Nutrition and Diet Therapy 8th Edition Williams Pinna Whitney Test Bank
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Chapter 12 – Nutrition Through the Life Span:
Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question
T K 318 1. Breast milk or infant formula normally provides enough water to replace fluid losses in healthy infants.
T K 320 2. There are factors in breast milk that protect the infant against infection.
T K 326 3. A child’s appetite begins to diminish around the first birthday.
F K 331 4. A child’s brain is not affected by iron deficiency until a blood deficit of this mineral develops.
T K 330 5. Children who eat nutritious breakfasts function better in school than their peers who do not.
F K 333 6. Allergic reactions to multiple foods are common, while reactions to single foods are the exception.
T K 334 7. Children’s food aversions may be the result of nature’s efforts to protect them from allergic or other adverse reactions.
T K 336 8. Children who spend more than one to two hours daily watching television or other media can become obese even while consuming fewer kcalories than more active children.
T K 339 9. Children forced to try new foods are less likely to try those foods again than are children who are left to decide for themselves.
F K 339 10. The more often a food is presented to a young child, the less likely the child will like that food.
T K 342 11. The problem of obesity is most evident in African American females and in Hispanic children.
T K 342 12. Teenage boys experience a more intense growth spurt and develop more lean body mass than girls do.
Nutrition in Practice – Childhood Obesity and the Early Development of Chronic Diseases
T K 351 13. Restricting dietary sodium causes an immediate drop in most children’s and adolescents’ blood pressure.
T K 352 14. Recommendations limiting fat and cholesterol are not intended for infants or children under two years of age.
T K 353 15. Adult heart disease is a major pediatric problem.
b K 317 1. An infant weighing 7 pounds at birth would normally weigh about _____ pounds at five months of age.
a K 317 2. During what period are kcalorie needs per unit of body weight the highest?
- toddler years
b A 317 3. An infant who weighs 8 pounds will require about _____ kcalories per day.
a K 319 4. Most standard infant formulas are fortified with:
- DHA and arachidonic acid.
- DHA and linoleic acid.
- linolenic and linoleic acid.
- DHA and EPA.
b K 319 5. With the possible exception of _____, the vitamin content of the breast milk of a well-nourished mother is ample.
- vitamin C
- vitamin D
d K 320 6. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a supplement of _____ for all infants who are exclusively breastfed in the first six months of life.
- vitamin C
- folic acid
- vitamin D
b K 319-320 7. Characteristics of breast milk include all of the following except:
- ample vitamin content.
- high in sodium.
- adequate in zinc.
- iron which is highly absorbable.
d K 320 8. Infants are given a single dose of vitamin _____ at birth.
d K 320-321 9. Advantages to breastfeeding include all of the following except:
- it provides protection against the development of allergies.
- it provides possible protection against excessive weight gain later in life.
- it protects against intestinal infections.
- it is the only way to develop a true loving relationship with the baby.
c K 321 10. The only acceptable alternative to breast milk is:
- goat’s milk.
- cow’s milk.
- iron-fortified infant formula.
- low-iron infant formula.
d K 321 11. Which of the following should be used to feed an infant under one year of age who is being weaned from breast milk?
- whole milk
- low-iron infant formula
- evaporated milk
- iron-fortified infant formula
b K 322 12. Which of the following is considered a risk of formula feeding an infant?
- The infant may not receive all of the nutrients he/she needs.
- Formula may be incorrectly prepared and cause malnutrition and growth failure.
- Parents may not be aware that some formulas do not meet FDA requirements.
- Many infants are allergic to formula.
d K 322 13. Children one to two years of age should drink _____ milk.
c K 323 14. A good age to introduce solid foods to infants is:
- one to two weeks.
- two to three months.
- four to six months.
- one year.
- two years.
d K 323 15. All of the following are considerations in deciding when to add solid foods to the diet of an infant except:
- the infant’s nutrient needs.
- the infant’s physical readiness to handle different forms of food.
- the need to detect and control allergic reactions.
- the type of milk the infant is consuming.
b K 323 16. The two nutrients needed early by infants and provided by the introduction of solid foods are:
- protein and calcium.
- iron and vitamin C.
- sodium and fat.
- vitamin D and fluoride.
d K 324 17. Excessive consumption of fruit juice in infants and young children can lead to all of the following except:
- excessive kcal intake.
- poor intake of food.
- toxicity of the water-soluble vitamins.
d K 324 18. Which of the following cereals causes allergy least often?
b K 324-325 19. All of the following foods should be omitted from a baby’s diet except:
- canned vegetables.
