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Psychology An Introduction 11th Edition Lahey Test Bank

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Psychology An Introduction 11th Edition Lahey Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035166

ISBN-10: 0078035163

 

Description

Psychology An Introduction 11th Edition Lahey Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0078035166

ISBN-10: 0078035163

 

 

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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

9 COGNITION, LANGUAGE, AND INTELLIGENCE

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following phases is MOST synonymous with cognition?
  2. A) Intellectual processes
  3. B) Learning
  4. C) Sensation and perception
  5. D) A state of consciousness

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Cognition refers to:
  2. A) a stimulus and a behavioral response.
  3. B) learned behavioral associations.
  4. C) knowledge and thinking.
  5. D) brainwave patterns.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If music is the product of the piano, and money is the product of banking, then ____________ is the product of cognition.
  2. A) behavior
  3. B) stimulation
  4. C) emotion
  5. D) information

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When cognitive psychologists say, “cognition is active,” they mean that we
  2. A) receive information and actively change, keep, and use it.
  3. B) are in a state of alert arousal.
  4. C) can actively select what information enters our senses.
  5. D) are not subject to environmental influences.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT directly involved in cognition?
  2. A) Sensation
  3. B) Memory
  4. C) Behavior
  5. D) Perception

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. From the perspective of cognitive psychology, the central function of cognition is to allow people to
  2. A) feel, care, and experience.
  3. B) understand, communicate, and cope.
  4. C) sense, record, and copy.
  5. D) experience, feel, and react.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The process in which we obtain information from the world and utilize that information in problem solving is
  2. A) perception.
  3. B) sensation.
  4. C) intelligence.
  5. D) cognition.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Concepts are
  2. A) sensations.
  3. B) categories.
  4. C) strategies.
  5. D) decisions.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following are the basic units of thinking?
  2. A) Concepts
  3. B) Morphemes
  4. C) Problems
  5. D) Syntax

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 265

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Concepts are important to human thought because they allow us to
  2. A) transform sensations into perceptions.
  3. B) count numbers of objects.
  4. C) efficiently categorize new experiences.
  5. D) develop language skills.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Simple concepts are based on
  2. A) a single common feature.
  3. B) simple features.
  4. C) a medium level of inclusiveness.
  5. D) similar shapes.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 265

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following concepts is a simple concept?
  2. A) Furniture
  3. B) Square
  4. C) Toy
  5. D) Vacation

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

13 Concepts defined by the simultaneous presence of two or more common characteristics are referred to as

  1. A) prototypical concepts.
  2. B) simple concepts.
  3. C) disjunctive concepts.
  4. D) conjunctive concepts.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

14 The concept of “sister-in-law” can mean either the wife of one’s sibling or the sister of one’s spouse. “Sister-in-law” is a(n)

  1. A) heuristic concept.
  2. B) conjunctive concept.
  3. C) algorithmic concept.
  4. D) disjunctive concept.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

15 A bachelor is a person who is (1) male and (2) unmarried. “Bachelor” is an example of a

  1. A) simple concept.
  2. B) disjunctive concept.
  3. C) conjunctive concept.
  4. D) prototypical concept.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The term “adult” has been defined as a person who is (1) 18 years or older or (2) has completed puberty or (3) is financially independent. If a person with at least one of these characteristics is considered an adult, then the term is a
  2. A) conjunctive concept.
  3. B) prototypical concept.
  4. C) simple concept.
  5. D) disjunctive concept.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. According to Rosch, natural concepts are all of the following EXCEPT
  2. A) prototypical.
  3. B) very inclusive.
  4. C) basic.
  5. D) easy for humans to learn.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Rosch defined a basic concept as one that is
  2. A) general and superordinate.
  3. B) less inclusive than a superordinate but more inclusive than a subordinate concept.
  4. C) specific and subordinate.
  5. D) more inclusive than a superordinate but less inclusive than a subordinate concept.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a superordinate concept?
  2. A) Banana
  3. B) Mango
  4. C) Tropical fruit
  5. D) Food

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a basic concept?
  2. A) Chair
  3. B) Rocking chair
  4. C) Folding chair
  5. D) Furniture

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which concept has a medium degree of inclusiveness?
  2. A) Nickel
  3. B) Coin
  4. C) Money
  5. D) Indian head nickel

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a subordinate concept?
  2. A) Tree
  3. B) Flower
  4. C) Pine tree
  5. D) Plant

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. According to Rosch, basic concepts tend to share all of the following EXCEPT
  2. A) many common attributes.
  3. B) motor movements.
  4. C) similar colors.
  5. D) similar shapes.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 267

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Eleanor Rosch defined “prototype” as
  2. A) a list of necessary features.
  3. B) a good example of a particular concept.
  4. C) the first item in a line of new products.
  5. D) a category that is very inclusive.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 268

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a prototypical member of the concept “clothing”?
  2. A) Necklace
  3. B) Belt
  4. C) Pants
  5. D) Tank top

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 268

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of prototypical American fast food?
  2. A) Hamburger
  3. B) Egg roll
  4. C) Spanakopita
  5. D) Sushi

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 268

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an important part of the definition of problem solving?
  2. A) Reaching a goal
  3. B) Obstacle
  4. C) Using information
  5. D) Complex

