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Psychology 10th Edition Wade Tavris Test Bank

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Psychology 10th Edition Wade Tavris Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205711468

ISBN-10: 0205711464

 

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Psychology 10th Edition Wade Tavris Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205711468

ISBN-10: 0205711464

 

 

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Chapter 14 Theories of Personality

 

 

 

[NOTE: Correct answer and item analysis are located ABOVE question.]

 

Psychodynamic Theories of Personality

 

Answer  a     % correct  55     a= 55  b= 3  c= 20  d= 23      r = .24

 

  1. An individual’s personality, as well as situational variables, will determine that person’s _______.
  2. behavior
  3. predispositions
  4. uniqueness
  5. all of the above

 

Answer  c     % correct 59      a= 38  b= 3  c= 59  d= 0      r = .20

 

  1. The pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and situations and distinguishes one person from another is called _______.
  2. a trait.
  3. an emotional profile.
  4. personality.
  5. the primary process.

 

Answer  c     % correct 83      a= 16  b= 0  c= 83  d= 0      r = .22

 

  1. The pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persists over time and situations and distinguishes one person from another is called ____________________.
  2. a trait
  3. a habit
  4. personality
  5. learning

 

Answer  b     % correct 64      a= 7  b= 64  c= 23  d= 7      r = .33

  1. The text defines _______ as a unique set of behaviors and enduring qualities that influence the way a person adapts to her/his environment.
  2. instincts
  3. personality
  4. traits
  5. motivation

 

Answer  d     % correct 90      a= 3  b= 3  c= 3  d= 90      r = .30

 

  1. Behavior is influenced by:
  2. personality.
  3. situational characteristics.
  4. individual interpretations of unique situations.
  5. all of the above

 

Answer  d     % correct 86      a= 14  b= 0  c= 0  d= 86      r = .26

 

  1. Which aspect of the mind held the greatest fascination for Freud?
  2. the preconscious mind
  3. the conscious area
  4. suppressions
  5. the unconscious

 

Answer  c     % correct 33      a= 5  b= 62  c= 33  d= 0      r = .65

 

  1. Sally has a desire to eat a steak with a baked potato smothered with butter and sour cream. One component of her personality tells her, because she is overweight, that instead of eating the meal, she should fast and direct her efforts to ending world hunger.  Another component suggests that it would be better to eat a salad and a bran muffin, then run two miles.  The fasting suggestion most likely was made by which component of personality?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. superego
  5. oral

 

Answer  a     % correct 95      a= 95  b= 5  c= 0  d= 0      r = .25

 

  1. According to Bill’s psychoanalyst, he was traumatized during the anal stage of his psychosexual development, which accounts for Bill’s tightwad habits. Which of the following would be Freud’s term for Bill’s behavior?
  2. anal retentive
  3. anal expulsive
  4. parsimonious
  5. serendipitous

 

Answer  c     % correct 62      a= 5  b= 24  c= 62  d= 10      r = .56

 

  1. According to Jung’s psychoanalytic theory, each of us has ________, which are inherited predispositions to respond to certain concepts.
  2. drive
  3. instincts
  4. archetypes
  5. archegos

 

Answer  c     % correct 61      a= 11  b= 11  c= 61  d= 16      r = .31

 

  1. According to Jung, our repressed thoughts, undeveloped ideas, and forgotten experiences are contained in the ____________________.
  2. persona
  3. archetype
  4. personal unconscious
  5. collective unconscious

Answer  d     % correct 89      a= 5  b= 0  c= 5  d= 89      r = .31

 

  1. Jamie is a joiner. She is interested in other people and events going on around her in the world.  In Jung’s view, she is an ___________________.
  2. archetype
  3. endomorph
  4. introvert
  5. extrovert

 

Answer  d     % correct 97      a= 0  b= 0  c= 3  d= 97      r = .25

 

  1. John dreamed that he was in a train that entered a tunnel. If a psychologist believed that the dream expressed John’s unconscious sexual desires, the psychologist would likely be a _________.
  2. humanist
  3. learning theorist
  4. personologist
  5. psychoanalyst

