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Psychology An Introduction Lahey 10th Edition Test Bank

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Psychology An Introduction Lahey 10th Edition Test Bank

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Psychology An Introduction Lahey 10th Edition Test Bank

  • ASIN:B006O2ORFW

 

 

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Chapter 7

7 BASIC PRINCIPLES OF LEARNING

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. Which of the following phrases most closely matches psychology’s definition of learning?
  2. A) changing behavior
  3. B) becoming educated
  4. C) acquiring understanding
  5. D) studying

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 200

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is psychology’s definition of learning?
  2. A) a temporary change in behavior that results from past experience
  3. B) the adaptation of instincts to new environments
  4. C) a relatively permanent change in behavior brought about through experience
  5. D) the gradual and systematic organization of behavior

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 200

Level: Factual

 

  1. When a baby is born, he shows no preference for foods other than mother’s milk or formula. Soon after the introduction of new foods, however, the baby shows a preference for fruits and vegetables. This new preference is an example of
  2. A) instinct.
  3. B) learning.
  4. C) maturation.
  5. D) insight.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 200

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. As he gets older, an all-star baseball batter’s ability to quickly react is lost. Why is this loss NOT considered to be the result of learning?
  2. A) The loss occurs over too long a period of time.
  3. B) The loss is too gradual and learning is rapid by comparison.
  4. C) The loss is the result of biological, not experiential factors.
  5. D) Learning always involves a gain, not a loss, of behavior.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 200

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true about learning?
  2. A) Learning refers to a relatively permanent change in behavior.
  3. B) Learning occurs through experience.
  4. C) Learning is the result of interactions with one’s environment.
  5. D) Learning refers only to intentionally produced changes in behavior.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 200

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In Pavlov’s studies, Pavlov realized that the dogs had learned to associate:
  2. A) food with salivating.
  3. B) food with getting treats.
  4. C) the sight of the attendant with food.
  5. D) barking with getting food.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 201

Level: Factual

 

  1. Of the following, which is the BEST description of Pavlov’s accidental discovery?
  2. A) The dogs learned a reflexive response (salivating) to a stimulus (food).
  3. B) The dogs learned a reflexive response (salivating) to a neutral stimulus (laboratory attendant).
  4. C) A neutral stimulus (laboratory attendant) rewarded the dogs by giving them a reflexive stimulus (food).
  5. D) A reflexive response (salivating) became associated with a neutral stimulus (laboratory attendant).

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 201

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In Pavlov’s studies, Pavlov realized that the dogs had learned to associate:
  2. A) a behavior with a stimulus.
  3. B) a reward with a stimulus.
  4. C) a behavior with a behavior.
  5. D) a stimulus with a stimulus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 201

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Johnny was playing on his swing set when a semi truck blasted its horn on the street directly in front of him. Johnny was so startled that he fell off the swing and skinned his knee. Now Johnny gets scared every time he hears a truck. This is an example of:
  2. A) punishment.
  3. B) classical conditioning.
  4. C) negative reinforcement.
  5. D) operant conditioning.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 202

Level: Applied

 

  1. In order to encourage the association between two stimuli, a researcher should:
  2. A) give subjects plenty of time between the stimuli so that they can try to remember their association.
  3. B) only pair the stimuli once or twice so the subjects won’t get bored.
  4. C) make sure the subjects are told that the two stimuli are associated.
  5. D) pair the stimuli many times and keep the time between presentations of the stimuli short.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 203

Level: Conceptual

 

 

  1. In his investigations of association learning, Pavlov discovered that dogs’ best learning of the association between a metronome and food takes place when the interval between each stimulus is about:
  2. A) 1 second.
  3. B) 0.5 second.
  4. C) 3 seconds.
  5. D) 5 seconds.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 203

Level: Factual

 

  1. A stimulus that automatically elicits a response with no prior learning is a(n):
  2. A) neutral stimulus
  3. B) conditioned stimulus
  4. C) generalized stimulus
  5. D) unconditioned stimulus

