Principles and Labs for Fitness and Wellness 12th Edition Hoeger Test Bank
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Test Bank for Principles & Labs for Fitness & Wellness 12e
Chapter 10 – Stress Assessment and Management Techniques
Chapter Learning Objectives
- Understand the importance of the mind/body connection in the manifestation of emotions and disease.
- Learn the consequences of sleep deprivation on mental and physical health.
- Define stress, eustress, and distress.
- Explain the role of stress in maintaining health and optimal performance.
- Identify the major sources of stress in life.
- Define the two major types of behavior patterns.
- Learn to lower your vulnerability to stress.
- Develop time management skills.
- Define the role of physical exercise in reducing stress.
- Describe and learn to use various stress management techniques.
LO# An. Question
1 F 1. The body reacts differently based on the nature of the event that leads to the stress response.
3 T 2. The alarm reaction is the immediate response to a stressor.
3 F 3. During the resistance phase, the body functions at a diminished capacity while it recovers from stress.
6 T 4. All too often, individuals bring on stress as a result of their behavior patterns.
6 F 5. Type B behavior brings on more distress.
8 T 6. People who do not manage their time properly will quickly experience chronic stress, fatigue, despair, discouragement, and illness.
8 F 7. If possible, do not delegate activities that you can do well.
9 F 8. The benefits of physical activity in reducing responses to stress are not well known.
10 F 9. Meditation is the interaction with the interior self that allows a person to learn the relationship between the mind and the biological response.
10 T 10. Visual imagery involves the creation of relaxing visual images and scenes in times of stress to elicit body and mind relaxation.
LO# An. Question
1 a 11. The emotions that the brain produces are a mixture of:
- feelings and physical responses.
- actions and physical changes.
- feelings of euphoria or sadness.
- feelings of anger or happiness.
1 c 12. The immune system does NOT communicate with the brain via:
- nerve cells.
- red blood cells.
- sex hormones.
2 a 13. Sleep deprivation:
- hampers behavioral patterns.
- decreases blood pressure.
- results in lower body fatness.
- strengthens the immune system.
2 a 14. Only _____ of college students report sleeping 8 hours daily.
2 d 15. Experts believe the _____ of sleep are the most vital for well-being on an 8 hour per night sleep schedule.
- first 2 hours
- middle 2 hours
- first and last hour
- last 2 hours
2 a 16. To enhance the quality of your sleep, you should:
- avoid exercise 4 hours before bedtime.
- go to bed and arise in varying patterns.
- take 60-minute “power naps.”
- use your bed to watch television.
3 a 17. When stress levels reach mental, emotional, and physiological limits:
- diseases may develop.
- distress decreases.
- eustress increases.
- productivity increases.
3 b 18. Hans Selye explained stress as:
- detrimental to health.
- a nonspecific response.
- a physical disorder.
- a mental disorder
3 b 19. The body’s mental, emotional, and physiological response to any situation that is new, threatening, frightening, or exciting is called:
- a stressor.
3 a 20. Positive stress is also referred to as:
- functional stress.
3 a 21. During the alarm reaction stage of the general adaptation syndrome:
- many body systems are activated.
- homeostasis is maintained.
- the body loses its ability to cope.
- stressors have been removed.
4 d 22. A(n) _____ explanatory style can delay healing time and worsen the course of illness in several major diseases.
4 d 23. Studies of explanatory style verify that a negative explanatory style:
- enhances the ability to resist allergies.
- stimulates the body’s healing systems.
- increases immune system function.
- compromises the body’s immunity.
4 b 24. A(n) _____ explanatory style and the positive attitude it fosters can also enhance the ability to resist infections, allergies, autoimmunities, and even cancer.
4 c 25. Whether people get sick, and how long they stay that way, may depend in part on:
- the size of their skeletal muscles.
- their ability to relate to others.
- the strength of their self-esteem.
- the blood type of their parents.
4 d 26. A fighting spirit involves:
- negative and positive emotions.
- an easy surrender to despair.
- hopelessness and helplessness.
- the healthy expression of emotions.
5 d 27. The instrument in your textbook used to assess sources of stress in life is called the:
- Life Experiences Survey.
- People’s Stress Roots.
- Stress Coping Inventory.
- Stress Events Scale.
5 d 28. The _____ requires the testee to rate the extent to which his or her life events had a positive or negative impact on his or her life at the time these events occurred.