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 269

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The first step in problem solving involves
  2. A) breaking a mental set.
  3. B) organizing the elements of the problem.
  4. C) selecting a specific problem-solving strategy.
  5. D) defining the problem.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 270

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Sometimes you need to look at a problem in a way that is not immediately obvious. When you perform this operation, you are
  2. A) organizing the elements of the problem.
  3. B) formulating the problem.
  4. C) evaluating alternative solutions.
  5. D) generating solutions.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 271

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the middle of the desert, the fan belt breaks in Rosario’s car. Undaunted, she uses her nylons to replace it until she can get to a service station. Rosario has
  2. A) broken a mental set.
  3. B) used the similarity heuristic.
  4. C) inaccurately defined the problem.
  5. D) broken a confirmation bias.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 271

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A mental set is a
  2. A) strategy used to reformulate a problem.
  3. B) habitual way of approaching or perceiving a problem.
  4. C) strategy similar to brainstorming in that it is used to generate multiple solutions.
  5. D) means of evaluating alternative solutions.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 271

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. After generating a list of potential solutions to a problem, the next step is to
  2. A) formulate the problem.
  3. B) organize the elements of the problem.
  4. C) evaluate each potential solution.
  5. D) develop an effective way of implementing the solution.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following statements about algorithms is true?
  2. A) Algorithms often miss the solution.
  3. B) Algorithms guarantee the correct solution.
  4. C) Algorithms involve divergent thinking.
  5. D) Algorithms provide quick solutions.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. To determine the perimeter of a rectangle, add the lengths of all the sides together. This is an example of
  2. A) an algorithm.
  3. B) the availability heuristic.
  4. C) the representativeness heuristic.
  5. D) trial-and-error problem solving.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Using which of the following is MOST similar to taking a shortcut that you have never used before?
  2. A) Heuristic
  3. B) Trial and error
  4. C) Algorithm
  5. D) Mental set

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In computer chess, some programs are written to maximize protection of the queen. Moves are then generated to meet this objective but do not necessarily win the game. This is an example of
  2. A) an algorithm.
  3. B) trial-and-error problem solving.
  4. C) a mental set.
  5. D) a heuristic.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following statements is true of heuristics?
  2. A) Heuristics are both impractical and cumbersome.
  3. B) Heuristics require the use of intuition.
  4. C) Heuristics are similar to trial-and-error problem solving.
  5. D) Heuristics do not guarantee the correct solution.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Jackie assumes that Antoine belongs to a gang because his jeans sag and he has several tattoos. Which cognitive strategy best explains how Jackie arrived at this judgment?
  2. A) Trial-and-error approach
  3. B) Algorithms
  4. C) Representativeness heuristic
  5. D) Prejudicial heuristic

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 271–272

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The question, “Is the glass half full or half empty?” demonstrates
  2. A) the classic convergent thinking question.
  3. B) an algorithm.
  4. C) trial-and-error thinking.
  5. D) the effect of emotions on cognition.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 271–272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Emotion and problem solving are
  2. A) unrelated concepts.
  3. B) rarely related.
  4. C) not independent of one another.
  5. D) are nearly the same thing in humans.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Two people both lose their jobs in the same company on the same day. Person A decides that the job loss is the “best thing that ever happened to him.” He immediately enrolls in community college to begin a new career. Person B feels devastated and tells himself, “I will never find another job.” He immediately takes to bed and eventually develops severe depression. The different decisions made by these individuals illustrates the concept of
  2. A) trial-and-error problem solving.
  3. B) emotional factors in decision making.
  4. C) algorithms.
  5. D) divergent thinking.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 272

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Kathleen is deathly frightened of dogs. On a cognitive level, she knows that most dogs are leashed and/or are friendly, but she continues to evaluate such situations as highly risky. What other factor is influencing her perception of risk?
  2. A) Low intelligence
  3. B) Distorted thinking
  4. C) Inability to read social cues
  5. D) Emotion

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Pat and Cindy are both given the same information regarding a terrorist threat that occurred within the airline they will be using for their business trip. Prior to receiving this news, Cindy was having a good day and reported a positive mood, while Pat was feeling irritable and cranky. Who will be MOST likely to cancel her trip?
  2. A) Cindy
  3. B) Pat
  4. C) Cindy and Pat
  5. D) Neither Cindy nor Pat

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 272

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Convergent thinking is
  2. A) logical.
  3. B) unconventional.
  4. C) only partially directed.
  5. D) loosely defined.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 273

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Correctly answering the question, “What is the definition of an algorithm?” requires
  2. A) convergent thinking.
  3. B) incubation.
  4. C) divergent thinking.
  5. D) heuristic thinking.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following activities requires convergent thinking to the greatest degree?
  2. A) Writing a poem
  3. B) Determining the area of a triangle
  4. C) Developing a new recipe
  5. D) Landscaping your garden

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following activities requires convergent thinking to the greatest degree?
  2. A) Composing a song
  3. B) Writing a short story
  4. C) Alphabetizing your CDs
  5. D) Decorating a room

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which activity requires divergent thinking?
  2. A) Writing a novel
  3. B) Determining the area of a rectangle
  4. C) Following a recipe
  5. D) Proofreading a paper for correct punctuation

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Divergent thinking requires individuals to
  2. A) narrow down possibilities.
  3. B) break mental sets.
  4. C) be conventional.
  5. D) come up with the correct solution.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In our culture, creativity is linked with
  2. A) convergent thinking.
  3. B) divergent thinking.
  4. C) circular thinking.
  5. D) logical thinking.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 273

