Pathophysiology 4th Edition Copstead Banasik Test Bank
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Copstead-Kirkhorn: Pathophysiology, 4th Edition
Chapter 44: Acute Disorders of Brain Function
- The brain contributes 2% of body weight and uses 20% of the body’s oxygen consumption.
- An increase in PaCO2 or acidemia would be expected to decrease cerebral blood flow.
- Glutamate can damage neurons when it accumulates in synapses after brain injury because it opens calcium channels.
- Unless contraindicated, a patient who experiences signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attack should immediately ingest an aspirin.
- A patient with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 10 is classified as having a mild degree of coma.
- The physiologic change most likely to lead to an increase in intracranial pressure is
- Manifestations of acute brain ischemia (Cushing reflex) are due primarily to
|a.||parasympathetic nervous system activation.|
|b.||sympathetic nervous system activation.|
|d.||loss of brainstem reflexes.|
- Which of the following groups of clinical findings indicates the poorest neurologic functioning?
|a.||Spontaneous eye opening, movement to command, oriented to self only|
|b.||Eyes open to light touch on shoulder, pupils briskly reactive to light bilaterally|
|c.||Assumes decorticate posture with light touch, no verbal response|
|d.||No eye opening, responds to painful stimulus withdrawing|
- Acceleration-deceleration movements of the head often result in polar injuries in which
|a.||injury is localized to the site of initial impact.|
|b.||widespread neuronal damage is incurred.|
|c.||bleeding from venules fills the subdural space.|
|d.||focal injuries occur in two places at opposite poles.|
- Secondary injury after head trauma refers to
|a.||brain injury due to the initial trauma.|
|b.||focal areas of bleeding.|
|c.||brain injury due to the body’s response to tissue damage.|
|d.||injury as a result of medical therapy.|
- An example of inappropriate treatment for head trauma would be
|b.||free water restriction.|
- Risk factors for hemorrhagic stroke include
- The stroke etiology with the highest morbidity and mortality is
- Clinical manifestations of a stroke within the right cerebral hemisphere include
|b.||right visual field blindness.|
|c.||expressive and receptive aphasia.|
|d.||left-sided muscle weakness and neglect.|
- The most important preventative measure for hemorrhagic stroke is
|b.||blood pressure control.|
|d.||management of dysrhythmias.|
- In the acute phase of stroke, treatment is aimed at
|a.||stabilization of respiratory and cardiovascular function.|
|b.||risk factor modification.|
|c.||prevention of bedsores and contractures.|
- Cerebral aneurysm is most frequently the etiology of
- Leakage of CSF from the nose or ears is commonly associated with
|b.||temporal skull fracture.|
|c.||basal skull fracture.|
- Rupture of a cerebral aneurysm should be suspected if the patient reports
|a.||ringing in the ears.|
|b.||transient episodes of numbness.|
|c.||transient episodes of vertigo.|
|d.||sudden, severe headache.|
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually managed with volume expansion and blood pressure support to enhance cerebral perfusion. This is necessary because subarachnoid hemorrhage predisposes to
|c.||excessive volume loss.|
|d.||increased intracranial pressure.|
- John is a college student living in a dormitory. He comes to the clinic complaining of a headache and confusion. John is found to have a fever of 102° F. This information is most consistent with
- Encephalitis is usually
|a.||due to a bacterial infection in the CNS.|
|c.||due to a viral infection in brain cells.|
- Epidural bleeding is
|a.||associated with widespread vascular disruption.|
|b.||located between the arachnoid and the dura mater.|
|c.||usually due to venous leakage.|
|d.||characterized a lucid interval immediately after injury.|
- The most important determinant for prescribing therapy for acute stroke is
|a.||location of ischemia.|
|b.||thrombotic versus embolic cause.|
|c.||ischemic versus hemorrhagic cause.|
|d.||age of the patient.|