 

Answer  a     % correct 34      a= 34  b= 10  c= 41  d= 14      r = .24

 

  1. Jane is an angry, hostile woman. At work and in her personal life, she is described as energetic go-getter because she is a workaholic and does a great deal and does a great deal of volunteer work for abused children and women.  Jane’s behavior may be an example of which defense mechanism?
  2. sublimation
  3. displacement
  4. reaction formation
  5. projection

 

Answer  a     % correct 34      a= 34  b= 41  c= 10  d= 14      r = .27

 

  1. The view that personality results from struggles between opposites within each of us is an assumption of which of the following?
  2. Jung
  3. Adler
  4. Maslow
  5. Mischel

 

Answer  c     % correct 90      a= 0  b= 0  c= 90  d= 10      r = .32

 

  1. Which of the following gives the stages of development outlined by Freud in the order in which they occur?
  2. anal, oral, latency, phallic, genital
  3. anal, latency, oral, phallic, genital
  4. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  5. oral, anal, latency, phallic, genital

Answer  b     % correct 66      a= 10   b= 66  c= 3  d= 21      r = .44

 

  1. What did Freud call the part of the personality that had to be socialized by parents?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. authentic self
  5. superego

 

Answer  b     % correct 56      a= 13  b= 56  c= 5  d= 26      r = .46

 

  1. What did Freud call the part of the personality that learns that we will be happier if we postpone gratification?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. authentic self
  5. superego

 

Answer  d     % correct 49      a= 8  b= 41  c= 3  d= 49      r = .20

 

  1. What did Freud call the part of the personality that begins to develop at about age five?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. authentic self
  5. superego

 

Answer  b     % correct 60      a= 10  b= 60  c= 30  d= 0      r = .56

 

  1. The fundamental or most basic defense mechanism is _______.
  2. rationalization
  3. repression
  4. denial
  5. projection

 

Answer  c     % correct 76      a= 3  b= 21  c= 76  d= 0      r = .24

 

  1. Anna is a morally rigorous person who demands that her daughter remain a virgin until she is married. Anna cannot remember her own premarital sexual encounters.  Which defense mechanism would likely account for this memory lapse?
  2. rationalization
  3. denial
  4. repression
  5. projection

Answer  a     % correct 87      a= 87  b= 3  c= 3  d= 8      r = .37

 

  1. “I didn’t get the job even though I was the most qualified applicant because the company has to hire a minority worker.” This probably illustrates which defense mechanism?
  2. rationalization
  3. denial
  4. repression
  5. projection

 

Answer  a     % correct 49      a= 49  b= 15  c= 23  d= 13      r = .24

 

  1. A college professor continually implies that his students are intellectually inferior. Which of the following defense mechanisms is this professor likely using?
  2. projection
  3. denial
  4. reaction formation
  5. sublimation

 

Answer  c     % correct 33      a= 23  b= 33  c= 33  d= 10      r = .21

 

  1. Behaving in ways that are the opposite of what one would unconsciously like to do defines _______
  2. sublimation
  3. displacement
  4. reaction formation
  5. projection

 

Answer  a     % correct 26      a= 26  b= 18  c= 46  d= 10      r = .22

 

  1. If a person becomes a Catholic priest or nun because of latent homosexual desires, their occupational choice might represent which defense mechanism?
  2. sublimation
  3. displacement
  4. reaction formation
  5. projection

 

Answer  c     % correct 79      a= 3  b= 17  c= 79  d= 0      r = .24

 

  1. Which structure of personality houses one’s instincts, according to Freud?
  2. ego-ideal
  3. ego
  4. id
  5. superego

 

Answer  a     % correct 43      a= 43  b= 24  c= 33  d= 0      r = .36

 

  1. The part of personality, according to Freud, that seeks to avoid pain is the ________.
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. superego
  5. ego-ideal

 

Answer  a     % correct 67      a= 67  b= 0  c= 14  d= 19      r = .33

  1. Which statement about the id is most accurate?
  2. It is in close contact with bodily needs.
  3. It follows the reality principle.
  4. It houses the conscience.
  5. It drives us to live up to our ideals.