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Megan is taking her nursing exam and sees that Professor Jensen asked an essay question requiring students to write about the “ideal” alternative care environment for an older individual. What kind of thinking will be most helpful to Megan in answering this question?
  2. A) Convergent thinking
  3. B) Divergent thinking
  4. C) Logical thinking
  5. D) Functional thinking

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 273

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the creative process, formulation of the problem occurs in
  2. A) Wallas’s stage of preparation.
  3. B) Tolman’s concept of cognitive mapping.
  4. C) Kohler’s concept of insight learning.
  5. D) Tolman’s concept of latent learning.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In Wallas’s creative problem-solving process, what is the correct order of the four steps?
  2. A) Preparation, illumination, incubation, verification
  3. B) Illumination, preparation, incubation, verification
  4. C) Preparation, incubation, illumination, verification
  5. D) Incubation, preparation, illumination, verification

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What claim does Wallas make about the process of creative problem solving?
  2. A) It requires accepting all suggestions without criticism.
  3. B) It requires leaving the problem alone for awhile.
  4. C) Solutions come suddenly, with little effort at all.
  5. D) It requires attacking the problem and not stopping until it is solved.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In Wallas’s creative process, the word “illumination” refers to
  2. A) a sudden realization of a new solution.
  3. B) correctly formulating the problem.
  4. C) the process of generating alternative solutions.
  5. D) the process of incubation.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Researchers are often involved in the final step of creative problem solving, in which the solution of the problem is tested. Which step of Wallas’s creative problem-solving model is this?
  2. A) Incubation
  3. B) Verification
  4. C) Preparation
  5. D) Illumination

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Inferential reasoning refers to
  2. A) going beyond the information presented to reach a conclusion.
  3. B) unconventional and illogical thinking.
  4. C) logical, factual, and focused thinking.
  5. D) determining in which categories particular examples belong.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What is the most current view regarding cultural influences on inferential reasoning?
  2. A) Culture and inferential reasoning are not related.
  3. B) People in developed countries are more intelligent.
  4. C) Culture can significantly influence inferential reasoning.
  5. D) None of these are true.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 275

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The meaning of language is the
  2. A) morphology.
  3. B) phonology.
  4. C) semantic content.
  5. D) code.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 277

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. “Passing psychology is heaven” and “It is heaven to pass psychology” are statements that share the same
  2. A) morphology.
  3. B) deep structure.
  4. C) phonology.
  5. D) surface structure.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 277

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The superficial spoken or written structure of a sentence is known as the
  2. A) surface structure.
  3. B) deep structure.
  4. C) semantic structure.
  5. D) propositional content.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 277

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. “Flying airplanes can be dangerous” has two distinct meanings: (1) Piloting airplanes can be dangerous, and (2) airplanes can be dangerous when they are flying. In other words, this one sentence has two distinct
  2. A) surface structures.
  3. B) morphological structures.
  4. C) deep structures.
  5. D) phonological structures.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 277

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Language is a highly efficient system in which we produce language from a set of elements and rules combining them into speech. This is known as the
  2. A) vocalization property of language.
  3. B) semantic content of language.
  4. C) speech content of language.
  5. D) generative property of language.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. As a result of the generative property of language, we
  2. A) can understand each other.
  3. B) learn language at an early age.
  4. C) say utterances that have never been spoken before.
  5. D) can learn more than one language.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 278

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. By themselves, ____________are basically meaningless.
  2. A) morphemes
  3. B) sound bites
  4. C) phonemes
  5. D) semantics

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The smallest units of sound in a language are
  2. A) decibels.
  3. B) morphemes.
  4. C) phonemes.
  5. D) subjugations.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The Chinese language does not distinguish between the r and the l sounds. These basic sounds are called
  2. A) phonemes.
  3. B) morphemes.
  4. C) syntax.
  5. D) semantics.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The basic sounds of a language are its
  2. A) phonemes.
  3. B) syntax.
  4. C) alphabet.
  5. D) morphemes.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The letter c can sound like a k as in “candy” or like s as in “city.” This proves that
  2. A) a phoneme can be represented as different sounds.
  3. B) k and s are not phonemes.
  4. C) the letter c represents multiple phonemes.
  5. D) the same sounds can be represented by different phonemes.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The smallest units of meaning in a language are
  2. A) words.
  3. B) morphemes.
  4. C) phonemes.
  5. D) syntax rules.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Past tenses, prefixes, and single freestanding words are examples of
  2. A) phonemes.
  3. B) morphemes.
  4. C) semantics.
  5. D) syntax.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The rules of word order are part of a language’s
  2. A) phonology.
  3. B) syntax.
  4. C) semantics.
  5. D) morphology.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The rules of a language that provide guidance as to how we form grammatical sentences is
  2. A) semantics.
  3. B) semantic content.
  4. C) syntax.
  5. D) linguistic relativity hypothesis.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following demonstrates the order in which children develop language?
  2. A) Morphemes, phonemes, syntax
  3. B) Phonemes, morphemes, syntax
  4. C) Syntax, morphemes, phonemes
  5. D) Syntax, phonemes, morphemes