Answer: D

Difficulty: E

Page: 204

Level: Factual

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiments with dogs, the laboratory attendant had become a(n):
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) unconditioned response.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. In Pavlov’s studies, the food or meat powder was the:
  2. A) conditioned stimulus.
  3. B) neutral stimulus.
  4. C) conditioned response.
  5. D) unconditioned stimulus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Peter is punched by several bullies at school. Now, whenever a bully merely swings his fist at Peter, Peter winces. In this example, the unconditioned stimulus is:
  2. A) pain from being punched.
  3. B) the punch.
  4. C) a hand moving in the air.
  5. D) wincing.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Peter is punched by several bullies at school. Now, whenever a bully merely swings his fist at Peter, Peter winces. In this example, the conditioned stimulus is:
  2. A) pain from being punched.
  3. B) the punch.
  4. C) a hand moving in the air.
  5. D) wincing.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. After several injections, Windsor the terrier starts to yelp at the sight of hypodermic needles. The initial injection Windsor received is a(n):
  2. A) conditioned stimulus
  3. B) conditioned response
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus
  5. D) unconditioned response

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. A buzzing sound is followed by an electric shock to the hands. After several repetitions, subjects jerk their hands away when they hear the buzzer. In this example, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
  2. A) subjects jerking their hands away
  3. B) the buzzer
  4. C) fear of the shock
  5. D) the electric shock

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. A buzzing sound is followed by an electric shock to the hands. After several repetitions, subjects jerk their hands away when they hear the buzzer. In this example, what is the unconditioned stimulus?
  2. A) subjects jerking their hands away
  3. B) the buzzer
  4. C) fear of the shock
  5. D) the electric shock

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Women who breast-feed their infants often notice that the crying of any infant will trigger a reflex in which breast milk is ejected even when they are not nursing at the moment. In this case, the ejection of milk is a(n):
  2. A) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned response.
  5. D) conditioned stimulus.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Peter is punched by several bullies at school. Now, whenever a bully merely swings his fist at Peter, Peter winces. In this example, the conditioned response is:
  2. A) pain from being punched.
  3. B) the punch.
  4. C) a hand moving in the air.
  5. D) wincing.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

 

  1. When a response comes to be elicited by the conditioned stimulus, it is called a(n):
  2. A) neutral response
  3. B) association response
  4. C) conditioned response
  5. D) unconditioned response

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 204

Level: Factual

 

  1. Women who breast-feed their infants often notice that the crying of any infant will trigger a reflex in which breast milk is ejected even when they are not nursing at the moment. In this case, the suckling of a woman’s own infant is the:
  2. A) unconditioned stimulus.
  3. B) conditioned stimulus.
  4. C) unconditioned response.
  5. D) conditioned response.

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. If you are trying to classically condition a response, before you begin the conditioning:
  2. A) the UCS automatically elicits a UCR.
  3. B) the CS automatically elicits a CR.
  4. C) the UCS automatically elicits a CR.
  5. D) the CS automatically elicits a UCR.

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A woman walks by Sam. She is wearing the same perfume his first girlfriend always wore. Sam notices a pleasant, warm feeling in his body. In this example, the conditioned response is:
  2. A) the perfume.
  3. B) the woman walking by.
  4. C) Sam’s memories of his first girlfriend.
  5. D) the pleasant, warm feeling.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Before classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is best referred to as:
  2. A) unconditioned.
  3. B) a response.
  4. C) neutral.
  5. D) associated.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In classical conditioning, the ____________ is identical or very similar to the ____________.
  2. A) CS; UCS
  3. B) CR; UCR
  4. C) UCS; UCR
  5. D) CS; CR

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following procedures will produce classical conditioning?
  2. A) pairing the CS with the CR over time
  3. B) pairing the UCS with the UCR over time
  4. C) pairing a neutral stimulus with the UCS over time
  5. D) pairing the CR with the UCR over time

