Neuroscience Fundamentals for Rehabilitation 4th Edition Lundy-Ekman Test Bank
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Lundy-Ekman: Neuroscience: Fundamentals for Rehabilitation, 4th Edition
Chapter 9: Autonomic Nervous System
- During acute appendicitis, the contribution of the somatosensory nociceptive afferents is which of the following?
- Regulation of visceral function
- Production of skeletal muscle guarding to protect the appendix
- Modulation of respiratory function
- Signaling visceral distress to the brain
- Signaling conscious awareness of pain in the umbilical region
Rationale: Stimulation of nociceptive second-order neurons results in pain sensation referred to the umbilical region (see Figure 9-4).
- Areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that modulate autonomic control include which one of the following?
- Limbic system
- Both A and B
- A, B, and C
Rationale: The hypothalamus, thalamus, and limbic system modulate brainstem autonomic control.
- Which one of the following is NOT a characteristic of the autonomic efferent system?
- Innervates blood vessels in skeletal muscle.
- Hormones regulate effector control.
- Is usually a two-neuron pathway with a synapse outside the CNS.
- Activation of effectors is usually voluntary.
- Neurotransmitters are used for signaling.
Rationale: Unlike the somatic nervous system, regulation of autonomic functions is typically nonconscious and can be exerted hormones.
- Sympathetic activation does NOT produce which of the following?
- Increased blood flow to active muscles
- Increased blood glucose levels
- Increased digestive activity
- Dilation of bronchioles
- Increased heart rate
Rationale: The role of the sympathetic nervous system is often illustrated describing the physiologic responses to fear. When an individual feels threatened, the sympathetic nervous system prepares for vigorous muscle activity; that is, it prepares for fight or flight. Vasoconstriction in the skin and gut increases blood flow to active muscles. Blood glucose levels increase, bronchi and coronary vessels dilate, and blood pressure and heart rate increase. Simultaneously, sympathetic firing reduces activity in the digestive system.
- Capacitance vessels include which of the following?
- Skeletal muscle veins and venules
- Arterioles in the skin
- Arterioles in the CNS
- Skeletal muscle arteries and arterioles
- Arteries in the abdomen
Rationale: Skeletal muscle veins and venules are called capacitance vessels because blood pools in these vessels when their walls are relaxed.
- Drugs that block beta-1 (β1) receptors are used to treat which one of the following?
- Excess sweating
- Metabolic disorders
- Vagus nerve disorders
Rationale: β1-blockers decrease heart rate and contractility without affecting the airways.
- Where are the cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons located?
- Autonomic nuclei of the brainstem
- Lateral horn of spinal cord T1-L2 levels
- Lateral horn of spinal cord S2-S4 levels
- Ganglia adjacent to the spinal cord
- Ganglia near the thoracic cavity
Rationale: Cell bodies of the sympathetic preganglionic neurons are located in the lateral horn of the spinal cord gray matter from the T1 to L2 levels.
- Autonomic regulation of the heart is dependent on which one of the following?
- Parasympathetic fibers of the vagus nerve
- Sympathetic fibers from the thoracic level
- Periaqueductal gray
- Both A and B
- A, B, and C
Rationale: Sympathetic effects on the thoracic viscera include increasing heart rate and contractility (see Figure 9-11). Parasympathetic efferent fibers in the vagus nerve innervate the heart and the smooth muscle of the lungs and digestive system. Vagus nerve activity to the heart produces either bradycardia (slowing of the heart rate) or decreased cardiac contraction force.
- Which of the following signs occurs in Horner’s syndrome?
- Drooping of the upper eyelid
- Constriction of the pupil of the eye
- Vasodilation of skin, with an absence of sweating on the ipsilateral side of the face and neck
- Both A and B
- A, B, and C
Rationale: If a lesion affects the sympathetic pathway to the head, then sympathetic activity on one side of the head is decreased. This reduction leads to ipsilateral drooping of the upper eyelid, constriction of the pupil, and skin vasodilation, with the absence of sweating on the ipsilateral side of the face and neck.
- Which of the following is NOT a cause of syncope?
- Insufficient cardiac output
- Strong emotions
Rationale: Syncope (fainting) is a brief loss of consciousness caused inadequate blood flow to the brain. Causes include powerful emotions, insufficient cardiac output, hypoxia, and hypoglycemia.