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Benjamin Whorf proposed that
  2. A) languages throughout the world share a common set of abstract rules called “core grammar.”
  3. B) the nature of language is controlled by a culture’s beliefs.
  4. C) language is a function of the mind separate from other types of cognition.
  5. D) people who speak different languages may think differently.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 279

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Whorf’s linguistic relativity hypothesis claims that
  2. A) all languages are equally expressive.
  3. B) language is a function of the mind separate from other types of cognition.
  4. C) poor achievement is related to exposure to a language that is inferior or non-expressive.
  5. D) differences in perceptual abilities may result from differences in languages.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 279

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is consistent with the Whorfian hypothesis?
  2. A) Children need to learn morphemes before they can learn syntax.
  3. B) The number of words in a language to describe different colors influences the ways that speakers of the language think about color.
  4. C) Children learn words for important concepts before they learn words for concepts less important to them.
  5. D) Much thought involves visual images, sounds, and images of movements rather than language.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 279

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What is the communicative ability of bees?
  2. A) They can signal the location, amount, and quality of nectar; the type of plant containing the nectar; and whether dangers are near the nectar.
  3. B) They can signal the pros and cons of seeking nectar at sites far from the hive.
  4. C) They can signal such a variety of nuances regarding nectar gathering that it would be impossible to list them all.
  5. D) They can signal approximately how far and at what angle a source of nectar is from the hive.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 280

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The nectar-dance of bees is
  2. A) biologically preprogrammed.
  3. B) taught to young bees by experienced bees.
  4. C) very different from bee to bee within a hive.
  5. D) very different from hive to hive.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 280–281

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Research on primate language has suggested which of the following?
  2. A) Chimps cannot master a vocabulary of more than a couple dozen words.
  3. B) Chimps can ask questions but cannot supply answers to questions asked of them.
  4. C) Chimps use the language they were taught with humans but not with other chimps.
  5. D) Chimps can learn words, but their signs do not appear to show syntax.

Answer: D

Difficulty: Medium

Book: Lahey

Page: 281

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In reviewing the research on primate language, which observation was true of the chimpanzees?
  2. A) Chimpanzees could not use language to describe objects.
  3. B) Chimpanzees tended to use only one-word utterances.
  4. C) Chimpanzees typically utilized to language to ask for something, rather than to comment on their world.
  5. D) Chimpanzees could not use language to communicate with humans.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 281

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Dr. Penny Patterson was reading a new book, The Touch and Feel Kitten, to Koko. Koko said, while rubbing the fur of the cat on the cover against her cheek, “Look cat there. Soft.” This illustrates the fact that animals such as Koko can
  2. A) be classically conditioned to use sign language.
  3. B) can be trained to mimic sign in humans but do not understand the meaning in their gestures.
  4. C) demonstrate spontaneous and generative use of language.
  5. D) be considered predators to domestic animals such as cats.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 281

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Spearman’s concept of g can be used to explain why
  2. A) impoverished environments reduce IQ scores.
  3. B) the stability of IQ scores changes with age.
  4. C) people who are good at math also tend to be good at reading.
  5. D) some mentally retarded individuals have exceptional abilities in a specific area.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the following theorists, which one does NOT support the idea that intelligence is determined by a single general factor?
  2. A) Francis Galton
  3. B) Louis Thurstone
  4. C) David Wechsler
  5. D) Charles Spearman

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the following theorists, which one does NOT support the idea of multiple intelligences?
  2. A) Howard Gardner
  3. B) Louis Thurstone
  4. C) J. P. Guilford
  5. D) Charles Spearman

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Thurstone’s Primary Mental Abilities Test is consistent with the theory that
  2. A) individuals have three basic abilities, similar to primary colors.
  3. B) elementary schools should instill a basic curriculum, to be measured by this tool.
  4. C) intelligence is not a general factor but comprised of seven intellectual abilities.
  5. D) differences in intelligence are due to inherited factors.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 283

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Gardner has argued against a general factor as the determinate of intelligence. Which of the following statements BEST supports his argument?
  2. A) The stability of IQ scores gradually decreases with age.
  3. B) IQ scores can change dramatically, dependent on environment.
  4. C) In brain-damaged individuals, some intellectual abilities are lost, but some remain fully intact.
  5. D) Individuals who have poor math skills tend to also do poorly in other areas.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 283

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In traditional intelligence assessment, most tests measure
  2. A) kinesthetic skills.
  3. B) verbal and logical-mathematical skills.
  4. C) verbal and spatial skills.
  5. D) interpersonal and logical-mathematical skills.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 284

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Biological theories of general intelligence propose that persons with a higher level of general intelligence have a greater ability to
  2. A) form neural connections.
  3. B) keep the levels of their various intelligences consistent by sharing information across the corpus callosum.
  4. C) utilize their neurotransmitters appropriately.
  5. D) realize when their fatigue is influencing their capacity to think.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 284

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Biological theories of general intelligence propose that persons with a higher level of general intelligence have a greater ability to
  2. A) form neural connections.
  3. B) learn from experience.
  4. C) react quickly.
  5. D) do all of the above.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 284

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following cognitive steps necessary to solve an analogy problem are listed in the correct order?
  2. A) Encode, map, infer compare, respond, apply
  3. B) Compare, encode, infer, map, respond, apply
  4. C) Map, compare, encode, apply, infer, respond
  5. D) Encode, infer, map, apply, compare, respond

