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Nutrition and Diet Therapy 10th Edition Roth Test Bank

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Nutrition and Diet Therapy 10th Edition Roth Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1435486294

ISBN-10: 1435486293

 

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Nutrition and Diet Therapy 10th Edition Roth Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-1435486294

ISBN-10: 1435486293

 

 

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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

 

CHAPTER 18: DIET AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What are some modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis?
a. diet and lifestyle c. heredity
b. diabetes mellitus d. age

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. What is the desirable blood cholesterol level recommended by the American Heart Association?
a. 200 mg/dl c. 240 mg/dl
b. 200–239 mg/dl d. 140 mg/dl

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. Which of the following represents a diet low in saturated fat?
a. whole milk and oatmeal
b. bacon, lettuce, and cheese hamburger
c. fish and chips (French fries)
d. turkey and tomato sandwich with pretzels

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. Which of the following foods contains a high amount of cholesterol?
a. egg yolks c. soft margarine
b. peanuts d. olive oil

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. How is sodium a predisposing factor in hypertension?
a. It causes fluids to move too quickly to the kidneys, which puts extra pressure on the blood vessels.
b. It acts as a diuretic and causes a loss of body fluids.
c. An increased intake of sodium causes fluid shifts in the body, which puts extra pressure on the blood vessels.
d. An increase of sodium dilates blood vessels.

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. When a client is diagnosed with hypertension, the dietitian may be asked by the physician to
a. provide a calorie-controlled diet for the client
b. provide a sodium-restricted diet for the client
c. educate and counsel the client regarding their required diet
d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. What does the Food and Nutrition Board recommend for daily sodium intake?
a. 7 mg per day c. 500 mg per day
b. 2,300 mg per day d. 5 g/day

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A

TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. Which product listed below contains sodium and is used to bleach certain fruits to attain an artificial color?
a. sodium benzoate c. sodium sulfite
b. sodium propionate d. disodium phosphate

 

 

ANS:  C                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. What is the general term for vascular disease in which arteries “harden”?
a. atherosclerosis c. cardiovascular disease
b. arteriosclerosis d. myocardial infarction

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. What is the name of the condition in which blood flow, and thus oxygen and nutrients, to the tissues is reduced?
a. ischemia c. hyperlipidemia
b. angina pectoris d. hypertension

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. When the lumen narrows and a blood clot forms, what could occur?
a. ischemia c. cardiovascular disease
b. atherosclerosis d. myocardial infarction

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Atherosclerosis is defined as
a. hardening of the arteries resulting in reduced blood flow
b. reduced blood supply to arteries and veins
c. the inner lining of arteries through which oxygen is delivered and waste is removed
d. accumulation of substances resulting in weakening and thickening of artery walls

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Blood flow that is blocked from tissues that are located some distance from the heart is called
a. cerebrovascular accident c. thrombus disease
b. angina pectoris d. peripheral vascular disease

 

 

ANS:  D                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Which of the following foods should be limited on a low-cholesterol diet?
a. whole milk c. chicken
b. potatoes d. enriched bread

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    A

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. Those diagnosed with metabolic syndrome are at increased risk of_____.
a. type 1 diabetes c. hypokalemia
b. coronary heart disease d. all of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Introduction

 

  1. _____ tend to reduce serum cholesterol.
a. Unsaturated fats c. Triglycerides
b. Saturated fats d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. The primary treatment for hyperlipidemia is _____.
a. medical nutrition therapy c. exercise
b. statin medications d. weight loss

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. How long does it take for a client to adjust to a low-fat diet?
a. 2–3 months c. 2–3 weeks
b. 1–2 weeks d. 1–2 months

 

 

ANS:  A                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. Hypokalemia refers to a low level of _____ in the blood.
a. sodium c. chloride
b. potassium d. none of the above

 

 

ANS:  B                    PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Congestive Heart Failure

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Discuss the formation of plaque.

 

ANS:

Plaque deposits are made from fats, cholesterol, and other substances that accumulate over time within the inner lining of arteries, resulting in thickening and weakening of the walls. The plaque reduces the size of the lumen, resulting in a decreased amount of blood flow to the tissues. The reduced flow prevents an adequate supply of nutrients and oxygen from reaching the tissues.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Differentiate low-density lipoproteins (LDL) from high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

 

ANS:

LDLs carry most of the cholesterol to the cells, which contributes to atherosclerosis. HDLs carry cholesterol from the tissue to the liver for excretion from the body. HDLs are considered “good” cholesterol, and LDLs are considered “bad.”

