Nursing Research Generating and Assessing 8th Edition Polit Beck Test Bank
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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:
|1.||Which of the following statements is true?|
|A)||The results of statistical testing have direct meaning.|
|B)||Evaluating the credibility of a study typically involves a careful assessment of methodologic decisions.|
|C)||Support of a researcher’s hypothesis through statistical testing offers proof of its veracity.|
|D)||A correlation between two variables indicates that the independent variable caused the dependent variable.|
|A credibility assessment requires a careful analysis of the study’s methodologic and conceptual limitations and strengths. Statistical testing results do not always have direct meaning, but often must be interpreted. Empirical evidence supporting research hypotheses never constitutes proof of their veracity. Correlation between two variables does not prove causation.|
|2.||Information about the precision of results typically is communication in the form of which of the following?|
|B)||Effect size estimates|
|Confidence intervals (CIs) communicate information about how precise (or imprecise) the study results are. Statistical significance indicates that the results are unlikely to be due to chance. Effect size pertains to sample size and power analysis, whereas correlation coefficients pertain to the intensity and direction of relationships between variables.|
|3.||Information about the magnitude or importance of results typically takes the form of which of the following?|
|B)||Effect size estimates|
|It is imperative to compute effect sizes as a means of illustrating magnitude of importance of results. Confidence intervals (CIs) communicate information about how precise (or imprecise) the study results are. Statistical significance indicates that the results are unlikely to be due to chance. Correlation coefficients pertain to the intensity and direction of relationships between variables.|
|4.||Which of the following is an aspect or dimension of the interpretive task? Select all that apply.|
|A)||The accuracy or credibility of the results|
|B)||The meaning of the results|
|C)||The vigor of the results|
|D)||The implications of the results|
|Ans:||A, B, D|
|The interpretation of quantitative research results (the outcomes of the statistical analyses) typically involves consideration of: (1) the credibility of the results; (2) precision of estimates of effects; (3) magnitude of effects; (4) underlying meaning; (5) generalizability; and (6) implications for future research and nursing practice. The “vigor” of the results is not an aspect of the interpretive task.|
|5.||When a researcher makes a Type II error (concludes that no relationship between the independent and dependent variable exists when in fact it does), this could occur because of which of the following? Select all that apply.|
|A)||An anomalous sample|
|B)||Unreliable data collection instruments|
|C)||Problems with adequately implementing the intervention|
|D)||A large sample size|
|Ans:||A, B, C|
|Retention of a false null hypothesis (a Type II error) can result from a variety of methodologic problems, such as poor internal validity, an anomalous sample, a weak statistical procedure, or unreliable measures. In particular, failure to reject null hypotheses is often a consequence of insufficient power, usually reflecting too small a sample size.|
|6.||When a researcher obtains significant results that are opposite to what was originally hypothesized, it is likely that this occurred because of which of the following?|
|A)||Inadequate sample size|
|B)||Unreliable data collection instruments|
|C)||A flawed statistical analysis|
|When significant findings are opposite to what was hypothesized, it is less likely that the methods are flawed than that the reasoning or theory is problematic. The interpretation of such findings should involve comparisons with other research, a consideration of alternate theories, and a critical scrutiny of the research methods.|
|7.||The Results section of a research article summarizes results of which of the following?|
|D)||Interpretation of study findings|
|Study results from statistical analyses are summarized in the Results section of a research article. Researchers present their interpretations of the results in Discussion section. An inference is the act of drawing conclusions based on limited information, using logical reasoning. Conclusions may be presented in the Discussion section or in a separate section, but not in the Results section.|
|8.||It is important that researchers design rigorous study methods to prevent which of the following?|
|C)||Rejection of null hypothesis|
|A researcher’s job is to translate abstract constructs into plausible and meaningful proxies. Another major job concerns efforts to eliminate, reduce, or control biases through rigorous study methods. Researchers do not design rigorous study methods to prevent inferences, rejection of the null hypothesis, and the process of internal audit.|
|9.||A study is investigating the rate of immunization at a community-based clinic. Selection bias is most likely to be present in which of the following samples?|
|A)||Random sample of clients accessing an urgent care clinic|
|B)||Random sample of records of school clinic vaccination rates|
|C)||Convenience sample of mothers who bring children to clinic for vaccinations|
|D)||Convenience sample of high school students who have received required vaccinations|
|Random sampling mitigates the possibility of selection bias. A convenience sample of mothers who opt for vaccination may be a population that is significantly different from the larger population.|
