Pathophysiology A Clinical Approach 2nd Edition Braun Anderson Test Bank
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Chapter 11- Altered Hormonal and Metabolic Regulation
|1.||This controls the regulation of many hormones:|
|2.||Which is true about the action of the hypothalamus on the posterior pituitary gland?|
|A)||Hormones travel within blood vessels to this part of the pituitary|
|B)||Hypothalamus produces antidiuretic hormone released from this part of the pituitary|
|C)||Hypothalamus stimulates releasing hormones from this part of the pituitary|
|D)||Hypothalamus bypasses the posterior pituitary|
|3.||Hormones travel from the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary through this:|
|A)||hypophyseal portal system|
|4.||What household tool functions in a similar way to that of the negative feedback loop?|
|5.||Which of the following does not prevent the accumulation of hormones in the body?|
|A)||degradation by enzymes|
|B)||inactivation by the liver|
|C)||inhibition of hormone release by somatostatin|
|D)||elimination through the urine or feces|
|6.||Which best explains why hormones only act on certain parts of the body?|
|B)||negative feedback mechanisms|
|C)||regulation by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis|
|7.||Which hormone pathway is represented by cells in the body that are able to both receive hormone stimulation and secrete the hormone to receptive neighboring cells?|
|8.||You are stressed about your pathophysiology final exam. What hormone, released from the hypothalamus, initiates the stress response?|
|C)||corticotropin releasing hormone|
|9.||Catecholamines, stimulated and released by the sympathetic nervous system and adrenal glands, are also active in the stress response. Which of the following is not a catecholamine released during stress?|
|10.||Which of the following is not a beneficial action of cortisol in the alarm stage of the stress response?|
|B)||increases circulating blood glucose|
|C)||suppression of the immune response|
|D)||inhibition of metabolism|
|11.||Cortisol elevations are needed in the early stress response but persistent hypercortisolism is problematic because it induces:|
|D)||an excessive inflammatory response|
|12.||Your mother is told that she has a hormone receptor problem and her cells are not receptive to hormone stimulation. Why might her receptors not be functioning appropriately?|
|A)||She has too many receptors|
|B)||She has a high sensitivity to the hormone|
|C)||She has a tumor that is secreting ectopic hormone|
|D)||She has antibodies that are blocking the receptors|
|13.||Your grandmother is diagnosed with renal failure. How would this impact her hormone levels?|
|A)||There would be no effect on her hormone levels|
|B)||She would have much higher levels of circulating hormones|
|C)||She would have much lower levels of circulating hormones|
|D)||This is dependent upon whether or not her body adapts by eliminating all hormones through the feces|
|14.||What action does excessive ADH secretion have on cellular fluid balance in SIADH?|
|A)||intracellular fluid retention|
|B)||excessive water losses|
|C)||excessive circulating blood volume|
|D)||extracellular fluid retention|
|15.||Which laboratory indicator is found in diabetes insipidus?|
|A)||excessive ADH levels|
|B)||urine specific gravity less than 1.005|
|16.||What is the reason for excessive thyroid gland stimulation in Graves disease?|
|A)||excessive TSH release from the pituitary|
|B)||excessive thyrotropin releasing hormone from the hypothalamus|
|C)||suppression of TSH release from the pituitary|
|D)||antibodies binding to gland receptors|
|17.||Your grandmother, who has had a long history of hypothyroidism, has boggy, non-pitting edema around her eyes. This condition is referred to as:|
|18.||Which of the following is not a process that leads to Cushing syndrome?|
|A)||long term use of prednisone|
|B)||excess ACTH secretion|
|C)||tumors of the adrenal gland|
|D)||ectopic production of ADH|
|19.||How do positive and negative feedback mechanisms differ?|
|20.||Describe the hormone level changes that occur in the alarm stage of the stress response.|
|21.||List possible problems that can impair hormone function and how these are manifested.|
|22.||You have two cousins with thyroid problems: one with suppression of thyroid stimulating hormone and one with suppression of thyroid hormone. How would their feedback mechanisms look? What would their lab tests show with regard to TSH and TH levels?|
|23.||Identify four ways in which tumors can lead to Cushing syndrome.|
|19.||The majority of hormone levels in the blood is recognized within the hypothalamus and pituitary in what is referred to as a negative feedback loop. The hypothalamus and pituitary act as sensors that are constantly gauging the levels of hormones in the body. When levels rise above the expected range, the stimulation, production, or secretion of hormone is decreased. When levels fall, stimulation, production, or secretion of hormone is increased. In positive feedback, presence of the hormone stimulates increased production of the hormone until there is an interruption of the cycle.|
|20.||In the alarm stage, catecholamines and cortisol are released in response to stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and the adrenal glands. This stage is often referred to as the “fight or flight” stage. These hormones prepare the body for defense against the stressor. In this early stage of the stress response, suppression of certain hormones, such as growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and the reproductive hormones is necessary to conserve energy that will be needed to fend off the stressor. Antidiuretic hormone is increased to maintain blood pressure needed to perfuse vital tissues.|
|21.||Functional deficits usually arise from impairment of the endocrine (secreting) gland, lack of, or excessive hormone synthesis, impaired receptor binding, impairment of feedback mechanisms, or an altered cellular response to the hormone. Endocrine glands can be impaired through genetic defects, autoimmune conditions, degeneration, atrophy, infection, inflammation, neoplastic growths, hypoxia, radiation, certain medications, and other types of injury. Problems with hormone function can manifest through inadequate or excessive production, composition, secretion, receptor binding, uptake, metabolism, or elimination of hormones.|
|22.||In Cousin 1, lack of thyroid stimulating hormone will present as reduced released of TH (both labs would be low). Although the feedback mechanism will stimulate the release of TSH without the presence of this hormone, hormone levels cannot increase. In Cousin 2, TH levels would be low but TSH levels would be high…the thyroid wants to stimulate release of TH through negative feedback but the thyroid gland is unable to respond.|
|23.||Tumors of the hypothalamus can increase corticotropin-releasing hormone, tumors of the pituitary can increase ACTH production, tumors of the adrenal cortex can increase cortisol secretion, and ectopic tumors secrete ACTH.|