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Discuss causes and risk factors for hyperlipidemia.

 

ANS:

Hypertension, smoking, obesity, diabetes mellitus, male sex, heredity, personality type, ability to handle stress, and sedentary lifestyle

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Discuss the impact of fiber on cholesterol levels.

 

ANS:

Medical research studies have concluded that water-soluble fiber binds with substances containing cholesterol and prevents their reabsorption into the blood. Soluble fiber of 25–35 g is believed to reduce cholesterol by as much as 15%.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. Discuss the use of sodium and salt by the general population. Include consumption, recommended dietary amount (RDA), and food sources.

 

ANS:

A recommendation from the Food and Nutrition Board is that for adults the daily intake of sodium be limited to no more than 2,300 mg, with a safe minimum of 500 mg/day. The average adult consumes as much as 7,000 mg/day. Meat, fish, poultry, dairy products, and eggs all contain a substantial amount of sodium. Water, over-the-counter medications, prepared dinners, soft drinks, snacks, and canned foods contain sodium.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. List and define the four blood pressure categories.

 

ANS:

Normal—less than 120/less than 80 mm Hg

Prehypertension—120–139/80–88 mm Hg

Stage 1 hypertension—140–159/90–99 mm Hg

Stage 2 hypertension—160/100 mm Hg

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                   TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. Compare and contrast primary and secondary hypertension.

 

ANS:

Primary, or essential, hypertension refers to hypertension with an unknown cause. Primary hypertension accounts for 90% of hypertension cases. The remaining 10% of cases of hypertension are secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension is caused by another problem. Some causes of secondary hypertension include kidney disease, problems with the adrenal glands, and use of oral contraceptives.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                   TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) plan has been shown to reduce high blood pressure. A core component of this plan is to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. How many servings of fruits and vegetables per day are encouraged on this plan? List four potassium-rich fruits and four potassium-rich vegetables.

 

ANS:

The DASH plan recommends 8–12 servings of fruits and vegetables each day, depending on calorie intake.

 

Potassium-rich fruits: apricots, oranges, bananas, avocados, cantaloupe, dates, figs, raisins, honeydew melon, grapefruit, kiwifruit, peaches, pineapple, prunes, strawberries

 

Potassium-rich vegetables: asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, green beans, pumpkin, squash, tomatoes, spinach, potatoes, sweet potatoes, yams

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                   TOP:   Hypertension

 

MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. In severe cases of edema, it is possible for a client to adhere to a diet that is totally salt-free. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, impossible

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. Cholesterol is found only in animal tissue. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    A

TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. The client who is taking diuretics should be screened for hypokalemia. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Congestive Heart Failure

 

  1. Rheumatic fever is a contributing factor for a myocardial infarction. _________________________

 

ANS:  T                                                     PTS:   1                    DIF:    B

TOP:   Myocardial Infarction

 

  1. Recent research indicates that fats are a primary factor in the development of hypertension. _________________________

 

ANS:  F, sodium

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. The newest guideline for potassium intake is 2,500 mg per day to lower blood pressure. _____________________

 

ANS:  F, 4,700

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                   TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. The sodium in tap water is consistent from one area to another. ___________________

 

ANS:  F, variable

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

CASE

 

James, age 54, had a myocardial infarction two days ago. Initially, he was nauseated and then he became very thirsty.

 

  1. After the initial attack, what diet will James be given?

 

ANS:

He will be NPO for several hours until his condition is stable. A liquid diet will be recommended for the first 24 hours, followed by a low-cholesterol, low-sodium plan.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Myocardial Infarction

 

  1. James is extremely thirsty. Discuss the rationale for this.

 

ANS:

After the attack, the client is in shock, which causes a fluid shift within the cells, resulting in a severe thirst.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Myocardial Infarction

 

  1. Discuss the goal and recommendations for the dietary management of James. State nursing interventions to obtain that goal.