|10.||A main purpose of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) flow diagram is which of the following?|
|A)||Track the progress of study participants|
|B)||Present accurate statistical analyses|
|C)||Compare and contrast current study findings|
|D)||Summarize previous study findings|
|Guidelines called the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials or CONSORT guidelines have been adopted major medical and nursing journals to help readers track study participants. CONSORT flow charts, when available, should be scrutinized in interpreting study results. CONSORT guidelines do not address the study findings or analysis.|
|11.||The purpose of evaluating the evidence that emanates from research articles is to do which of the following?|
|A)||Maintain licensure as a professional nurse|
|B)||Implement protocols already established in one’s clinical area|
|C)||Improve one’s clinical assessment skills|
|D)||Decide whether recommendations might be implemented|
|Best evidence is necessary to systematically determine the possible benefit of nursing treatments. Evaluation of studies is not necessary to maintain licensure, improve one’s clinical assessment skills, or implement protocols that are already established.|
|12.||A researcher must select a sample that is representative of the population. Which of the following venues would be most practical for recruitment of patients with primary hypertension?|
|B)||High school clinic|
|C)||Primary care clinic|
|D)||Acute care hospital|
|Individuals with primary hypertension are more likely to be receiving care, and thus accessible to a researcher, in a primary care clinic than in a school clinic or prenatal clinic. Most individuals with primary hypertension are not hospitalized.|
|13.||A researcher plans to use a proxy variable to measure the concept of patient outcome. Which of the following would be an appropriate variable to use?|
|A)||Length of stay in hospital|
|A proxy variable is a measurable variable that stands in place of the variable of interest. The variable of interest is sometimes impractical to measure because of technical difficulty, excessive expense, ambiguity, abstraction, or multiple facets. In the case of patient outcome, the concept has too many facets to allow a practical enquiry. Length of hospital stay is often chosen when rapidity of response to the pre-morbid state is the study’s principal focus. Eligibility for Medicare, staffing ratios, and falls risk are not outcomes: they are, according to Donabedian’s framework, structures of care|
|14.||Researchers conducting an exercise intervention study with overweight adults recruited a sample of 250 adults from a primary care clinic. Of the 250 adults, 82 participants completed the study. The 82 participants represent what type of sample?|
|The actual sample consists of the original (recruited) sample minus all individuals who failed to complete the study. The target population is all individuals for whom the study findings may be directly relevant and applicable.|
|15.||The term validity refers to which of the following?|
|A)||Truth of an inference|
|B)||Honesty of the report|
|C)||Accuracy of the measurement|
|D)||Preparation of the researcher|
|As the research methodology experts Shadish and colleagues (2002) have stated, “We use the term validity to refer to the approximate truth of an inference” (p. 34). Validity is not synonymous with honesty, though the two terms are indeed congruent. Similarly, validity is not defined as accuracy or preparation.|
|16.||A study reports a 60% rate of attrition among the participants. This finding suggests which of the following?|
|A)||A threat to internal validity|
|B)||Lack of recruitment|
|The study’s internal validity (the extent to which a causal inference can be made) is affected sample composition. For example, attrition can effect sample composition and thus internal validity. Were those in the intervention group more likely (or less likely) than those in the control group to drop out of the study? If so, any observed differences in outcomes could be caused individual differences in the groups (for example, differences in motivation), rather than the intervention itself. This does not necessarily mean that the original sample was inadequate. Compensation and incentives may have been inadequate. High attrition is not relevant to the measurements that were used.|
|17.||A p-value is a measure of the likelihood that the statistical results were obtained in error. A confidence interval, on the other hand, provides which of the following?|
|A)||The range of the measured values in the sample reported in the research report|
|B)||The probability that similar results will be obtained in error, in the future|
|C)||The range of probable values of the variable in the population|
|D)||The likelihood that the results will be useful in practice|
|A p-value offers information that is important, but incomplete. Confidence intervals (CIs), contrast, communicate information about how precise (or imprecise) the study results are. CIs indicate the strength of evidence about quantities of direct interest, such as treatment benefit.|
|18.||The fact that research study findings are statistically significant indicates which of the following?|
|A)||Intervention was effective|
|B)||Methods were valid|
|C)||Results were unlikely due to chance|
|D)||Sample size was adequate|
|Statistical significance indicates that the results are unlikely to be due to chance—not that they are necessarily important or clinically effective. Statistical significance does not necessarily demonstrate that the methods were valid or the sample size was adequate or the intervention is effective.|