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. As a child, every time you played near the neighbor’s farm and a cow wandered over, your mother (who has a terrible fear of cows) screamed, snatched you into her arms, and ran into the house. You would get so startled that you would begin to cry. You now have a fear of cows. In this example, the CS is:
  2. A) the cow.
  3. B) your mother.
  4. C) your mother’s reaction.
  5. D) fear of your mother.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. As a child, every time you played near the neighbor’s farm and a cow wandered over, your mother (who has a terrible fear of cows) screamed, snatched you into her arms, and ran into the house. You would get so startled that you would begin to cry. You now have a fear of cows. In this example, the UCS is:
  2. A) the cow.
  3. B) your crying.
  4. C) your mother’s reaction.
  5. D) fear of the cow.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. As a child, every time you played near the neighbor’s farm and a cow wandered over, your mother (who has a terrible fear of cows) screamed, snatched you into her arms, and ran into the house. You would get so startled that you would begin to cry. In this example, the UCR is:
  2. A) the cow.
  3. B) fear of the cow.
  4. C) fear resulting from your mother’s reaction.
  5. D) your mother.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. As a child, every time you played near the neighbor’s farm and a cow wandered over, your mother (who has a terrible fear of cows) screamed, snatched you into her arms, and ran into the house. You would get so startled that you would begin to cry. In this example, the CR is:
  2. A) the cow.
  3. B) your mother.
  4. C) fear of your mother.
  5. D) fear of cows.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is true of classical conditioning?
  2. A) The higher the level of response of the individual being conditioned, the stronger the association.
  3. B) The process does not depend on the behavior of the individual being conditioned.
  4. C) New behavior can be acquired this way.
  5. D) The less consistently the stimuli are paired, the stronger the association.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In classical conditioning, the strength of the association between the two stimuli depends on all of the following EXCEPT:
  2. A) the consistency of the pairing of the stimuli.
  3. B) the timing of the pairing of the stimuli.
  4. C) the behavior of the individual being conditioned.
  5. D) the frequency of the pairing of the two stimuli.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In Watson’s experiments with Little Albert, the white rat was the:
  2. A) unconditioned response.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) conditioned stimulus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 207

Level: Applied

 

  1. In Watson’s experiments with Little Albert, the loud noise produced by banging the steel bar behind Albert’s head was a(n):
  2. A) unconditioned response.
  3. B) conditioned response.
  4. C) unconditioned stimulus.
  5. D) conditioned stimulus.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 207

Level: Applied

 

  1. Pairing a CS with a UCS to produce a response that is stronger than the original CR and that cannot co-occur with the original CR in order to eliminate the original CR is referred to as:
  2. A) stimulus discrimination.
  3. B) counterconditioning.
  4. C) stimulus generalization.
  5. D) extinction.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 207

Level: Factual

 

  1. Counterconditioning refers to the process of:
  2. A) gradually reducing the stimulus intensity to gradually reduce response intensity.
  3. B) presenting a UCS for a response that is incompatible with the CR that one wants eliminated.
  4. C) removing all reinforcement for a particular behavior in order to eliminate it.
  5. D) punishing a behavior that one wishes to eliminate.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 207

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is a true statement about the experiment with “Little Albert”?
  2. A) The conditioning was not entirely effective.
  3. B) Watson and Rayner did not attempt to reverse Little Albert’s conditioned fear.
  4. C) Watson and Rayner conditioned Little Albert to be afraid of loud noises.
  5. D) Experiments very similar to this one are common in contemporary American universities.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 207

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Researchers have discovered that the body’s immune system responses can be influenced by:
  2. A) counterconditioning.
  3. B) aversive conditioning.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) operant conditioning.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 207

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In a study by Ader, researchers were able to produce immune system suppression in rats by pairing:
  2. A) a yellow light with an immunosuppressive drug.
  3. B) a yellow light with an electric shock.
  4. C) saccharin-flavored water with an immunosuppressive drug.
  5. D) saccharin-flavored water with an electric shock.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 207–208

Level: Factual

 

  1. Becoming sexually aroused every time an individual sees a digital watch is an example of a fetish. Fetishes are believed to result from:
  2. A) negative reinforcement.
  3. B) positive reinforcement.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) vicarious learning.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 208

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In operant conditioning, the association learned is between:
  2. A) a stimulus and a response.
  3. B) rewards and consequences.
  4. C) behavior and consequences.
  5. D) a stimulus and a reward.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Operant conditioning is based on the principle of “law of effect,” which means:
  2. A) a behavior will increase or decrease based on the consequences that follow that behavior.
  3. B) a behavior will increase or decrease, regardless of the consequences that follow the behavior.
  4. C) people do not learn from the consequences of their behavior, unless they are physically punished.
  5. D) people will not engage in behavior that is deemed “illegal.”