- canned fruits.
- corn syrup.
b K 325 20. _____ develops when excessive milk intake displaces iron-rich foods in the diet of a young child.
- Milk anemia
- Growth failure
- Weight loss
a A 325 21. An important aspect of infant feeding is the prevention of future health problems. An appropriate measure is:
- encouragement of eating habits that will support normal weight.
- encouraging the infant to eat only those foods she likes.
- introduction of solid foods as early as possible.
- forcing the infant to finish her bottle.
c A 326 22. Nancy consumes fewer kcalories at 14 months than she did at 11 months. This change in appetite probably indicates that she is:
- ill and needs medical attention.
- not as physically active now as when she was 11 months old.
- in a less rapid stage of growth now.
- becoming malnourished.
c K 327 23. Research studies conducted on preschool children’s food intakes have shown that:
- food energy intake varied very little from meal to meal.
- the total daily energy intake was highly inconsistent.
- if they ate more at one meal, they ate less at the next.
- energy intake decreases as children get older.
a K 327 24. Which of the following statements accurately describes the energy needs of a child?
- Total energy needs increase with age, but energy needs per kilogram of weight decline with age.
- Energy needs fluctuate as children get older.
- Total energy needs decrease with age, but energy needs per kilogram of weight increase with age.
- Energy needs remain the same until puberty.
c K 327 25. Vegan diets must be planned carefully for children, because otherwise they may not provide enough:
a K 327 26. A one-year-old child needs about _____ kcalories a day.
a A 325, 328 27. A child who drinks a lot of milk and won’t consume much else is likely to show signs of:
c K 328 28. To prevent iron deficiency, a child needs _____ mg of iron per day.
d A 328 29. Among the following, the foods that help most to meet children’s iron requirements are:
- milk, cheese, or yogurt.
- dark green, deep orange, or yellow vegetables.
- prunes , grapes, or raisins.
- whole-wheat, enriched, or fortified breads.
c A 328 30. Which of the following foods would provide a child with a rich source of iron?
- ice cream
- bean dip
b K 328, 329 31. According to MyPyramid for Preschoolers and Kids, how many cups of milk or milk products are needed daily for a 2-5 year old child?
a K 330 32. Which of the following is likely to occur if candy, cola, and other concentrated sweets are permitted in large quantities during the growing years?
- nutrient toxicities
- developmental delays
c K 330 33. Which of the following statements is not true?
- Normal-weight children naturally regulate their energy intake.
- The preference for sweet tastes is innate.
- Children can be trusted to naturally choose healthful foods.
- Underweight children can be allowed to eat higher-kcal but nutritious snacks.
c A 330, 339 34. The easiest and most practical way to control the amount of candy and carbonated drinks a child consumes is to:
- prevent the child from knowing of their existence.
- never let the child visit his grandparents.
- limit the availability of these items.
- teach the child that such foods are highly noxious.
a K 330 35. How many ounces from the meat and beans group are needed daily to meet nutrient needs for a child who needs 1000 kcal/day?
d K 330 36. One of the most significant effects of long-term hunger on children is:
- behavioral problems.
- poor performance in school.
- apathetic attitude.
- impaired growth.
b K 331 37. Nutrient deficiencies during childhood:
- have no effect on future health.
- can affect a child’s mood and behavior.
- are directly associated with dysfunctional families.
- are rare.
d K 330-331 38. Children who skip breakfast exhibit all of the following characteristics except:
- lower energy intakes.
- poor concentration.
- lower test scores.
- higher energy intakes.
c K 331 39. The best known and most widespread effects of iron-deficiency anemia are its impacts on:
- memory and sleep patterns.
- growth and athletic performance.
- behavior and intellectual performance.
- the immune system and reading level.
d K 331 40. A child with any of several nutrient deficiencies may be described in all of these ways except:
b A 332 41. To prevent a child’s exposure to lead, you would do all of the following except:
- prevent the child from putting old painted objects in the mouth.
- allow the child to play with crayons made in other countries.
- make sure the child consumes nutritious meals consistently.
- make infant formula with lead-free water.
a K 332 42. When a food protein enters the body and causes an immunologic response, this causes:
- a food allergy.
- an food intolerance.
a K 333 43. Which of the following foods is most likely to cause anaphylactic shock?
b K 333 44. All of these foods are likely to cause allergic reactions except:
d K 334 45. Which of the following statements is true regarding hyperactivity?
- It can be cured with dietary changes.
- It is caused by consuming sugary foods.
- It can be cured by eliminating all food additives.