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 285

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When working to solve analogies, better reasoners take more time
  2. A) encoding information than do poorer reasoners.
  3. B) comparing alternative answers than do poorer reasoners.
  4. C) identifying common characteristics in between pairs than do poorer reasoners.
  5. D) inferring the relationship between the terms than do poorer reasoners.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 285

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. According to Sternberg, a key difference between more intelligent and less intelligent problem solving is the time taken to
  2. A) carefully encode information.
  3. B) carefully map information.
  4. C) carefully apply information.
  5. D) infer the nature of relationships.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 285

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the mental processes used to solve analogies, better reasoners perform most of the processes faster than poor reasoners. Which process do better reasoners perform SLOWER?
  2. A) Mapping
  3. B) Inference
  4. C) Encoding
  5. D) Application

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 285

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The ability to invent new strategies for dealing with new types of problems is referred to as
  2. A) innate intelligence.
  3. B) perceptual intelligence.
  4. C) fluid intelligence.
  5. D) crystallized intelligence.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 285

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Having a strong base of factual knowledge about psychology allows you to apply psychological concepts to new problems. This ability is MOST consistent with the concept of
  2. A) metacomponents.
  3. B) crystallized intelligence.
  4. C) knowledge-acquisition.
  5. D) fluid intelligence.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 286

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is believed to decline starting in middle age?
  2. A) Both fluid and crystallized intelligence
  3. B) Neither fluid nor crystallized intelligence
  4. C) Fluid intelligence
  5. D) Crystallized intelligence

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Crystallized intelligence is most likely to include which of the following?
  2. A) Academic skills
  3. B) Visual-spatial perception
  4. C) Perceptual speed
  5. D) Strategy generation.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 286

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Fluid intelligence includes
  2. A) the ability to use familiar skills to solve problems.
  3. B) abilities that are improved through experience.
  4. C) the ability to recite the Gettysburg Address.
  5. D) the ability to process information quickly.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 286

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The first useful measure of intelligence was developed by
  2. A) Francis Galton.
  3. B) Howard Gardner.
  4. C) Alfred Binet.
  5. D) David Wechsler.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The question, “How are an apple and a grapefruit alike?” could represent a question from the ____________ test of the WAIS-R.
  2. A) vocabulary
  3. B) comprehension
  4. C) information
  5. D) similarities

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. You are given a set of eight cards with pictures on them. You are told to arrange the cards in order so they tell a sensible story. Which portion of the Wechsler Intelligence Test for Children are you taking?
  2. A) Picture completion test
  3. B) Object assembly test
  4. C) Picture arrangement test
  5. D) Similarities test

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Of the following, traditional intelligence tests are BEST at predicting
  2. A) success in school.
  3. B) success in life.
  4. C) the type of career you should pursue.
  5. D) practical common sense.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is the most accurate statement about the measurement of intelligence?
  2. A) Psychologists universally agree on a definition of intelligence.
  3. B) Intelligence tests are an inclusive measure of all cognitive abilities considered to make up “intelligence.”
  4. C) Intelligence tests are useful in predicting how successful people will be in their relationships.
  5. D) Intelligence tests are fairly good at separating out the individuals who perform well on tasks that appear to require intelligence.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 286

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Why was the calculation of the intelligence quotient considered an improvement to Binet’s mental age score?
  2. A) French children are very different from American children.
  3. B) Children of different chronological ages could now be directly compared.
  4. C) Mental age is not normally distributed
  5. D) Mental age did not work well for adults.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 287

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If Denise has a mental age of 8 and she is 8 years old, then Denise’s ratio IQ would equal
  2. A) 70.
  3. B) 110.
  4. C) 100.
  5. D) 80.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 287

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. To calculate a deviation IQ, you
  2. A) divide mental age by chronological age.
  3. B) divide the correct number of responses by the total number of questions.
  4. C) compare an individual’s performance to the performance of others in the same age group.
  5. D) calculate the percentage of items passed to the percentage of items attempted.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 287

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In a normal distribution curve, the largest percentage of individuals will have IQ scores of
  2. A) 115.
  3. B) 110.
  4. C) 100.
  5. D) 90.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 287

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. To administer an intelligence test properly, test administrators are trained in specific procedures so that the test is given in the same way to every person. This training ensures that the test
  2. A) is standardized.
  3. B) has high validity.
  4. C) is reliable.
  5. D) is objective.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 288

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If you establish a normative sample for an IQ test and the sample contains few Hispanics, which of the following is true?
  2. A) Your test is invalid because it lacks standardization.
  3. B) The validity of your test will be called into question if you use the test to evaluate Hispanic people.
  4. C) Your test is invalid because it is no longer reliable.
  5. D) Your test is not objective.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 288

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Intelligence tests must be objective, which means that
  2. A) there is some allowance for interpretation as to what can be considered a correct answer.
  3. B) factors other than the individual’s performance are allowed to influence scoring but only if the differences are slight.
  4. C) the examiner is allowed to exhibit personal factors, such as present mood state or opinion toward the examinee.
  5. D) none of these occur.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 288

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. You take an intelligence test in school. Assuming no significant intervening factors have occurred, when you take the same test a few weeks later in a psychologist’s office, your IQ should be about the same as it was a few weeks ago. The test’s ability to produce similar scores demonstrates
  2. A) validity.
  3. B) objectivity.
  4. C) reliability.
  5. D) standardization.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 288