- Life Experiences Survey
- People’s Stress Roots
- Stress Coping Inventory
- Stress Events Scale
5 c 29. A rating of zero of a life event in the Stress Events Scale suggests:
5 b 30. Most research suggests that the _____ change score is a better predictor of potential physical and psychological illness than the _____ change score.
- positive; total
- negative; total
- total; negative
- total; positive
6 d 31. Which of the following are the characteristics of Type C behavior?
- calm, casual, relaxed, and easygoing
- hard-driving and overambitious
- aggressive and overly competitive
- committed, confident, and in control
6 a 32. Type A individuals who commonly express _____ are at higher risk for coronary heart disease.
- anger and hostility
- time urgency
6 b 33. Type B behavior is characteristic of:
- hard-driving and aggressive individuals.
- calm, casual, relaxed, easygoing individuals.
- overambitious, at times hostile individuals.
- hard-driving and competitive individuals.
6 d 34. Type A individuals:
- take one thing at a time.
- do not feel pressured or hurried.
- seldom set their own deadlines.
- often set their own goals.
6 a 35. Of special significance to Type A individuals is the fact that many experts believe that _____ to trigger a heart attack.
- emotional stress is far more likely than physical stress
- physical stress is far more likely than emotional stress
- mental stress is far more likely than physiological stress
- physical stress is far more likely than mental stress
7 b 36. Which of the following is/are essential to cope effectively with stressful life events?
- muscular strength and endurance
- social support and self-worth
- cardiovascular endurance
- healthy body composition
7 c 37. Positive correlations have been found between _____ and health outcomes.
- level of distress
- family structure
- social support
- survival skills
7 d 38. Factors that are crucial to a person’s physical, social, mental, and emotional well-being and are essential to cope effectively with stressful life events include all of the following EXCEPT:
- social support.
- personal wealth.
8 c 39. According to Chapter 10 of your textbook, healthy and successful people attribute their success to:
- hard work.
- smart work.
- team work.
8 c 40. Which of the following is one of the five steps to time management?
- Increase efficiency.
- Increase productivity.
- Identify immediate goals.
- Communicate effectively.
8 a 41. In addition to the five steps to time management, which of the following can help you make better use of your time?
- Set aside “overtimes.”
- Do as much as you can.
- Never say no.
- Perform multi-tasking.
8 b 42. Which of the following is necessary for health and wellness?
- many time killers, such as the Internet
- some time killers, such as sleeping
- several hours of recreation per day
- more than 8 hours of sleep per night
8 d 43. All of the following are steps to time management EXCEPT:
- set long- and short-range goals.
- identify the immediate goals.
- conduct nightly audits.
- increase work efficiency.
8 c 44. All of the following can help you make better use of your time EXCEPT:
- plan ahead for disruptions.
- delegate less important tasks.
- perform many tasks at once.
- eliminate distractions.
9 b 45. _____ seems to be more important in the development of disease than the amount and type of stress itself.
- The individual’s ability to recognize stress
- How people perceive and cope with stress
- The lack of stress management programs
- A lack of social support and self-worth
9 b 46. The psychological response of the body to stress that prepares the individual to take action by stimulating the vital defense systems is referred to as:
9 a 47. The main value of exercise in reducing stress is related to a(n):
- decrease in muscular tension.
- increase in muscular tension.
- increase in body tension.
- decrease in performance.
9 b 48. Exercise helps:
- eliminate sources of stress.
- a person cope with stress.
- solve problems at work.
- take care of slow drivers.
9 b 49. A five-mile jog stimulates alpha-wave activity in the brain. These are the same wave patterns seen commonly:
- after the person takes morphine.
- during meditation and relaxation.
- while engaging in a stressful event.
- when taking a final examination.
9 d 50. According to Dr. Selye, if you have trouble completing a difficult homework assignment after having worked on it for several hours, you should:
- take a rest.
- keep trying.
- ask for help.
- go jogging.
9 c 51. Morphine-like substances referred to as endorphins are thought to be released from the pituitary gland in the brain during:
- light aerobic exercises lasting 30 minutes or longer.
- moderate aerobic exercises lasting 30 minutes or longer.
- vigorous aerobic exercise lasting 30 minutes or longer.
- strength and flexibility exercises lasting 30 minutes.
10 b 52. Learning to control stress-related body processes not normally under voluntary control is called:
- autogenic training.
- visual imagery.
10 a 53. Although biofeedback has significant applications in treating various medical disorders, including stress, it requires:
- adequately trained personnel.
- inexpensive equipment.
- simple electronic instruments.
- one short training session.