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which type of learning is based on the consequences of one’s behavior?
  2. A) vicarious learning
  3. B) insight learning
  4. C) operant conditioning
  5. D) classical conditioning

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 209

Level: Factual

 

  1. Anika’s parents tell her that if she does the dishes every night, she can stay up late to watch her favorite TV show. Because she is now doing the dishes every night, we could say that Anika’s behavior is an example of a behavior learned through:
  2. A) negative reinforcement-avoidance conditioning.
  3. B) the law of effect.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) vicarious learning.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 209

Level: Applied

 

  1. The “law of effect” was formulated by ____________, who used a “puzzle box” to study the behavior of a hungry cat.
  2. A) Edward Thorndike
  3. B) B. F. Skinner
  4. C) J. B. Watson
  5. D) Ivan Pavlov

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 209

Level: Factual

 

  1. Angelica asks her mom for a lollipop and her mother promptly tells her no. She whines, cries, and makes such a fuss that her mother gives in and buys her a lollipop. According to the principles of operant conditioning, what can be expected from this encounter?
  2. A) Angelica’s mom will be less likely to buy her a lollipop in the future.
  3. B) In the future, Angelica will probably whine and cry when she wants something.
  4. C) In the future, if Angelica starts to whine and cry, her mom will send her to her room.
  5. D) Because she had to beg to get her lollipop, she will not ask for another lollipop.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 209

Level: Applied

 

  1. Operant conditioning is a type of conditioning that is dependent on:
  2. A) intelligent comprehension of the situation.
  3. B) feedback resulting from one’s actions.
  4. C) innate and unlearned reflexes.
  5. D) the ability to imitate social models.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Operant conditioning is based on the premise that behaviors occur more often when they are:
  2. A) extinguished.
  3. B) rewarded.
  4. C) negated.
  5. D) ignored.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT true of positive reinforcers?
  2. A) It involves rewarding individuals with something they consider positive.
  3. B) It can involve removal of something the individual considers not to be positive.
  4. C) It increases the frequency of the behavior.
  5. D) All of these are true.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 210

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. You want your son to quit picking up the cat by its tail, so you yell at him every time you see the behavior. Unfortunately, you do not see a decrease in the unwanted behavior. Rather, your son is increasing this behavior. Of the following, which is the BEST explanation?
  2. A) When you see the behavior, you are not yelling soon enough.
  3. B) Your yelling is serving as positive reinforcement.
  4. C) Your yelling is serving as a punishment.
  5. D) You are not using the proper reinforcement schedule.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 210

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The children in your therapy group are being rewarded with chocolate drops. Every time a child talks about feelings, you let them take a chocolate drop from the candy dish. After several sessions, you notice that one child is not responding and shows little interest in the reward. What might you conclude?
  2. A) The child is too young to learn through operant conditioning.
  3. B) You are not being consistent in giving out the reward.
  4. C) The reward you chose is not reinforcing for this particular child.
  5. D) You are not using the appropriate reinforcement schedule.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 210

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. You want your daughter to study hard, so you decide to pay her $20 for every “A” on her report card. This strategy will not work if your daughter despises:
  2. A) report cards.
  3. B) you.
  4. C) studying.
  5. D) money.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 210

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Sal felt little motivation to study and was getting poor grades. Her friends tried to convince her to take school more seriously. Sal listened and decided to try harder. She studied more and earned a B+ on her Algebra exam. She was so pleased by the results of her efforts that she now studies all the time. What role did the B+ play in her present motivation?
  2. A) The B+ was a negative reinforcer.
  3. B) The B+ was a positive reinforcer.
  4. C) The B+ had little to do with her motivation; her friends were the reinforcers.
  5. D) The B+ became a conditioned stimulus.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 210

Level: Applied

 