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If you say that an IQ test is invalid, you are claiming that the test
  2. A) is not appropriate for individuals with lower intelligence.
  3. B) scores are changing over the course of an individual’s life span.
  4. C) scores predictions are limited to school success.
  5. D) does not really measure intelligence.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure is called its
  2. A) reliability.
  3. B) objectivity.
  4. C) standardization.
  5. D) validity.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 289

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If the SATs accurately predict college success for white males but overpredict college success for females and African-American students, then the SATs are NOT
  2. A) reliable for women and African Americans.
  3. B) properly standardized for any group.
  4. C) objective.
  5. D) valid for women and African Americans.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 289

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Practical knowledge and skills needed to deal with everyday problems is considered
  2. A) tacit intelligence.
  3. B) g.
  4. C) fluid intelligence.
  5. D) crystallized intelligence.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 289

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In general, standard IQ tests are NOT useful in predicting
  2. A) school success.
  3. B) verbal abilities.
  4. C) everyday intelligence.
  5. D) success in complex occupations.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The ability to do which of the following is most likely to be measured in a tacit intelligence test?
  2. A) Comprehend a complex story
  3. B) Correctly spell words
  4. C) Take photographs
  5. D) Solve a geometry problem

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a skill that might be measured in a tacit intelligence test?
  2. A) Planning a garden
  3. B) Creating analogies
  4. C) Locating a synonym
  5. D) Putting together blocks to resemble a design

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which is true regarding the relationship between tacit intelligence and general intelligence?
  2. A) At very low levels of general intelligence, you can find many individuals with well-developed tacit intelligence.
  3. B) Individuals who test low in general intelligence often do quite well in complex areas of tacit skills.
  4. C) Persons of higher general intelligence are more likely to test high in tacit intelligence.
  5. D) No matter how much general intelligence people possess, you can never quite predict what their level of tacit intelligence will be.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. General intelligence is a better predictor for
  2. A) depth of knowledge than it is for school success.
  3. B) breadth of knowledge than it is for depth of knowledge.
  4. C) school success than it is for breadth of knowledge.
  5. D) depth of knowledge than it is for breadth of knowledge.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 290

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Twin studies of intelligence have found that the IQ scores of
  2. A) monozygotic and dyzogotic twins are similar.
  3. B) monozygotic twins are more similar than the IQ scores of dyzogotic twins.
  4. C) dyzogotic twins are more similar than the IQ scores of monozygotic twins.
  5. D) monozygotic and dyzogotic twins are largely unrelated.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 290

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement about the impact of environment on IQ scores?
  2. A) Intelligence is purely the result of environment.
  3. B) Both genetics and environment significantly influence intelligence.
  4. C) Because intelligence is largely innate, environment has only a small impact.
  5. D) Intelligence is purely innate, and the environment has no impact

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 290

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. An asset of an Environmental Enrichment program is
  2. A) free early preschool.
  3. B) home parenting classes.
  4. C) library of educational toys.
  5. D) All of these

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 291

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What percentage of the population has IQ scores under 85?
  2. A) 5%
  3. B) 15%
  4. C) 25%
  5. D) 30%

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 291

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The average IQ of truck drivers is ____________; the average IQ of lawyers is ____________.
  2. A) 110; 125 or higher
  3. B) 100; 135 or higher
  4. C) a little under 100; 125 or higher
  5. D) 100; 100

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 291

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Intelligence test scores predict job success partially as a result of the fact that
  2. A) most jobs don’t require a degree but do require tacit skills.
  3. B) people with low intelligence are likely to live below the poverty line.
  4. C) it takes less time to train people with higher intelligence to a high level of skill than people with lower levels of intelligence.
  5. D) persons with low IQ scores cannot learn the skills necessary for nonprofessional occupations.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 291

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Which of the following facts supports the correlation between IQ and success in education and occupations?
  2. A) Persons with low intelligence are likely to have dropped out of school.
  3. B) Persons with low intelligence are likely to live below the poverty line.
  4. C) Persons with low intelligence are likely to remain unemployed for longer periods of time.
  5. D) All of these

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 291

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The “Flynn effect” is the observation that
  2. A) intelligence scores are rising for white Americans but are falling for African Americans and Hispanic Americans.
  3. B) intelligence scores continue to drop in underdeveloped countries.
  4. C) in many countries intelligence scores have risen dramatically over the past few generations.
  5. D) intelligence tests are no longer accurate assessments of intelligence.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 292

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Researchers have observed that the MOST significant rise in intelligence scores is in the area of
  2. A) crystallized intelligence.
  3. B) fluid intelligence.
  4. C) tacit intelligence.
  5. D) linguistic intelligence.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 292

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the United States, what is the current trend in terms of parental education?
  2. A) Each successive generation has had better educated parents.
  3. B) Each successive generation has had less educated parents.
  4. C) The education level among generations of parents has not changed significantly over the years.
  5. D) Better educated parents provide a more controlling, rigid environment that requires the child to participate in postsecondary education.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 293

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Change in which of the following is NOT a possible explanation for the generational change in intelligence scores?
  2. A) Education
  3. B) Heredity
  4. C) Nutrition
  5. D) Environmental complexity

