Organic Chemistry 7th Edition Bruice Test Bank
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Organic Chemistry, 7e (Bruice)
Chapter 5 Alkenes ∙ Thermodynamics and Kinetics
1) What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon that contains 5 carbon atoms, one ring, and one π bond?
2) What is the molecular formula of the hydrocarbon that contains 8 carbon atoms, one ring, and two π bonds?
3) Give the general formula for a cyclic alkene.
- A) CnH2n-4
- B) CnH2n-2
- C) CnH2n
- D) CnH2n+2
- E) CnH2n+2
4) Give the possibilities in structure for a compound with a formula of C6H10.
- A) no rings, no double bonds, no triple bonds
- B) one double bond, or one ring
- C) two rings, two double bonds, one double bond + one ring, or one triple bond
- D) three rings, three double bonds, two double bonds + one ring, one ring + two double bonds, one triple bond + one ring, or one double bond + one ring
- E) benzene
5) Give the degree of unsaturation for benzene.
- A) 1
- B) 2
- C) 3
- D) 4
- E) 5
6) β-Phellandrene is a hydrocarbon component of eucalyptus oil whose molecular formula is A molecule of β-phellandrene contains 2 π-bonds. How many rings are in β-phellandrene?
- A) 0
- B) 1
- C) 2
- D) 3
- E) 4
7) A hydrocarbon with molecular formula C20H34 has what degree of substitution?
- A) 2
- B) 3
- C) 4
- D) 5
- E) 6
8) Muscalure, the sex attractant of the common housefly, is an acyclic alkene that contains 23 carbons. How many hydrogen atoms are in a molecule of muscalure?
9) Provide an acceptable name for the following compound.
Answer: 2-ethyl-5,5-dimethyl-1-hexene or 2-ethyl-5,5-dimethylhex-1-ene
10) Provide an acceptable name for the following compound.
11) Name the structure.
- A) 2-ethyl-1-pentene
- B) 2-propyl-1-butene
- C) 3-methylenehexane
- D) 3-methyl-3-hexene
- E) ethyl propyl ethene
12) Name the structure.
- A) 2-methyl-2,4-pentadiene
- B) 4-methyl-1,4-pentadiene
- C) 2-methylene-4-pentene
- D) 4-methylene-2-pentene
- E) 2-methyl-1,4-pentadiene
13) Name the structure.
- A) 7-chloro-3-ethyl-4-methyl-3-heptene
- B) 1-chloro-5-ethyl-4-methyl-3-heptene
- C) 1-chloro-3-pentenyl-2-pentene
- D) cis-7-chloro-3-ethyl-4-methyl-3-heptene
- E) trans-7-chloro-3-ethyl-4-methyl-3-heptene
14) Name the structure.
- A) 4-chlorocyclohexene
- B) 1-chloro-3-cyclohexene
- C) 1-chloro-3-cycloheptene
- D) 4-chlorocycloheptane
- E) 4-chlorocycloheptene
15) Draw vinyl bromide.
16) Name the structure.
- A) vinyl iodide
- B) allyl iodide
- C) 1-iodo-2-propene
- D) iodomethylethene
- E) 2-iodo-1-propene
17) What is the common name for the following compound?
- A) t-butylene
- B) sec-butylene
- C) isobutylene
- D) butylene
- E) methylpropylene
18) What is the IUPAC name for the following compound?
- A) 2-methyl-1-butene
- B) isopentene
- C) 2-methybutene
- D) 2-ethylpropene
- E) 3-methyl-3-butene
19) What is the IUPAC name for the following compound?
- A) 5-methylcyclohexene
- B) 4-methylcyclohexene
- C) 1-methyl-3-cyclohexene
- D) 1-methyl-4-cyclohexene
- E) methylcyclohexene
20) Which of the following is vinyl chloride?
- A) CH3CH2Cl
- B) CH2CHCH2Cl
- C) CH2CHCl
21) Which of the following is an allylic alcohol?
- A) CH2=CHCH2OCH3
- B) CH2=CHCH2CH3
- C) HOCH=CHCH2CH3
- D) CH3CH=CHCH2OH
- E) CH2=CHCH2CH2OH
22) Provide the IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.
23) Provide the proper IUPAC name for the alkene shown below.
24) Draw and name the six alkenes which have the molecular formula C5H10.
25) Provide the systematic name of the alkene below.
26) Provide an acceptable name of the compound below.
27) Which of the following statements about ethene, C2H4, is incorrect?
- A) The H-C-H bond angles are approximately 109.5°.
- B) All of the hydrogen atoms are in the same plane.
- C) There is a total of five sigma bonds.
- D) The carbon atoms are sp2
- E) The H-C-H bond angles are approximately 120°.
28) Which of the following statements about propene, CH3CHCH2, is correct?
- A) All nine atoms lie in the same plane.
- B) The compound has a cis and trans isomer.
- C) It generally acts as a Lewis acid.