- It is not caused by poor nutrition.
b K 335 46. Based on data from the BMI-for-age growth charts, children and adolescents are categorized as overweight when their weight is above the _____ percentile.
d A 335 47. Logan is 14 years old and has a BMI in the 85th percentile. His mother’s BMI is 23 and his father’s BMI is 32. Logan’s chance of becoming an obese adult is:
b K 335 48. Which of the following statements regarding children’s food intake and health status is true?
- Children are lighter today than they were 20 years ago.
- The prevalence of overweight in children 6 to 11 years of age and adolescents has tripled over the last three decades.
- Changes in children’s weight status can be largely explained by genetics.
- The increase in children’s weight status can be blamed entirely on poor parenting skills.
c K 336 49. As a strategy to help prevent childhood obesity, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be limited to _____ of television and video time per day.
- 30 minutes
- 1 hour
- 2 hours
- 3 hours
d K 336 50. Which of the following statements about children and television viewing is not true?
- Children who have a TV in their room are more likely to be overweight.
- Children who watch excessive amounts of TV are least likely to eat fruits and vegetables.
- Children who watch excessive amounts of TV often snack on high-fat foods.
- Children who watch excessive amounts of TV are more likely to eat fruits and vegetables.
b K 336 51. A leading cause of pediatric hypertension is:
- a low intake of whole-grain foods.
- excessive sodium intake from soft drink consumption.
- type 1 diabetes.
b K 337 52. The Expert Committee of the American Medical Association recommends healthy habits for children and adolescents to prevent obesity. Which of the following is not one of those recommendations?
- Eat together as a family as often as possible.
- Engage in at least 20 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day.
- Learn to eat age-appropriate portions of foods.
- Limit the frequency of restaurant meals.
d K 336-337 53. Which of the following is not a recommended approach for the treatment of childhood obesity?
- psychological support
- behavior modification
- family involvement
- diet restriction
a K 338 54. Which obese teenager would be considered a candidate for bariatric surgery?
- Preston, who has a BMI of 52 and has an average IQ
- Jacob, who has a BMI of 38 and has reached physical maturity
- Darla, who has type 2 diabetes and hasn’t yet begun to menstruate
- Cynthia, who has just enrolled in a weight-loss program for the first time due to her BMI of 50
c K 339 55. Children are more likely to eat vegetables when they are:
- not seasoned.
- cut in small pieces.
- raw or slightly undercooked.
- overcooked and very soft.
a K 339 56. Power struggles over food arise when:
- parents try to control every aspect of a child’s eating.
- children are allowed to regulate their own food intake.
- parents don’t demonstrate healthy eating habits.
- children are presented with too many food choices.
b A 338 57. Because the interactions between parents and children can set the stage for lifelong attitudes and habits, wise parents:
- do not attempt change.
- treat their child’s food preferences with respect.
- exert continuous pressure to initiate good food habits.
- impose their own eating habits on their children.
- wait until their children start school to initiate changes.
a A 339 58. Positive eating habits for a young child can be promoted by:
- presenting a new food at the beginning of the meal.
- allowing him to stand and play at the table.
- making sure he eats all the food he is given at each meal.
- rewarding him with dessert when he has cleaned his plate.
- offering him a choice of two new foods at a time.
a K 339 59. Children should not be allowed to eat while running because:
- this increases the child’s risk of choking.
- they should not be allowed to play until after meals.
- physical activity in children should be discouraged.
- this increases the child’s risk of food allergies.
c K 340 60. The majority of children who eat school breakfast are:
- from low-income families.
- from high-income families.
b K 341 61. All of the following factors undermine the efforts of the National School Lunch Program to serve nutritious foods at school except:
- short lunch periods and long lines.
- the availability of salad bars.
- access to vending machines.
- the presence of fast-food restaurants.
a A 342 62. The adolescent growth spurt:
- begins earlier in girls than in boys.
- affects every organ except the brain.
- decreases total nutrient needs.
- causes a greater weight gain in girls.
a A 342-343 63. Nutrients often found lacking in teenage groups include:
- iron, calcium, and vitamin D.
- vitamin C, sodium, and protein.
- fat, iron, and fiber.
- calcium, zinc, and vitamin B12.
a K 343 64. Iron intake often does not meet the iron needs of adolescent females because they tend to:
- eat less iron-rich foods and fewer kcalories.
- consume more foods that interfere with iron absorption.
- have a longer growth spurt.
- develop greater lean body mass.
c K 343 65. Adolescents who eat at home with family members:
- tend to gain more weight.
- are less influenced by their peers.