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 293

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Before concluding that people are getting smarter, which of the following represents an alternative explanation for the rise in IQ scores?
  2. A) Children today have much more practice with the types of questions asked on intelligence tests.
  3. B) Intelligence tests are outdated and need updating to better reflect a new generation of knowledge.
  4. C) Americans are increasing their vitamin intake beyond the recommended doses; this increased intake leads to better brain functioning.
  5. D) The world is much less complex and less physically challenging for the current generation than it was for previous generations.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 292–293

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the 1930s, the mean number of years of education in the United States was ______; in the 1990s, the mean was above ______ years.
  2. A) 5; 9
  3. B) 9; 11
  4. C) 9; 14
  5. D) 11; 14

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 293

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The most accurate characterization of racial differences in IQ scores is that, compared to white Americans, African Americans score
  2. A) 7 to 12 points higher.
  3. B) exactly the same.
  4. C) 3 to 6 points lower.
  5. D) 15 points lower.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 294

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. From 1973 to 1990, the mean educational level of adults in white families increased by ______, while the mean educational level of adults in African-American families increased by ______.
  2. A) 350%; 350%
  3. B) 350%; 70%
  4. C) 70%; 350%
  5. D) 70%; 70%

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 294

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. From 1973 to 1990, the mean educational level of adults in African-American families increased by
  2. A) 350%.
  3. B) 230%.
  4. C) 156%.
  5. D) 70%.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 295

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In the United States, the average income of persons in the top 10% of intelligence scores is ______ higher than in persons with average intelligence scores.
  2. A) 15%
  3. B) 27%
  4. C) 38%
  5. D) 50%

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 295

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. What percentage of the American population would qualify as mentally retarded on the basis of IQ?
  2. A) 10
  3. B) 8
  4. C) 6
  5. D) 2

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 296

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. To be classified as mildly mentally retarded, an individual would typically score in the IQ range of
  2. A) 90 or below and demonstrate major skill deficits in activities of daily living.
  3. B) 70 or below and demonstrate major skill deficits in activities of daily living.
  4. C) 90 or below and demonstrate the presence of a genetic disorder.
  5. D) 70 or below and demonstrate the presence of a genetic disorder.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 296

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Although not universally accepted among professionals, educational programs for the gifted are often partially based on the assumption that
  2. A) creativity is more important than intelligence.
  3. B) extremely bright children are at risk for psychological problems.
  4. C) all children are gifted in some way.
  5. D) gifted children are self-educators.

Answer: B

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 297

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In Terman’s longitudinal study of 1,500 gifted children, Terman observed that, compared with average individuals, gifted individuals
  2. A) had high-paying jobs but were lonely and unhappy.
  3. B) were no more successful but were happier.
  4. C) were no different than average individuals.
  5. D) were more successful and healthier.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 297

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The question, “Is the glass half full or half empty?” is MOST associated with the concept of
  2. A) the representativeness heuristic.
  3. B) an algorithm.
  4. C) trial-and-error thinking.
  5. D) framing.

Answer: D

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 305

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The first and most important step in improving critical thinking is to
  2. A) increase mental effort.
  3. B) improve problem formulation.
  4. C) break down mental sets.
  5. D) avoid functional fixedness.

Answer: A

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 299

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. To break out of a mental set, you should
  2. A) learn to reject unusual ideas.
  3. B) develop persistence and work until a solution occurs.
  4. C) narrow down solutions early.
  5. D) let go of habitual ways of viewing elements of a problem.

Answer: D

Difficulty: High

Book: Lahey

Page: 299

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Miguel is attempting to reach a pitcher on the top shelf of his kitchen but cannot find a stool to stand on. Miguel appears puzzled for a few seconds and then uses a long set of tongs to grasp the pitcher and pull it down. What was the secret of Miguel’s success?
  2. A) He increased his mental effort.
  3. B) He better formulated his problem.
  4. C) He broke out of functional fixedness.
  5. D) He allowed himself more thinking time.

Answer: C

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 299

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

True-False Questions

 

  1. A disjunctive concept is defined by the simultaneous presence of two or more common characteristics.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Superordinate concepts have a medium degree of inclusiveness.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Natural concepts are good prototypes of their superordinate concept.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 266

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In problem solving, formulating the problem means understanding what the problem actually is.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 270

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A mental set is a type of brainstorming that leads to alternative solutions.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 271

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. If you use an appropriate algorithm to solve a problem, you guarantee a correct solution.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Convergent thinking is thinking that is loosely organized and only partially directed.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 273

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Going beyond the information that is presented to reach a conclusion is referred to as inferential reasoning.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 274

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The sounds “m” and “b” are examples of morphemes in the English language.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Until recently, scientists believed that only humans could acquire human language because humans alone have the mental abilities needed for a generative language.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 280

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Louis Thurstone developed the Primary Mental Abilities Test.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Francis Galton, Charles Spearman, and David Wechsler provide evidence to support the multiple intelligences hypotheses.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 283

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Better reasoners take less time to encode information than do poorer reasoners.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 285

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Traditionally, an intelligence quotient was obtained by using the formula: MA/CA × 100.

Book: Lahey

Answer: True

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 287

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Reliability is the extent to which a test measures what it is supposed to measure.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 288

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Tacit intelligence is not the same thing as everyday intelligence.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 289

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Although intelligence scores are highly predictive of success in school, they have little relation to other types of success in life.

