## Description

# Medical Dosage Calculations 10^{th} Edition Olsen Giangrasso Shrimpton Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0132156615

ISBN-10: 013215661X

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# Olsen, Giangrasso, Shrimpton, *Medical Dosage Calculations* 10^{th} Edition

Chapter 10

**Question 1**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV of NS 1,000 mL is to infuse over 12 hours. The drop factor is 10 gtt/mL. Calculate the flow rate in gtt/min.

- 14 gtt/min.
- 13.8 gtt/min.
- 50 gtt/min.
- 500 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1000 mL/12 h x 10 gtt/mL x 1 h/ 60 min = 13.8

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in gtt/minute

**Question 2**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: 2,000 mL D_{5}W IV infused in six hours. The drop factor is 15 gtt/mL. Calculate the flow rate in gtt/min.

- 83 gtt/min.
- 133 gtt/min.
- 3 gtt/min.
- 84 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **2000 mL/6 h x 15 gtt/mL x 1 h/ 60 min = 83.3

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in gtt/minute

**Question 3**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV of 1,000 mL NS is to infuse over eight hours. The drop factor is 10 gtt/mL. Calculate the flow rate in gtt/min.

- 13 gtt/min.
- 21 gtt/min.
- 75 gtt/min.
- 23 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1000 mL/8 h x 10 gtt/mL x 1 h/60 min = 20.8

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in gtt/minute

**Question 4**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 75 mL/h. If the drop factor is 20 gtt/mL, what would this rate

of flow equal in gtt/min.?

- 4 gtt/min.
- 240 gtt/min.
- 25 gtt/min.
- 225 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **75mL/hour x 20 gtt/ mL x 1 h/60 min = 25

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in gtt/minute

**Question 5**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 125 mL/h. If the drop factor is 15 gtt/mL, what would this

rate of flow equal in gtt/min.?

- 8 gtt/min.
- 31 gtt/min.
- 32 gtt/min.
- 50 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **125mL/hour x 15 gtt/mL x 1 h/60 min = 31.25

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in gtt/minute

**Question 6**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: 1,000 mL NS to infuse in eight hours. At what rate in mL/h will you set the pump?

- 125 mL/hr
- 250 mL/hr
- 1600 mL/hr
- 16,000 mL/hr

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1,000 mL/8 h = 125 mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in mL/h

**Question 7**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: 600 mL D_{5}W IV to infuse in six hours. At what rate in mL/h will you set the pump?

- 100 mL/hr
- 10 mL/hr
- 1.7 mL/hr
- 60 mL/hr

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **600 ÷ 6 = 100 mL/hr.

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in mL/h

**Question 8**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 30 gtt/min. If the drop factor is 20 gtt/mL, what would this rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 600 mL/hr
- 10 mL/hr
- 100 mL/hr
- 90 mL/hr

**Correct Answer: **4

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **30 gtt/min x mL/20 gtt x 60 min/h = 90

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in mL/h

**Question 9**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 25 gtt/min. If the drop factor is 10 gtt/mL, what would this

rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 250 mL/hr
- 4.2 mL/hr
- 150 mL/hr
- 15,000 mL/hr

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **25 gtt/min x mL/10 gtt x 60 min/h = 150

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in mL/h

**Question 10**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 45 gtt/min. If the drop factor is 15 gtt/mL, what would this rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 30 mL/h
- 180 mL/h
- 18 mL/h
- 3 mL/h

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **45 gtt/min x mL/15 gtt x 60 min/h = 180

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Find the flow rate in mL/h

**Question 11**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 47 mcgtt/min. What would this rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 47 mL/hr
- 4.7 mL/hr
- 470 mL/hr
- 12 mL/hr

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **mcgtt/min = mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 12**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 120 mL/h. What would this rate of flow equal in mcgtt/min.?

- 53 mcgtt/min.
- 120 mcgtt/min.
- 12 mcgtt/min.
- 1.2 mcgtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 13**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 10 mcgtt/min. What would this rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 10 mL/h
- 1 mL/h
- 100 mL/h
- 0.6 mL/h

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **mcgtt/min = mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 14**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 23 mcgtt/min. What would this rate of flow equal in mL/h?

- 23 mL/h
- 230 mL/h
- 2.3 mL/h
- 18 mL/h

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **mcgtt/min = mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 15**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 73 mL/h. What would this rate of flow equal in mcgtt/min.?