 

Answer  c     % correct 62      a= 0  b= 34  c= 62  d= 3      r = .49

 

  1. Which component of personality mediates between the forces of desire and reality on a moral basis?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. superego
  5. ego-ideal

 

Answer  c     % correct 60      a= 20  b= 10  c= 60  d= 10      r = .21

 

  1. Pleasure principle is to _______ as reality principle is to _______.
  2. id; superego
  3. superego; id
  4. id; ego
  5. ego; id

 

Answer  d     % correct 67      a= 14  b= 5  c= 14  d= 67      r = .35

 

  1. Which of the following Freudian concepts motivates us to better ourselves and live up to our ideals?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. reality principle
  5. superego

 

Answer  c     % correct 87      a= 0  b= 0  c= 87  d= 13      r = .53

 

  1. Identifying with one’s opposite-sex parent occurs in which psychosexual stage?
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. phallic
  5. genital

 

Answer  c     % correct 52      a= 24  b= 19  c= 52  d= 5      r = .35

 

  1. According to Freud, an inadequate resolution of the Oedipus Complex leads to:
  2. child molestation.
  3. a high regard for women.
  4. a personality that is reckless and self-assured.
  5. love of nature.

Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 0  b= 5  c= 0  d= 95      r = .21

 

  1. Which of the following is the most criticized and least empirically supported of Freud’s ideas?
  2. superego
  3. ego
  4. latency period
  5. Oedipus and Electra complexes

 

Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 0  b= 5  c= 0  d= 95      r = .30

 

  1. Freud developed his theory of personality on the basis of:
  2. carefully controlled experiments.
  3. systematic observations of children.
  4. cross-cultural investigations.
  5. case studies of patients.

 

Answer  a     % correct 36      a= 36  b= 41  c= 9  d= 14      r = .29

 

  1. According to Freud, _______ is the basic motivation for all human behavior.
  2. instinct
  3. the striving for self-actualization
  4. the need to know
  5. the desire to become superior

 

Answer  d     % correct 64      a= 23  b= 14  c= 0  d= 64      r = .41

 

  1. After a brief early commitment to hypnosis as a method of uncovering unconscious material, Freud later developed his psychoanalytic method of:
  2. factor analysis.
  3. situational determinism.
  4. empathy.
  5. free association.

 

Answer  c     % correct 69      a= 10  b= 18  c= 69  d= 3      r = .39

 

  1. According to psychoanalytic theory, the _______ is the most basic personality system.
  2. preconscious
  3. ego
  4. id
  5. superego

 

Answer  d     % correct 55      a= 0  b= 23  c= 23  d= 55      r = .47

 

  1. Joe seems to be constantly condemning himself for being bad and “sinful.” In psychoanalytic terms, we would say that Joe has an overdeveloped _______.
  2. libido
  3. id
  4. ego
  5. superego

 

Answer  a     % correct 69      a= 69  b= 0  c= 14  d= 17      r = .23

 

  1. Sheila was upset by her boss, so she goes home and beats her children, who, in turn, kick the dog. This episode is an example of _______.
  2. displacement
  3. undoing
  4. projection
  5. reaction formation

 

Answer  c     % correct 69      a= 17  b= 0  c= 69  d= 14      r = .28

 

  1. The old adage, “Everyone is queer but me and thee,” illustrates the defense mechanism of _______.
  2. displacement
  3. undoing
  4. projection
  5. reaction formation

 

Answer  b     % correct 68      a= 14  b= 68  c= 14  d= 5      r = .42

 

  1. A college student takes a lot of psychology courses so that he will be able to talk about his personal psychological problems in a calm, detached, clinical fashion. He is using the defense mechanism of _______.
  2. displacement
  3. intellectualization
  4. projection
  5. reaction formation

 

Answer  b     % correct 76      a= 7  b= 76  c= 7  d= 10      r = .23

 

  1. Picasso’s paintings often contained exaggerated sexual symbolism. This way of expressing a basic impulse in a socially praiseworthy fashion illustrates the use of _______.
  2. displacement
  3. sublimation
  4. projection
  5. reaction formation