  1. In operant conditioning, long delays between the behavior and the reinforcement will:
  2. A) make the reinforcement more tantalizing.
  3. B) result in slower learning.
  4. C) result in resentment and anger.
  5. D) result in dependence on the reinforcement.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 210

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Consistent delivery of a reinforcer is most critical:
  2. A) after the behavior has been well established.
  3. B) with new learning.
  4. C) with young children, but not necessarily with adults.
  5. D) if you want the behavior to last a long time.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 211

Level: Factual

 

  1. What is a primary reinforcer?
  2. A) one that is used in the first stage of a two-part conditioning process
  3. B) one that was added as opposed to removed
  4. C) one that satisfies an innate need
  5. D) one that an individual learns to like

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 211

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. An item or event that becomes a reinforcer only because of a learned association with other reinforcers is called:
  2. A) a secondary reinforcer.
  3. B) an unconditioned stimulus.
  4. C) an operant.
  5. D) a primary reinforcer.

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 211

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A secondary reinforcer:
  2. A) has the opposite effect of a primary reinforcer.
  3. B) must be learned.
  4. C) has little effect on behavior.
  5. D) is similar to punishment.

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 211

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
  2. A) water
  3. B) praise
  4. C) food
  5. D) physical stimulation

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 211

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a secondary reinforcer?
  2. A) electric shock
  3. B) pain
  4. C) food
  5. D) money

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 211

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a primary reinforcer?
  2. A) water
  3. B) grades
  4. C) a pay check
  5. D) applause

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 211

Level: Applied

 

  1. Sales pitch X works every time you present it to an audience. Using the sales pitch is reinforced on a:
  2. A) fixed interval schedule.
  3. B) continuous schedule.
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule.
  5. D) variable ratio schedule.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 211

Level: Applied

 

  1. You are training a rat to run a maze. After every 10th correct run, you reward the rat with a food pellet. You are using a:
  2. A) fixed interval schedule.
  3. B) variable interval schedule.
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule.
  5. D) variable ratio schedule.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement usually results in an initial burst of activity but is followed by periods of inactivity?
  2. A) a fixed interval schedule
  3. B) a variable interval schedule
  4. C) a fixed ratio schedule
  5. D) a variable ratio schedule

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement results in the most rapid learning?
  2. A) a fixed interval schedule
  3. B) a variable interval schedule
  4. C) a fixed ratio schedule
  5. D) a continuous schedule

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. You have no idea how many lottery tickets you need to buy in order to win, but the more tickets you buy, the better your chances are of winning. Your behavior is being reinforced on a:
  2. A) variable interval schedule.
  3. B) fixed interval schedule.
  4. C) variable ratio schedule.
  5. D) fixed ratio schedule.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. When Della goes to Las Vegas, her granddaughter has difficulty getting her to stop playing the nickel slot machines. In fact, she sometimes will forego food and sleep in order to keep playing. Which schedule of reinforcement is Della operating under?
  2. A) a fixed interval schedule
  3. B) a variable interval schedule
  4. C) a fixed ratio schedule
  5. D) a variable ratio schedule

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. You decide to reward yourself with a snack every time you finish reading two chapters in your history textbook. You are reinforcing your studying by using a:
  2. A) fixed interval schedule.
  3. B) variable interval schedule.
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule.
  5. D) variable ratio schedule.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement results in very high rates of responding and rather permanent learning?
  2. A) fixed interval schedule
  3. B) variable interval schedule
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule
  5. D) variable ratio schedule

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Every 2 weeks you receive a paycheck for work completed in the previous 2 weeks. Your work behavior is reinforced on a:
  2. A) fixed interval schedule.
  3. B) variable interval schedule.
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule.
  5. D) variable ratio schedule.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. The mail carrier always brings the mail about 11:00 in the morning so you start checking the mailbox at about that time. You are operating on a ____________ reinforcement schedule.
  2. A) fixed ratio
  3. B) variable ratio
  4. C) fixed interval
  5. D) variable interval