10 c 54. A stress management technique that uses progressive contraction and relaxation of muscle groups throughout the body is referred to as:
- autogenic training.
- progressive muscle relaxation.
- visual imagery.
10 c 55. Progressive muscle relaxation should be done:
- for less than 20 minutes each session.
- in a group setting where there is an instructor.
- paying attention to muscle contraction intensity.
- no more than one session each day.
10 a 56. The focus with breathing exercises is to:
- “breathe away” the tension.
- ignore breathing patterns.
- take short, shallow breaths.
- gain control over one’s attention.
10 c 57. Mental imagery:
- is a newly discovered method.
- should not involve meditation.
- uses relaxing visual images.
- heightens the sense of touch.
10 a 58. Visual imagery should be performed:
- in a quiet and comfortable environment.
- for at least 30 minutes each session.
- in a group setting where there is an instructor.
- no more than one session each day.
10 a 59. _____ is a form of self-suggestion in which people place themselves in an autohypnotic state by repeating and concentrating on feelings of heaviness and warmth in the extremities.
- Autogenic training
- Visual imagery
10 d 60. The autogenic training technique:
- is much easier to master than many other relaxation techniques.
- may interfere with relaxation if moving too slowly through the entire exercise.
- can be done without having to follow the exact sequence of the six stages.
- is more difficult to master than many other relaxation techniques.
10 b 61. A stress management technique used to gain control over one’s attention by clearing the mind and blocking out the stressor(s) responsible for the increased tension is referred to as:
- autogenic training.
- visual imagery.
10 a 62. Initial meditation requires:
- about 15 minutes each session.
- one to two sessions each week.
- a quiet environment for the experienced.
- lying down with a pillow under the knees.
10 a 63. The purpose of meditation is to:
- block out stressors.
- be more spiritual.
- feel warm sensations.
- create relaxing images.
10 b 64. A school of thought in the Hindu religion that seeks to help the individual attain a higher level of spirituality and peace of mind is referred to as:
10 c 65. The yoga exercises include a combination of postures, diaphragmatic breathing, muscle relaxation, and _____ to relax the body.
- autogenic training
- visual imagery
Critical Thinking/Short Answer
3 66. Describe the stress response and how it looks from the outside of the body.
Answer: The stress response begins with acknowledgement of a stressor that begins activation of the hormonal and nervous pathways. The result is increased breathing rate, heart rate, blood pressure, use of muscle strength, and general body metabolism. The skin may appear flushed, the individual more alert, and the body more animated.
4 67. Discuss the two contrasting explanatory styles.
Answer: Explanatory style is a way of thinking when all other factors are equal and when there are no clear-cut right and wrong answers. The contrasting explanatory styles are pessimism and optimism. People with a pessimistic explanatory style interpret events negatively; people with an optimistic explanatory style interpret events in a positive light — every cloud has a silver lining. A pessimistic explanatory style can delay healing time and worsen the course of illness in several major diseases. For example, it can affect the circulatory system and general outlook for people with coronary heart disease. Blood flow actually changes as thoughts, feelings, and attitudes change. People with a pessimistic explanatory style have a higher risk of developing heart disease. In contrast, an optimistic style tends to increase the strength of the immune system. An optimistic explanatory style and the positive attitude it fosters can also enhance the ability to resist infections, allergies, autoimmunities, and even cancer. A change in explanatory style can lead to a remarkable change in the course of disease. An optimistic explanatory style and the positive emotions it embraces — such as love, acceptance, and forgiveness — stimulate the body’s healing systems.
6 68. Compare and contrast the two types of behavior patterns.
Answer: Type A behavior characterizes a primarily hard-driving, overambitious, aggressive, at times hostile and overly competitive person. Type A individuals often set their own goals, are self-motivated, try to accomplish many tasks at the same time, are excessively achievement-oriented, and have a high degree of time urgency. Type B behavior is characteristic of calm, casual, relaxed, easygoing individuals. Type B people take one thing at a time, do not feel pressured or hurried, and seldom set their own deadlines.
7 69. Identify five factors that may increase a college student’s vulnerability to stress and discuss means to reduce vulnerability to stress.
Answer: Answers will vary. Sample factors: physical inactivity, lack of sleep, drinking too much coffee, unbalanced diet, overweight or obese, smoking, having more than two alcoholic drinks every day, drug use, having no close friends. Means to reduce vulnerability to stress: establish a network of social support, improve the behaviors that make one more vulnerable to stress. One should start by modifying the behaviors that are easiest to change before undertaking some of the most difficult ones.