 

Answer  b     % correct 51      a= 10  b= 51  c= 31  d= 8      r = .20

 

  1. Maria takes good notes in class. Whenever someone who has missed class due to illness asks her if he can copy her notes, she grips them tightly and says “No!  They’re mine, and I don’t wish to share them.”  A psychoanalytic theorist would probably contend that Maria has a(n) _______ fixation.
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. phallic
  5. genital

Answer   d    % correct 41      a= 19  b= 32  c= 9  d= 41      r = .42

 

  1. One of the most serious criticisms of psychoanalytic theory is its:
  2. reliance on tests.
  3. lack of flexibility.
  4. unrealistic optimism.
  5. use of after-the-fact explanations.

 

Answer  c     % correct 82      a= 0  b= 9  c= 82  d= 9      r = .22

 

  1. According to Freud, the _______ makes up the largest part of our personality.
  2. preconscious
  3. conscious
  4. unconscious
  5. These three areas contribute equally to personality.

 

Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 0  c= 9  d= 0      r = .52

 

  1. The id is that part of the personality which operates according to the:
  2. pleasure principle.
  3. superego.
  4. rules of reality.
  5. past experiences of the individual.

 

Answer  d     % correct 85      a= 0  b= 8  c= 8  d= 85      r = .48

 

  1. Six-year-old Suzie sees her younger brother approaching with the new toy he received for his birthday. Suzie suddenly decides she wants the toy, so she pushes her brother to the ground, grabs his toy, and rushes into the next room to play with it.  During this situation, the part of Suzie’s personality which is most likely in control is her _______.
  2. conscious
  3. superego
  4. ego
  5. id

 

Answer  b     % correct  82     a= 9  b= 82  c= 9  d= 0      r = .50

 

  1. That part of the personality which operates on the reality principle is the _______.
  2. superego
  3. ego
  4. id
  5. eros

 

Answer  d     % correct 62      a= 8  b= 31  c= 0  d= 62      r = .52

  1. The superego is that part of the personality which represents the _______.
  2. pleasure principle
  3. reality principle
  4. thanatos
  5. conscience

 

Answer  d     % correct 95      a= 5  b= 0  c= 0  d= 95      r = .20

 

  1. An orally fixated person would most likely:
  2. be an only child.
  3. dislike his or her father.
  4. be a sloppy dresser.
  5. eat and smoke a great deal.

 

Answer  c     % correct 95      a= 0  b= 0  c= 95  d= 5      r = .55

 

  1. The process of toilet training occurs during the _______ stage.
  2. phallic
  3. oral
  4. anal
  5. genital

 

Answer  b     % correct 86      a= 7  b= 86  c= 3  d= 3      r = .39

 

  1. The Oedipus and Electra complexes occur during the _______ stage.
  2. anal
  3. phallic
  4. oral
  5. latency

 

Answer  c     % correct 95      a= 0  b= 0  c= 95  d= 5      r = .45

 

  1. Four-year-old Kevin is in love with his mother, and wants very much to get rid of his father so that he can have his mother all to himself. According to Freud, Kevin is undergoing:
  2. a regression.
  3. the genital stage.
  4. an Oedipus complex.
  5. all of the above

 

Answer  d     % correct 72      a= 3  b= 17  c= 7  d= 72      r = .24

 

  1. The correct order of Freud’s stages of development is:
  2. anal, oral, phallic, genital, latency.
  3. oral, anal, genital, phallic, latency.
  4. latency, oral, anal, phallic, genital.
  5. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.