- D) There is a total of eight sigma bonds.
- E) All the carbon atoms are sp2
29) Draw the structure of propyl vinyl ether.
30) Give the hybridization, shape, and bond angle for a carbon in ethene.
Answer: sp2, trigonal planar, 120°
31) Name the structure.
- A) cis-3-ethyl-4-hydroxymethyl-hex-3-en-1-yne
- B) cis-2,3-diethylpent-2-en-4-yn-1-ol
- C) trans-2,3-diethylpent-2-en-4-yn-1-ol
- D) cis-3,4-diethylpent-3-en-1-yn-5-ol
- E) trans-3,4-diethylpent-3-en-1-yn-5-ol
32) How many carbons are in the planar double-bond system of 3-methylcyclopentene?
- A) 0
- B) 1
- C) 2
- D) 3
- E) 4
33) Name the structure.
- A) cis-4,5-dimethyl-4-hepten-1-ol
- B) trans-3,4-dimethyl-3-hepten-7-ol
- C) cis-3,4-dimethyl-3-hepten-7-ol
- D) trans-4,5-dimethyl-4-hepten-1-ol
- E) trans-4,5-dimethyl-4-heptenol
34) Name the structure.
- A) (Z)-4,5-dimethyl-4-hepten-1-ol
- B) (E)-4,5-dimethyl-4-hepten-1-ol
- C) (E)-3,4-dimethyl-3-hepten-7-ol
- D) (Z)-3,4-dimethyl-3-hepten-7-ol
- E) (E)-4,5-dimethyl-4-heptenol
35) Name the structure.
- A) (Z)-3-ethyl-2-hydroxymethyl-2-penten-4-ynal
- B) (E)-3-ethyl-2-hydroxymethyl-2-penten-4-ynal
- C) (Z)-3-ethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-3-penten-1-ynal
- D) (E)-3-ethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-3-penten-1-ynal
- E) 3-ethyl-5-hydroxymethyl-3-penten-1-ynal
36) Name the structure.
- A) (2E,4E)-7-chloro-2,4-heptadiene
- B) (2Z,4E)-7-chloro-2,4-heptadiene
- C) (2Z,4Z)-7-chloro-2,4-heptadiene
- D) (2E,4Z)-7-chloro-2,4-heptadiene
- E) 7-chloro-2,4-heptadiene
37) Draw (E)-2-methyl-3-hexen-1-ol.
38) Provide the systematic name of the compound shown below. Make sure to include the E or Z designator if necessary.
39) Provide the systematic name of the compound shown below. Make sure to include the E or Z designator if necessary.
40) Draw the structure of (Z)-1-chloro-2-methyl-2-butene.
41) Which of the following is capable of exhibiting cis-trans isomerism?
- A) 1-butene
- B) 1-pentene
- C) cyclohexene
- D) ethene
- E) 2-butene
42) Draw all the possible constitutional isomers of C4H8.
43) Draw the structure of two alkenes with molecular formula C4H8 that do not exhibit cis-trans isomerism.
44) Which of the following best describes the geometry about the carbon-carbon double bond in the alkene below?
- A) E
- B) Z
- C) neither E nor Z
45) Assign the E or Z configurational label to the following molecule:
Answer: The molecule has a Z configuration based on the priority rule established by Cahn-Ingold-Prelog.
46) Draw the structure of (Z)-4-ethyl-3-methylheptene.
47) Draw the structure of (Z)-4-ethyl-3,6-dimethyl-3-heptene.
48) Which of the following is not an electrophile?
- A) H+
- B) BF3
- C) +NO2
- D) Fe+3
- E) CH2CH2
49) Which of the following is not a nucleophile?
- A) FeBr3
- B) Br-
- C) NH3
- E) CH3OCH3
50) Draw the curved arrows to show how CH3CH=CHCH3 reacts with HBr to form a carbocation.
51) Give the mechanism for the following reaction.
52) Identify the nucleophiles and electrophiles.
-OH, BH3, H2O, +CH3, NH3, Br-
Answer: nucleophiles: -OH, H2O, NH3, Br-
electrophiles: BH3, +CH3
53) Calculate the enthalpy for the following reaction.
CH2=CH2, 62 kcal/mole
H-Cl, 103 kcal/mole
CH3CH2-H, 101 kcal/mole
CH3CH2-Cl, 85 kcal/mole
Answer: -21 kcal/mole
54) What is the value of ΔH in kcal/mole for the reaction shown?
(CH3)3C—H + Cl—Cl → (CH3)3C—Cl + H—Cl
Bond energies are: (CH3)3C—H = 91 kcal/mole
(CH3)3C—Cl = 78.5 kcal/mole
Cl—Cl = 58 kcal/mole
H—Cl = 103 kcal/mole
- A) +32.5
- B) -57.5
- C) -32.5
- D) +57.5
- E) -8.5
55) How many transition states are present in the following reaction diagram?