10 70. Describe the similarities among various relaxation techniques. Is there anything in common for biofeedback, progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, autogenic training, and visual imagery?
Answer: All require an individual to take introspective control. Each technique connects psychological and physical components of the person.
10 71. You are waiting at your desk for the final exam. What stress management techniques can you successfully employ?
Answer: Some progressive muscle relaxation contractions can be done without being distracting. Learned biofeedback procedures could be engaged. Appropriate versions of deep breathing, sighing, and complete natural breathing could be used to relax the body. Imagery of peaceful surroundings and success would be positive strategies. Finally, you may have developed features of autogenic training and meditation to clear the mind of distracting thoughts so the ensuing exam could be better focused upon.
5 72. Identify five major sources of stress in life.
Answer: Answers will vary. Sample: alcohol use, drug use, academic competition, religious conflicts, choice of major, sexual pressure, family responsibility, loneliness, depression, anxiety, money troubles, military obligations, social alienation, love/marriage decisions, illness and injury, lack of privacy, parental conflict, time management.
8 73. Discuss the five basic steps to time management.
- Find the time killers. Many people do not know how they spend each part of the day. Keep a 4- to 7-day log and record at half-hour intervals the activities you do. Record the activities as you go through your typical day, so you will remember all of them. At the end of each day, decide when you wasted time. You may be shocked by the amount of time you spent on the phone, on the Internet, sleeping (more than 8 hours per night), or watching television.
- Set long-range and short-range goals. Setting goals requires some in-depth thinking and helps put your life and daily tasks in perspective. What do I want out of life? Where do I want to be 10 years from now? Next year? Next week? Tomorrow?
- Identify your immediate goals and prioritize them for today and this week. Each day sit down and determine what you need to accomplish that day and that week. Rank your “today” and “this week” tasks in four categories: (a) top-priority, (b) medium-priority, (c) low-priority, and (d) trash.
- Use a daily planner to help you organize and simplify your day. In this way you can access your priority list, appointments, notes, references, names, places, phone numbers, and addresses conveniently from your coat pocket or purse.
- Conduct nightly audits. Take 10 minutes each night to figure out how well you accomplished your goals that day. Successful time managers evaluate themselves daily. This simple task will help you see the entire picture. Cross off the goals you accomplished and carry over to the next day those you did not get done. You also may realize that some goals can be moved down to low-priority or be trashed.
8 74. Describe time management skills.
Answer: Delegate activities that someone else can do for you. Learn to say no to activities that keep you from getting your top priorities done. Protect against boredom. Plan ahead for disruptions. Select only one task at a time, concentrate on it, and see it through. Eliminate distractions. Set aside “overtimes.” Set aside special time for yourself daily. Reward yourself.
9 75. Discuss how physical exercise can give people a psychological boost.
Answer: Lessens feelings of anxiety, depression, frustration, aggression, anger, and hostility. Alleviates insomnia. Provides an opportunity to meet social needs and develop new friendships. Allows the person to share common interests and problems. Develops discipline. Provides the opportunity to do something enjoyable and constructive that will lead to better health and total well-being.
10 76. List and describe the steps of managing stress.
Answer: Stress must first be recognized as real. This includes taking a realistic view of one’s current life and knowing the signs of stress. Next, the specific stressor should be identified. Keeping a log of daily events or having another person observe might help in objective fact-finding. After identification of the stressor, a decision to work toward removing it or tolerating it should be made. Removing it might be an act of will or it might be impossible. Tolerating the stressor requires a different perspective, such as using the wasted time at the red light to change the radio station, or tidy-up the front seat, or to take some deep-relaxing breaths. Relaxation techniques can be used to assist in stressor removal and for recovering from the stress response. Regular use can lower trait anxiety, as well as state anxiety, that result from daily stress.
4 77. Name 5 molecules that increase during stress and explain how they can reduce physical wellness.
Answer: Stress causes the nerves to release a molecule known as neuropeptide Y (NPY) that impairs immune system cells that fight infection. Cortisol, inflammatory molecules, and LDL-cholesterol all increase during stress episodes. High cortisol alone can cause inflammation, a condition implicated in many chronic diseases. Inflammatory molecules further promote atherosclerosis and make plaque more likely to rupture, leading to a heart attack or stroke. Glucocorticoid hormones released during stressful events are detrimental to neurons and the synapses between them.
 By Paul A. Smith, McMurry University (Abilene, Texas).