 

ANS:

The goal is to allow the heart to rest and heal. Nursing interventions include: Foods should not be extreme in temperatures, hot or cold. The diet should be easy to chew and digest, with little roughage. Chewing and the activity of the gastrointestinal tract necessary for metabolism of fiber cause extra work for the heart. Types of fats will be limited. Energy needs are based on the individual. Sodium and caffeine will be restricted.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Myocardial Infarction

 

  1. What is the nutritional treatment for hyperlipidemia?

 

ANS:

Reduce the amount and types of fats and calories. When fats are decreased, there is usually a reduction of cholesterol and saturated fats, which is necessary for this alteration.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. James’s cholesterol level is 720. Low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) are high and high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are low. Discuss the implications of this.

 

ANS:

LDLs carry most of the cholesterol to the cells, where it contributes to atherosclerosis. HDLs carry cholesterol to the liver for excretion. James has a low amount of HDL. He should be on a cholesterol-reduced diet.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Atherosclerosis

 

  1. Discuss the implications of smoking for James.

 

ANS:

Smoking contains nicotine, which contributes to the constriction of the narrowed arteries that supply blood flow. Smoking also contributes to the changes in the arteries, making them less flexible and harder.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Care Planning

 

  1. Search the Internet to find the guidelines compiled by the American Heart Association for cholesterol intake. List them.

 

ANS:

Adult diets should contain less than 200 mg of cholesterol per day. Fats should provide no more than 30% of calories. Saturated fats should make up no more than 7% of the total, polyunsaturated fats should not exceed 8%, and monounsaturated fats should not exceed 15%. Carbohydrates should make up 50–55% of the calories. Proteins should make up 12–20%.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

  1. James is discharged on day five, in good condition with a plan to decrease cholesterol in his diet. He returns for a checkup in three months to find out his cholesterol level is 625. The physician plans to order a cholesterol-lowering drug: simvastatin (Zocor) or atorvastatin (Lipitor). Research these drugs for potential food-drug interactions. Identify the interactions.

 

ANS:

Lipitor may increase serum digoxin levels, oral contraceptive levels, and the effects of warfarin. Zocor interacts with grapefruit and its juice, and these should be avoided.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Medical Nutritional Therapy for Hyperlipidemia

 

Ed, age 52, has 3+ edema and a B/P of 180/98. He is 5’10” and weighs 275 lbs. Ed is in mid-management at a new manufacturing company. He has to be very energetic and self-motivated to maintain the demands of his job. Ed, divorced, lives alone and often eats on the run at fast-food places or eats soup, sandwiches, frozen dinners, or salad at home. He says his only vices are “smoking and eating.”

 

  1. What predisposing factors have increased Ed’s risk for hypertension?

 

ANS:

Stress at work, weight, personality type, lifestyle, eating habits, lack of exercise, and history of smoking all increase Ed’s risk for hypertension.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. The physician has ordered a diuretic for Ed. What foods need to be added to his diet? Why?

 

ANS:

Oranges, bananas, prunes, broccoli, tomatoes, green beans, and cabbage are needed to replace potassium lost from the action of the diuretic.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. The dietician calculated Ed’s recommended body weight. What type of diet may be ordered for Ed?

 

ANS:

Calorie-restricted, sodium-restricted, and potassium-rich

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    A                   TOP:   Care Planning

 

  1. How has Ed’s current diet affected his condition?

 

ANS:

His diet is excessive in calories, fats, and sodium with little fiber, fruits, or vegetables. Frozen and processed foods are extremely high in sodium.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    B                    TOP:   Hypertension

 

  1. Compile a list of foods or condiments that are high in sodium.

 

ANS:

Salt, baking powder, baking soda, cheese, preservatives containing forms of sodium, potato chips, other types of snack chips, canned soups, frozen dinners, canned foods, dried, breaded, smoked, or canned fish or meats, salt-topped crackers or breads, salad dressings, catsup, soy sauce, bouillon, processed meats, and many other types of processed foods

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Dietary Treatment for Hypertension

 

  1. Ed is not happy with the sodium restrictions in his diet. How can you teach Ed the importance of adhering to this diet and instruct him in ways to make foods tasteful, without added salt?

 

ANS:

It is important for Ed to realize he must conform to the sodium restrictions for the rest of his life. It can be a gradual reduction to allow his taste to adjust. Flavor can be added with numerous herbs, spices, and other flavorings. Advise him in the practice of reading labels for salt content.

 

PTS:   1                    DIF:    C                    TOP:   Hypertension