- A) 3
- B) 4
- C) 5
- D) 2
- E) 1
56) An increase in which of the following results in a decrease in the rate of the chemical reaction?
- A) temperature
- B) concentration
- C) collision frequency
- D) energy of activation
- E) fraction of collisions with proper orientation
57) An increase in which of the following will occur if the reaction temperature is increased?
- Energy of activation
- Collision frequency
III. Fraction of collisions with sufficient energy
- A) I and II
- B) I and III
- C) II and III
- D) I, II, and III
- E) I
58) What is the activation energy for the reaction B → A in the following diagram?
- A) A
- B) B
- C) C
- D) D
- E) E
59) Which of the following contributes to make ΔG° more negative?
- A) use of a catalyst
- B) a more positive ΔH°
- C) a more positive ΔS°
- D) a larger rate constant
- E) none of the above
60) Which of the following correctly describes intermediates and/or transition states?
- A) Transition states occur at minima on reaction coordinate diagrams.
- B) Both transition states and intermediates occur at maxima on reaction coordinate diagrams.
- C) An intermediate is always produced after the rate-determining step of a reaction mechanism.
- D) Transition states have partially formed bonds whereas intermediates have fully formed bonds.
- E) none of the above
61) Which of the following correctly describes the reaction shown?
- A) ΔH° >0 and ΔS° >0
- B) ΔH° >0 and ΔS <0
- C) ΔH° <0 and ΔS >0
- D) ΔH° <0 and ΔS <0
- E) ΔH° = ΔS = 0
62) Under what conditions is ΔG° equal to ΔH° for a chemical reaction?
Answer: Since ΔG° = ΔH° – TΔS°, then ΔG° is equal to ΔH° when TΔS° is zero.
63) Consider the conversion of C to D via a one-step mechanism. The activation energy of this conversion is 3 kcal/mol. The energy difference between D and the transition state of the reaction is 7 kcal/mol. Estimate ΔH° for the reaction C → D.
Answer: 4 kcal/mol
64) Consider the one-step conversion of F to G. Given that the reaction is endergonic by 5 kcal/mol and that the energy difference between G and the transition state for the process is 15 kcal/mol, sketch a reaction-energy profile for this reaction. Make sure to show how the given energy differences are consistent with your sketch.
65) The ΔG° for the conversion of “axial” isopropylcyclohexane to “equatorial” isopropylcyclohexane at 298K is -2.1 kcal/mol. Calculate the percentage of isopropylcyclohexane molecules that have the isopropyl substituent in the axial position at this temperature.
[R = 1.987 × 10-3 kcal mol-1K-1]
Answer: ΔG° = -RTlnK
-2.1 kcal/mol = -(1.987 × 10-3 kcal mol-1 K-1)(298K)lnK
K = = 34.7
% axial = × 100%
= × 100%
66) Based on the following energy diagram, which compound, A or C, is formed faster from B? Which is more stable, A or C? Explain.
Answer: A is formed faster since the pathway for its formation has the smaller activation energy. C is more stable than A because it has a lower energy.
67) Consider the single step interconversion of A and B shown below. How is the equilibrium constant K related to the rate constants k1 and k -1 and to the amounts of A and B present at equilibrium?
Answer: K = =
68) Why do reactions tend to proceed at a faster rate as T increases?
Answer: The number of molecular collisions that possesses sufficient energy to overcome the barrier to reaction increases.
69) The Arrhenius equation models how the rate constant k ________.
- A) increases as both Eaand T increase
- B) increases most when Eaincreases and T decreases
- C) increases most when Eadecreases and T increases
- D) increases as both Eaand T decrease
- E) increases as reactant concentrations increase
70) Which of the following correctly describes the reaction whose reaction coordinate diagram is shown?
- A) endergonic with no transition state
- B) exergonic with no transition state
- C) endergonic with a transition state
- D) exergonic with a transition state
- E) endergonic with an intermediate
71) Given an activation energy of 15 kcal/mol, use the Arrhenius equation to estimate how much faster the reaction will occur if the temperature is increased from to R = 1.987 cal/mol ∙ K.
Answer: The reaction will occur about 2.8 times faster.
72) What is the free energy of activation of a one-step reaction? How is it qualitatively related to the rate constant of the reaction?
Answer: The free energy of activation of a one-step reaction is the difference in free energy between the transition state and the reactants. As the free energy of activation increases, the rate constant decreases.
73) Consider the reaction coordinate diagram shown. Which step has the greatest activation energy?
- A) A going to C
- B) C going to E
- C) E going to G
- D) E going to C
- E) C going to A
74) Consider the reaction coordinate diagram shown. Which letters designate intermediates?
Answer: C and E
75) Consider the reaction coordinate diagram shown. Which step has the greatest rate constant in the forward direction?
Answer: Step 3 (E going to G)
76) Consider the reaction coordinate diagram shown. What is the rate-determining step in the conversion of A to G?
Answer: Step 2 ( C going to E)