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. You love to watch for meteors, but as meteors are unpredictable, your pleasure in seeing one is reinforced on a:
  2. A) fixed ratio schedule.
  3. B) variable ratio schedule.
  4. C) fixed interval schedule.
  5. D) variable interval schedule.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which schedule of reinforcement results in highly stable performance only when the response has been partially learned through continuous reinforcement?
  2. A) fixed interval schedule
  3. B) variable interval schedule
  4. C) fixed ratio schedule
  5. D) variable ratio schedule

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 212–213

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Shaping means:
  2. A) learning by imitation.
  3. B) punishing all behaviors except the one you desire.
  4. C) reinforcing successive approximations to a target behavior.
  5. D) using negative reinforcement-avoidance conditioning to eliminate an undesired behavior.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 214

Level: Factual

 

  1. Shaping can be an effective way to:
  2. A) treat phobias and other anxieties.
  3. B) eliminate inappropriate behaviors.
  4. C) punish a behavior.
  5. D) teach a complex behavior.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 214

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Susan is teaching her 3-year-old daughter, Anna, to tie her shoes. At first, if Anna can make an “X” with her shoelaces, she gets praise and a big hug. Next, if Anna can cross a shoelace under and through the “X” she gets praise and a big hug. Finally, if Anna can make the loops to tie the bow, she gets praise and a big hug. Susan is using ____________ to teach Anna how to tie her shoes.
  2. A) stimulus generalization
  3. B) shaping
  4. C) classical conditioning
  5. D) negative reinforcement

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Kirsten is trying to train her dog, Sadie, to come when she calls. She starts by calling her name, and when Sadie looks up, she gives her a treat. She does this a few times. Next, whenever Sadie stands up when her name is called, Kirsten gives her the treat. Finally, Sadie must come all the way over to Kirsten before she gets her treat. Kirsten is using ____________ to train Sadie.
  2. A) classical conditioning
  3. B) stimulus discrimination
  4. C) shaping
  5. D) negative reinforcement

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. A circus trainer uses shaping to train a bear to spin a ball on its nose. This means that the trainer will:
  2. A) force the bear to place its head under the ball.
  3. B) start by reinforcing the bear if it moves toward the ball.
  4. C) deprive the bear of food and water until it makes the appropriate response.
  5. D) show the bear how to balance the ball by modeling the behavior.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Negative reinforcement:
  2. A) increases the frequency of the behavior.
  3. B) decreases the frequency of the behavior.
  4. C) extinguishes the behavior.
  5. D) helps individuals avoid behaviors.

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 215

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement?
  2. A) A child is spanked by his father.
  3. B) A teenager is not allowed to drive after receiving a speeding ticket.
  4. C) A man is fined $500 for violating a work ordinance.
  5. D) A seat belt makes a buzzing noise, but stops when you put the belt on.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Rosa and her 3-year-old son are in the grocery store. Her son begins to have a tantrum because he doesn’t want to be in the store. After 20 more minutes of throwing a tantrum, Rosa gives in and quickly leaves the store. When Rosa gave in to her son, she ____________ his behavior.
  2. A) positively reinforced
  3. B) negatively reinforced
  4. C) punished
  5. D) shaped

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following increases the probability that a behavior will reoccur?
  2. A) positive reinforcement and escape conditioning only
  3. B) positive reinforcement only
  4. C) positive reinforcement and avoidance conditioning only
  5. D) positive reinforcement, escape conditioning, and avoidance conditioning