- 730 mcgtt/min.
- 73 mcgtt/min.
- 7.3 mcgtt/min.
- 53 mcgtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **mcgtt/min = mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 16**

**Type: **MCSA

An IV is infusing at 15 mL/h. What would this rate of flow equal in mcgtt/min.?

- 1.5 mcgtt/min.
- 15 mcgtt/min.
- 18 mcgtt/min.
- 150 mcgtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **mcgtt/min = mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Using the fact that mcgtt/min. = mL/h

**Question 17**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 120 mL/h. How many mL will infuse in a three-hour period?

- 40 mL
- 6 mL
- 360 mL
- 400 mL

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **3 x 120 = 360

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 18**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 15 mL/h. How many mL will infuse in an eight-hour period?

- 1.9 mL
- 2 mL
- 120 mL
- 7,200 mL

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **15 x 8 = 120

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 19**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 300 mL/h. How many mL will infuse in a 12-hour period?

- 250 mL
- 25 mL
- 360 mL
- 3,600 mL

**Correct Answer: **4

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **300 x 12 = 3,600

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 20**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 30 gtt/min. The drop factor is 10 gtt/mL. How many milliliters will infuse in 1 1/2 hours?

- 7.5 mL
- 45 mL
- 450 mL
- 270 mL

**Correct Answer: **4

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **30 gtt/min x mL/10 gtt x 60 min/h = 180 mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 21**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 21 gtt/min. The drop factor is 15 gtt/mL. How many milliliters will infuse in 24 hours?

- 2,016 mL
- 7,560 mL
- 126 mL
- 525 mL

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **21 gtt/min x mL/15 gtt x 60 min/hr = 84 mL/h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 22**

**Type: **MCSA

A continuous IV is infusing at the rate of 10 mcgtt/min. How many milliliters will infuse in 24 hours?

- 4 mL
- 14,400 mL
- 240 mL
- 24 mL

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **10 mcgtt/min = 10 mL/hr

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Volume infused in a given time period

**Question 23**

**Type: **MCSA

Calculate the infusion time for an IV of 1,000 mL running at 75 mL/h.

- 13 hours, 20 minutes
- 13.5 hours
- 13 hours 33 minutes
- 13⅔ hours

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1,000 / 75 = 13.33 h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 24**

**Type: **MCSA

Calculate the infusion time for an IV of 2,000 mL running at 125 mL/h.

- 250,000 minutes
- 16 h
- 4,166 minutes
- 8 h

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **2,000 / 125 = 16

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 25**

**Type: **MCSA

Calculate the infusion time for an IV of 1,500 mL running at 25 gtt/min. if the drop factor is 15 gtt/mL.

- 15 h
- 41.7 h
- 898 h
- 60 h

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1,500 mL x 15 gtt/mL x min/25 gtt x h/25 gtt = 15 h

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 26**

**Type: **MCSA

The time is 4:30 p.m. An IV has 1,400 mL remaining in the bag. The pump is running at 125 mL/h. At what time (use military time) will the IV finish?

- 1642 h
- 1542 h
- 0342 h
- 0330 h

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **1,400 / 125 = 11.2; 11.2 h = 11 h 12 min

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 27**

**Type: **MCSA

The time is 8:00 a.m. An IV has 200 mL remaining in the bag. The pump is running at 15 mL/h. At what time (use military time) will the IV finish?

- 2120 h
- 2133 h
- 9:33 p.m.
- 9:20 a.m.

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **200 / 15 = 13 1/3

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 28**

**Type: **MCSA

The time is 8:30 p.m. An IV has 400 mL remaining in the bag. The pump is running at 80 mL/h. At what time (use military time) will the IV finish?

- 0130 h
- 1330 h
- 1230 h
- 0030 h

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **400 / 8 = 5

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Duration of an infusion and time at which an infusion will finish

**Question 29**

**Type: **MCSA

*Order: NS 1,000 mL IV stat. at 125 mL/h for eight hours*.

Because the drop factor is 10 gtt/mL, the initial flow rate was correctly set at 21 gtt/min. After four hours, 600 mL remain to be infused. The infusion is behind schedule. Compute the new flow rate in gtt/min. so that the infusion will finish on time. If flow rates may not be adjusted more than 25% of the original rate, to what rate would you reset the drip rate, or would you contact the prescriber instead?