- consume a more nutritious diet.
- watch more television.
a K 343 66. A good way for an adolescent to build and protect her bones is to:
- snack on dairy products.
- eat tuna fish sandwiches for lunch.
- consume more fiber.
- choose low-fat snacks.
c K 344 67. Which of the following statements is not true regarding teenagers and beverages?
- Juice is usually only consumed at breakfast.
- Soft drinks may affect bone density because they displace milk from the diet.
- Girls are more likely to drink enough milk to meet their calcium needs.
- Regular soft drink consumption can contribute to weight gain.
b K 344 68. Snacks provide about _____ of the average teenager’s total daily food energy intake.
b A 343-344 69. At home, where teenagers are frequently snacking, the best strategy for parents is to stock the pantry with:
- plenty of diet drinks and low-fat snacks.
- easy-to-grab foods that are nutritious.
- enough food for only one snack a day.
- 100-kcalorie snack packs.
b K 344 70. Adolescents eat about _____ of their meals away from home, which can enhance or hinder their nutritional well being.
d K 341 71. Schools that participate in the USDA’s National School Lunch Program must develop and implement a wellness policy. By law, wellness policies must accomplish all of the following except:
- set goals for nutrition education and physical activity.
- establish nutrition guidelines for all foods available on school campuses.
- develop a plan to measure implementation of the policy.
- ensure that all curricula include nutrition education.
Nutrition in Practice – Childhood Obesity and the Early Development of Chronic Diseases
b K 350 72. Which of the following statements is true regarding the role of genetics in obesity?
- One is destined at birth to become obese.
- One inherits the potential to become obese.
- Obesity genes come from the mother’s side of the family.
- Obesity genes come from the father’s side of the family.
c K 350-351 73. The most important risk factor for type 2 diabetes in children is:
- food intolerances.
- high cholesterol.
- food allergies.
a K 351 74. Fatty streaks can appear in the arteries as early as:
- the thirties.
- the fifties.
a K 351 75. An acceptable cholesterol level for a child or adolescent is:
- < 170 mg/dL.
- 170-199 mg/dL.
- 200-239 mg/dL.
- > 240 mg/dL.
b K 352-353 76. Persistent high blood cholesterol levels may need to be treated with drugs in children once they are _____ years old.
|a||319||1. alpha-lactalbumin||a. the chief protein in human breast milk.
b. a milklike secretion from the breasts that is rich in protective factors.
c. a protein in breast milk that binds iron and keeps it from supporting the growth of the infant’s intestinal bacteria.
d. factors in colostrum and breast milk that favor the growth of the “friendly” bacterium Lactobacillus bifidus in the infant’s intestinal tract.
e. a protein in breast milk that attacks diarrhea-causing viruses.
f. to gradually replace breast milk with infant formulas or other foods appropriate to an infant’s diet.
g. extensive tooth decay due to prolonged tooth contact with a carbohydrate-rich liquid offered to an infant in a bottle.
|d||320||2. bifidus factors|
|g||323||6. nursing bottle tooth decay|
|f||341||1. adolescence||a. an adverse reaction to food that involves an immune response.
b. an adverse response to a food or food additive that does not involve the immune system.
c. a life-threatening whole-body allergic reaction to an offending substance.
d. one of the stress hormones secreted whenever emergency action is needed; prescribed therapeutically to relax the bronchioles during allergy or asthma attacks.
e. inattentive and impulsive behavior that is more frequent and severe than is typical of others of a similar age.
f. the period of growth from the beginning of puberty until full maturity.
g. the period in life in which a person becomes physically capable of reproduction.
h. with respect to nutrition, a key person who controls other people’s access to foods and thereby exerts a profound impact on their nutrition.
i. the maximum amount of residue permitted in a food when a pesticide is used according to the label directions.
|c||333||2. anaphylactic shock|
|a||333||4. food allergy|
|b||333||5. food intolerance|
|i||333||9. tolerance level|
319-321 1. Describe the nutrient attributes of breast milk and how it is tailor-made to meet the nutrient needs of the human infant.
330-331 2. Describe the relationship between hunger and school performance.
336 3. Identify ways in which watching television adversely affects children’s nutritional health.
336-338 4. Describe an ideal treatment program for childhood obesity.
338-339 5. Describe characteristics of vegetables preferred by children.
340-341 6. Discuss the problems associated with providing nutritious lunches to students at school.
342-343 7. Identify the nutrients most often found lacking in the diets of teenagers.
343-344 8. What is the role of the “gatekeeper” as applied to nutrition?