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The leader of a cult tells its followers that if they bow down to him, he will prevent Satan from burning them alive. The followers bow down to him, and sure enough, Satan does not burn them, so they keep bowing down to the leader. This is an example of:
  2. A) punishment.
  3. B) positive reinforcement.
  4. C) extinction.
  5. D) avoidance conditioning.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. The hamsters in a study are running on their wheels. They have learned that if they don’t run on the wheel, they’ll receive a shock to their feet. This is an example of:
  2. A) punishment.
  3. B) escape conditioning.
  4. C) avoidance conditioning.
  5. D) positive reinforcement.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Ethan is severely afraid of dogs. Because a big black dog lives down the street, he walks three blocks out of his way to go to and from school each day. Ethan’s behavior is being reinforced through:
  2. A) punishment.
  3. B) escape conditioning.
  4. C) avoidance conditioning.
  5. D) positive reinforcement.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Other students at school ridicule Serika. Lately, Serika is complaining of being ill and unable to go to school. If her mother agrees to let her stay home, her mother will reinforce Serika’s “sick” behavior through:
  2. A) positive reinforcement.
  3. B) escape conditioning.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) avoidance conditioning.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. It’s cold in your house so you turn up the heat. The next time it feels cold in the house, you turn up the heat again. You are reinforcing your behavior with:
  2. A) positive reinforcement.
  3. B) escape conditioning.
  4. C) classical conditioning.
  5. D) avoidance conditioning.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. What do positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement have in common?
  2. A) They both depend on the presentation of a desirable stimulus.
  3. B) They both depend on the presentation of an undesirable stimulus.
  4. C) They both strengthen the likelihood of a behavior.
  5. D) They both weaken the likelihood of a behavior.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 215

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Your boss is so crabby on Mondays that you know he will yell at you. Over time, you begin to call in sick on Mondays. You are reinforcing your absence on Mondays through:
  2. A) escape conditioning.
  3. B) avoidance conditioning.
  4. C) punishment.
  5. D) positive reinforcement.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. Engaging in a behavior to end an aversive stimulus is referred to as:
  2. A) punishment.
  3. B) positive reinforcement.
  4. C) escape conditioning.
  5. D) avoidance conditioning.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 215

Level: Factual

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of punishment?
  2. A) You tell your son if he doesn’t make his bed every day that he can’t go to a party on Saturday night.
  3. B) You have stage fright and so you skip school on the day you must give a speech in history class.
  4. C) For being rude to his grandmother, you put your child in time-out.
  5. D) Your head is pounding, so you take an aspirin to relieve the headache.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 216

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which type of conditioning should produce a decrease in behavior?
  2. A) negative reinforcement-escape conditioning
  3. B) classical conditioning
  4. C) punishment
  5. D) negative reinforcement-avoidance conditioning

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 216

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Your son has lousy table manners. In particular, he picks up his food with his hands instead of using utensils. You punish his behavior by asking him to leave the table whenever you see him eat with his hands. Soon, you notice that he is eating all his food by leaning down an eating it off of his plate using his mouth only. Where did you go wrong?
  2. A) You didn’t specify the behavior that was being punished.
  3. B) You punished the incorrect behavior but didn’t teach the appropriate behavior.
  4. C) You have fostered aggression in your child.
  5. D) You punished the child, not the behavior.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 216

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
  2. A) After repeatedly punishing a child, she may choose to avoid you altogether.
  3. B) After repeated punishments, the person who has been punished may become more aggressive towards the punisher.
  4. C) The punisher may be reinforced when the behavior ceases, which in turn increases the frequency of the punishing behavior.
  5. D) Punishment is clearly accepted as a safe and effective way to reduce undesirable behaviors.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 216–218

Level: Factual

 

  1. April’s teacher privately reprimands April with a long speech about respect for other students. Despite the lecture, April’s behavior continues to be disrespectful and disruptive. What most likely went wrong?
  2. A) The teacher was not specific enough.
  3. B) April has developed a generalized inhibiting effect.
  4. C) The teacher mixed punishment and shaping.
  5. D) April was reinforced by the attention she received through the teacher’s criticism.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 216–218

Level: Applied

 

  1. Which of the following is an appropriate recommendation for the effective use of punishment?
  2. A) Follow your instincts. Behavior that makes you very angry needs harsher punishment.
  3. B) After punishing someone, apologize and explain that it is for his or her own good.
  4. C) Be flexible. Often a threat or warning will accomplish the same goal as actual punishment.
  5. D) Don’t overdo it. Harsh punishment can actually backfire and create more problems.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 216–218

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Every time you see Juan, he has an amusing joke or story to tell you that makes you smile. Now, whenever you see him, you just smile. This example most closely resembles:
  2. A) classical conditioning.
  3. B) operant conditioning.
  4. C) extinction.
  5. D) vicarious learning.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 218

Level: Applied

 