- Contact the prescriber.
- 25 gtt/min.
- 150 gtt/min.
- 23 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **25/125 = 20%

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Readjusting the flow rate (within facility limits)

**Question 30**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: D_{5}W 1,000 mL IV at 50 mL/h for 20 hours.

The initial flow rate was correctly set at 50 mcgtt/min. After five hours, 600 mL remain to be infused. The infusion is ahead of schedule. Compute the new flow rate in mcgtt/min. so that the infusion will finish on time. If flow rates may not be adjusted more than 25% of the original rate, to what rate would you reset the drip rate, or would you contact the prescriber instead?

- Contact the prescriber.
- 40 mcgtt/min.
- 12 mcgtt/min.
- 2.4 mcgtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **10/50 = 20%

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Readjusting the flow rate (within facility limits)

**Question 31**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: NS 1,500 mL IV at 125 mL/h for 12 hours.

Since the drop factor is 20 gtt/mL, the initial flow rate was correctly set at 42 gtt/min. After six hours, 900 mL remain to be infused. The infusion is behind schedule. Compute the new flow rate in gtt/min. so that the infusion will finish on time. If flow rates may not be adjusted more than 25% of the original rate, to what rate would you reset the drip rate, or would you contact the prescriber instead?

- Contact the prescriber.
- 45 gtt/min.
- 21 gtt/min.
- 50 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **4

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **25/125 = 20%

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Readjusting the flow rate (within facility limits)

**Question 32**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: NS 2,000 mL IV at 125 mL/h for 16 hours.

Since the drop factor is 10 gtt/mL, the initial flow rate was correctly set at 21 gtt/min. After 10 hours, 850 mL remain to be infused. The infusion is behind schedule. Compute the new flow rate in gtt/min. so that the infusion will finish on time. Note that flow rates may not be adjusted more than 25% of the original rate. To what rate would you reset the drip rate, or would you contact the prescriber instead?

- Contact prescriber.
- 23 gtt/min.
- 24 gtt/min.
- 85 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **3

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **17/125 = 14%

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Readjusting the flow rate (within facility limits)

**Question 33**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: D5 ¼ NS 240 ml IV at 10 ml/h to infuse over 24 hours.

The initial flow rate was correctly set at 10 mcgtt/min. After eight hours, 220 ml of IV fluid remains to be infused. The infusion is behind schedule. Compute the new flow rate in gtt/min. so that the infusion will finish on time. Note that flow rates may not be adjusted more than 25% of the original rate. To what rate would you reset the drip rate, or would you contact the prescriber instead?

- Contact the prescriber.
- 13 gtt/min.
- 14 gtt/min.
- 9 gtt/min.

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **3.75/10 = 37.5%

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Readjusting the flow rate (within facility limits)

**Question 34**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: For every 100 mL of urine output, replace with 30 mL of water via PEG tube q.4h.

The client’s urine output is 350 mL. What is the replacement volume?

- 10.5 mL
- 105 mL
- 1050 mL
- 11.67 mL

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **350 mL (out) x 30 mL (in)/100 mL (out) = 105

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Intake/output

**Question 35**

**Type: **MCSA

The client drinks one container of milk (1 cup), one container of juice (4 oz.), and a 6 oz. bowl of juice. Record the client’s intake in mL.

- 210 mL
- 540 mL
- 420 mL
- 240 mL

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **8 oz + 4 oz + 6 oz = 18 oz; = 540 mL

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Intake/output

**Question 36**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: Infuse 1 mL of normal saline IV for every 2 ml of urine in excess of 50 mL.

The client’s urine output is 80 mL. How much normal saline will you administer?

- 30 mL
- 15 mL
- 40 mL
- 20 mL

**Correct Answer: **2

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **80 – 50 = 30; 30 (out) x 1 (in)/2 (out) = 15 in

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Intake/output

**Question 37**

**Type: **MCSA

Order: Replace every 2 mL of urine output with 1 mL of water via g-tube.

The client’s urine output is 350 mL. How many mL of water would you administer?

- 175 mL
- 350 mL
- 700 mL
- 17.5 mL

**Correct Answer: **1

**Rationale 1**:

**Rationale 2**:

**Rationale 3**:

**Rationale 4**:

**Global Rationale: **350 (out) x 1(in)/2 (out) = 175 in

**Cognitive Level: **

**Client Need: **

**Client Need Sub: **

**Nursing/Integrated Concepts: **

**Learning Outcome: **Intake/output