 

Answer  d     % correct 79      a= 10  b= 0  c= 10  d= 79      r = .32

 

  1. The stage of personality development which lasts from about age 6 until puberty is known as the _______ stage.
  2. phallic
  3. anal
  4. genital
  5. latency

 

Answer  c     % correct 73      a= 5  b= 5  c= 73  d= 18      r = .50

 

  1. The latency period lasts from _______ years of age.
  2. 1-3
  3. 3-6
  4. 6-12
  5. 12-18

 

 

 

The Modern Study of Personality

 

Answer  d     % correct 40      a= 0  b= 10  c= 50  d= 40      r = .59

 

  1. For Allport, a person whose life revolved around one or two themes, such as accumulating wealth and being respected, would be exhibiting what he termed ___________.
  2. types
  3. secondary traits
  4. central traits
  5. cardinal traits

 

 

 

Environmental Influences on Personality

 

Answer  c     % correct 78      a= 0  b= 17  c= 78  d= 5      r = .25

 

  1. Social Learning Theory suggests that ___________________.
  2. reinforcement alone explains how behaviors are learned
  3. reinforcement and classical conditioning account for the learning of behaviors
  4. people learn from observing which behaviors of others are rewarded and punished
  5. classical conditioning alone accounts for the learning of behaviors.

 

Answer  c     % correct 95      a= 5  b= 0  c= 95  d= 0      r = .38

 

  1. According to social learning theory, a child who pretends she is smoking because she saw her favorite TV star smoking would be learning through ______________.
  2. reinforcement
  3. punishment
  4. imitation
  5. practice

 

 

 

The Inner Experience

 

Answer  a     % correct 89      a= 89  b= 5  c= 6  d= 0      r = .44

 

  1. ___________________theory emphasizes that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning.
  2. Humanistic
  3. Psychoanalytic
  4. Social learning
  5. Trait

 

Answer  c     % correct 50      a= 30  b= 20  c= 50  d= 0      r = .27

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a humanist?
  2. May
  3. Maslow
  4. Bandura
  5. Rogers

 

Answer  b     % correct 79      a= 0  b= 79  c= 8  d= 13      r = .57

 

  1. “Becoming what one ought to be” is one way to define _______.
  2. peak experience
  3. self-actualization
  4. achievement potential
  5. self concept

 

Answer  c     % correct 87      a= 10  b= 0  c= 87  d= 3      r = .35

 

  1. Carl Rogers, Abraham Maslow, and Rollo May are all _______.
  2. behaviorists
  3. psychoanalysts
  4. humanists
  5. cognitivists

 

Answer  a     % correct 48      a= 48  b= 3  c= 41  d= 7      r = .45

 

  1. Which of the following believes humans have a natural motivation to reach their highest potential?
  2. Maslow
  3. Skinner
  4. Adler
  5. Jung

Answer  c     % correct 90      a= 7  b= 0  c= 90  d= 3      r = .39

 

  1. According to Rogers, all people have a need for:
  2. superiority.
  3. sex and aggression.
  4. positive regard.
  5. anxiety reduction.

 

Answer  a     % correct 91      a= 91  b= 0  c= 9  d= 0      r = .28

 

  1. _______ name the theory that emphasizes the concept that humans are positively motivated and progress toward higher levels of functioning.
  2. Humanistic
  3. Psychoanalytic
  4. Social learning
  5. Trait

Answer  a     % correct 50      a= 50  b= 14  c= 27  d= 9      r = .38

 

  1. The most famous humanistic psychologist was _______.
  2. Rogers
  3. Skinner
  4. Maslow
  5. Adler

 

Answer  c     % correct 82      a= 3  b= 3  c= 82  d= 13      r = .26

 

  1. According to Rogers, people brought up with conditional positive regard _______.
  2. tend to be vain and narcissistic
  3. tend to act as if they were orally fixated
  4. feel valued regardless of their attitudes and behaviors
  5. live lives directed toward what others want and value

 

Answer  d     % correct 59      a= 7  b= 3  c= 31  d= 59      r = .63

 

  1. Which of the following, according to Rogers, is MOST likely to become a fully functioning person?
  2. someone with a strongly developed superego
  3. someone with an extroverted personality
  4. someone brought up with conditional positive regard
  5. someone brought up with unconditional positive regard

Answer  d     % correct 64      a= 0  b= 14  c= 23  d= 64      r = .27

 

  1. Unconditional positive regard is most important to _______.
  2. Freud
  3. Jung
  4. Maslow
  5. Rogers