  4. Ca2+.
  5. carbohydrates.
  6. None of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which of the following affects the movement of molecules by means of carrier-mediated facilitated diffusion?
  2. The concentration gradient
  3. The number of carrier molecules
  4. The availability of carrier molecules
  5. Temperature
  6. All of the above

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. Active transport differs from passive transport in that active transport
  2. uses up energy.
  3. always involves direct coupling of ATP hydrolysis as molecules cross the membrane.
  4. moves molecules from high concentrations to low concentrations.
  5. Both a and c
  6. Both b and c

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4. What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Single-celled animals such as amoebas engulf entire cells for food. This manner of “eating” is called
  2. exocytosis.
  3. endocytosis.
  4. facilitative transport.
  5. active transport.
  6. osmosis.

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.4. What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Many cells have sodium–potassium pumps in their plasma membranes. In order to function, sodium– potassium pumps require
  2. ATP.
  3. a channel protein.
  4. the absence of a concentration gradient.
  5. ADP.
  6. All of the above

Answer: a

Textbook Reference: 6.4. What Are the Active Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Bacterial cells are often found in very hypotonic environments. Which of the following characteristics prevents them from taking in too much water from their environment?
  2. The presence of a cell wall, which allows for a buildup of tonic pressure, preventing additional water from entering the cell
  3. The presence of a cell wall, which allows for a buildup of turgor pressure, preventing additional water from entering the cell
  4. The capacity of the cell to expel water as quickly as it takes it up
  5. The presence of an active water pump
  6. None of the above

Answer: b

Textbook Reference: 6.3 What Are the Passive Processes of Membrane Transport?

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. A researcher is investigating the movement of signaling molecule X into a cell. The concentration of X outside the cell is manipulated over a wide range of concentrations, and the rate at which X enters the cell is measured. The graph below represents the data collected. Based on this data, which of the following processes is most likely responsible for X’s entrance into the cell?

 

 

  1. Osmosis
  2. Active transport
  3. Exocytosis
  4. Facilitated diffusion
  5. Diffusion

Answer: e

Textbook Reference: 6.5 How Do Large Molecules Enter and Leave a Cell?

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

 

CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (from Textbook)

 

  1. When a hormone molecule binds to a specific protein on the plasma membrane, the protein it binds to is called a
  2. ligand.
  3. clathrin.
  4. receptor protein.
  5. hydrophobic protein.
  6. cell adhesion molecule.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which statement about membrane proteins is not true?
  2. They all extend from one side of the membrane to the other.
  3. Some serve as channels for ions to cross the membrane.
  4. Many are free to migrate laterally within the membrane.
  5. Their position in the membrane is determined by their structure.
  6. Some have both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions.

Answer: a

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which statement about membrane carbohydrates is not true?
  2. Some are bound to proteins.
  3. Some are bound to lipids.
  4. They are added to proteins in the Golgi apparatus.
  5. They show little diversity.
  6. They are important in recognition reactions at the cell surface.

Answer: d

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Which statement about ion channels is not true?
  2. They form pores in the membrane.
  3. They are proteins.
  4. All ions pass through the same type of channel.
  5. Movement through them is from regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration.
  6. Movement through them is by diffusion.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Facilitated diffusion and active transport both
  2. require ATP.
  3. require the use of proteins as carriers or channels.
  4. carry ions and not small molecules.
  5. increase without limit as the concentration gradient increases.
  6. depend on the solubility of the solute in lipids.

Answer: b

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. Primary and secondary active transport both
  2. generate ATP.
  3. are based on passive movement Na+ ions.
  4. include the passive movement of glucose molecules.
  5. use ATP directly.
  6. can move solutes against their concentration gradients.

Answer: e

Bloom’s Category: 1. Remembering

 

  1. You are studying how the protein transferrin enters cells. When you examine cells that have taken up transferrin, you find it inside clathrin-coated vesicles. Therefore the most likely mechanism for uptake of transferrin is
  2. facilitated diffusion.
  3. an antiporter.
  4. receptor-mediated endocytosis.
  5. gap junctions.
  6. ion channels.

Answer: c

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Muscle function requires calcium ions (Ca2+) to be pumped into a subcellular compartment against a concentration gradient. What types of molecules are required for this to happen?

Answer: The pumping of Ca2+ requires a lipid bilayer membrane to separate compartments, a protein pump in the membrane, and ATP to provide energy for pumping.

Bloom’s Category: 2. Understanding

 

  1. Section 27.2 will describe the diatoms, which are protists that have complex glassy structures in their cell walls (see Figure 27.8). These structures form within the Golgi apparatus. How do these structures reach the cell wall without having to pass through a membrane?

 

 

Answer: Diatom wall components move from the Golgi apparatus to the cell wall by exocytosis.

Bloom’s Category: 3. Applying

 

  1. Organisms that live in fresh water are almost always hypertonic to their environment. In what way is this a serious problem? How could some organisms cope with this problem?

Answer: Living in a hypotonic environment (cells hypertonic) results in a tendency for water to enter the organism by osmosis, which can cause swelling and dilute cell contents. Some organisms get around this by using reverse pinocytosis (exocytosis) to remove fluid.

Bloom’s Category: 4. Analyzing

 

  1. When a normal lung cell becomes a lung cancer cell, there are several important changes in plasma membrane properties. How would you investigate the following phenomena? (a) The cancer cell membrane is more fluid, with more rapid diffusion in the plane of the membrane of both lipids and proteins. (b) The cancer cell has altered cell adhesion properties, binding to other tissues in addition to lung cells.

Answer: Experiments might involve the following:

To measure membrane fluidity, label a small amount of a lipid or protein with a dye and allow it to incorporate into a cell’s membrane. This may make a localized labeled spot on the cell. The localized region will be seen to diffuse over the cell over time. In the cancer cells, this rate of diffusion may be faster.

To measure cell adhesion, dissociate cancer and normal tissue cells. Incubate for a period of time and determine the rate at which cancer cells and normal lung cells bind to cells from the other tissues besides lung. The cancer cells may bind to a greater extent than normal cells.

Bloom’s Category: 5. Evaluating