Answer: False

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 290

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Fluid intelligence tests have revealed an average increase in scores of 20 points per generation.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 292

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. From 1973 to 1990, the mean educational level of adults increased among white families by 70%, while the mean educational level of adults in African American families increased by 350%.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 294

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The vast majority of people with retardation can lead satisfying and productive lives.

Answer: True

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 296

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. ____________ concepts are defined by the presence of one common characteristic, or another one, or both.

Answer: Disjunctive

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 266

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. “Cars” is an example of a ____________ concept because it is less inclusive than the superordinate concept, “vehicles.”

Answer: basic

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 267

Style: Applied

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. A ____________ is a habitual way of approaching or perceiving a problem.

Answer: mental set

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 271

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. When we judge the unknown by assuming the unknown is similar to what we already know, we are using the ____________.

Answer: representativeness heuristic

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 272

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. ____________ thinking is thinking that is logical, conventional, and focused.

Answer: Convergent

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 273

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. In creative problem solving, setting the problem aside for a time is referred to as ____________.

Answer: incubation

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 273

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The ideas that are communicated through language are referred to as the ____________ content.

Answer: semantic

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 277

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The grammatical rules of a language are part of its ____________.

Answer: syntax

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 278

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Benjamin Whorf is noted for the development of the ____________ hypothesis.

Answer: linguistic relativity

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 279

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Thurstone suggested that intelligence is made up of ______ different abilities.

Answer: three

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 283

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The prevailing theory on what is “g” is that people with high g have a greater ability to form ____________ in the brain.

Answer: neural connections

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 284

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. ____________ is the ability to use previously learned skills to solve familiar problems.

Answer: Crystallized intelligence

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 286

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. An intelligence score that is based on comparisons with other individuals’ scores is called a ____________.

Answer: deviation IQ

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 287

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Everyday intelligence is referred to as ____________.

Answer: tacit intelligence

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 289

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Richard Herrnstein and Charles Murray published a controversial book titled ____________.

Answer: The Bell Curve

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 295

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Individuals with IQs from 35 to 49 are categorized as ____________ retarded.

Answer: moderately

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 296

Style: Factual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. The differing ways in which a problem or question is presented is referred to as ____________.

Answer: framing

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Low

Page: 299

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. List and describe cognition’s three primary facets.

Answer: (1) Cognition processes information. Information is obviously the necessary component in cognition. We need information to work with in order to actively think, plan, and make decisions. (2) Cognition is active. Information is never stagnant but is actively changed, kept, and used in cognitive processes. Information is obtained through the senses, transformed through perception and thinking, stored and retrieved through the process of memory, and used in the problem-solving process. (3) Cognition is useful. Cognition serves a purpose. We think to understand, to communicate, to problem solve, and to create.

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 265

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. List and describe the three steps in effective cognitive problem solving.

Answer: The first step is to formulate the problem. In this step, the problem must be properly defined and you must identify what the problem is. In the formulation step, it is important to break out of mental sets that might cause us to formulate the problem incorrectly. The second step involves understanding and organizing the elements of the problem. This involves looking at all aspects of the problem and the potential resources available to solve the problem. Again, one can easily get stuck in a mental rut by refusing to be flexible and continuing to rely on habitual ways of approaching the problem. The last step is to generate and evaluate alternative solutions. In this step a list of possible solutions is generated and each is evaluated for the possible outcome. From the list, the best solution-outcome is chosen and implemented.

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 270–271

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. Describe and compare algorithmic and heuristic thinking. How effective is each of these methods?

Answer: An algorithm is a systematic, highly structured problem-solving method that guarantees a correct solution. Typically, algorithmic thinking involves a knowledge base that the individual draws from. For example, finding the area of a triangle requires knowledge of geometry and formulas. Using the correct formula guarantees that you will arrive at the correct solution. A heuristic is another problem-solving strategy. In contrast to an algorithm, heuristics increase the probability of arriving at the correct solution but they do not guarantee the correct solution. Using a heuristic is faster than using an algorithm, but it is subject to error.

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: Medium

Page: 271

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. List and describe Wallas’s steps in creative problem solving.

Answer: (1) Preparation: Preparation involves problem formulation, recall of relevant facts, and the initial thoughts about possible solutions. (2) Incubation: In the incubation process, the problem is actually set aside for a period of time, with perhaps some reformulation occurring without actually investing tremendous energy. (3) Illumination: Illumination refers to a sudden insight pertaining to the solution. (4) Verification: Verification involves the necessary step of testing the correctness of the solution.

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 274

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3

 

  1. List and describe Sternberg’s cognitive components of intelligence.

Answer: (1) Encode: Encoding involves mentally representing information in the memory systems of the brain. (2) Infer: Once the problem is properly formulated, we begin the process of trying to determine and understand the nature of the relationships present in the problem. (3) Map: Once relationships are understood, we begin to identify the common characteristics across relevant pairs of elements. (4) Apply: Once common characteristics are mapped, they must be applied across the elements of the problem. (5) Compare: In the comparison step, alternative answers are proposed and are accepted or disregarded. (6) Respond: In the response step, a solution is chosen and stated.

Book: Lahey

Difficulty: High

Page: 285

Style: Conceptual

APA Learning Outcome: 1.3