  1. The critical difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in operant conditioning:
  2. A) every behavior is reinforced, not just some responses.
  3. B) much simpler behaviors are learned.
  4. C) the learner is punished, not rewarded.
  5. D) the reinforcing consequence depends on the occurrence of the response.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 218

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. When a pigeon pecks at a disc, food is given to the pigeon. Food is given only when the pigeon pecks at the disc. Which type of learning is this?
  2. A) observational learning
  3. B) classical conditioning
  4. C) operant conditioning
  5. D) social learning

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 218

Level: Applied

 

  1. A critical difference between classical conditioning and operant conditioning is that in classical conditioning, the learner:
  2. A) must learn complex behavior.
  3. B) is rewarded for successive approximations toward a target behavior.
  4. C) receives a punishment, not a reward.
  5. D) does not control the stimulus.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 218

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. You are trying to determine if classical or operant conditioning has taken place. Of the following, which question would be the best one to ask?
  2. A) Does the individual’s behavior determine the situation?
  3. B) Is the individual engaging in a simple or complex behavior?
  4. C) Is the reinforcement pleasant or unpleasant?
  5. D) Does the learning occur quickly or does it require several pairings?

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 218

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The tendency for responses to occur more often in the presence of one stimulus than others is referred to as:
  2. A) extinction.
  3. B) counterconditioning.
  4. C) stimulus generalization.
  5. D) stimulus discrimination.

Answer: D

Difficulty: E

Page: 219

Level: Factual

 

  1. There are two washing machines in your dorm. The one on the left always works; the one on the right is usually broken. You put your money only in the machine on the left. This is an example of:
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) shaping.
  4. C) stimulus discrimination.
  5. D) external disinhibition.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. You give a parrot food every time he sounds a bell when you say, “Polly want a cracker?” You do not give food when he sounds the bell while you say any other phrase. Eventually the parrot will develop:
  2. A) spontaneous recovery.
  3. B) external disinhibition.
  4. C) stimulus discrimination.
  5. D) stimulus generalization.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. A poodle is conditioned to jump when it hears a horn and not to jump when it hears a buzzer. The poodle’s differential behavior results from:
  2. A) stimulus discrimination.
  3. B) stimulus generalization.
  4. C) extinction.
  5. D) disinhibition.

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. The tendency for similar stimuli to elicit the same response is referred to as:
  2. A) stimulus generalization.
  3. B) response generalization.
  4. C) stimulus discrimination.
  5. D) response discrimination.

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 219

Level: Factual

 

  1. As a child, a bee stung you. Now you have a fear of insects in general. You have developed:
  2. A) spontaneous recovery.
  3. B) stimulus generalization.
  4. C) stimulus disinhibition.
  5. D) stimulus discrimination.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. A monkey flips a switch for food in one room. The monkey is then placed in a new but similar room. In the new room, the monkey also flips the switch. What accounts for this behavior?
  2. A) stimulus discrimination
  3. B) external disinhibition
  4. C) spontaneous recovery
  5. D) stimulus generalization

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. Subjects jump when they see a flashing blue light because it has been paired with a mild electric shock. Which of the following would be a test of stimulus generalization?
  2. A) Present the flashing blue light without the shock.
  3. B) Present a flashing green light.
  4. C) Present the shock without the blue light.
  5. D) Extinguish the response and then present the blue light.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. A whale has been trained to jump when it sees a large white square. Now, when shown a large gray square, the whale also jumps. What accounts for this behavior?
  2. A) stimulus generalization
  3. B) extinction
  4. C) spontaneous recovery
  5. D) stimulus discrimination

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. In recalling the famous experiment with “Little Albert,” stimulus generalization was evident by:
  2. A) Albert becoming fearfully conditioned to a white rabbit, white dog, and a white coat.
  3. B) Albert jumping in fear to the sound of the bar.
  4. C) Albert becoming fearfully conditioned to a white rat.
  5. D) Albert associating the loud noise with the white rat.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 220

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Extinction refers to the process of:
  2. A) preventing the avoidance response to ensure that the individual sees that the negative consequence will not occur.
  3. B) removing a negative event in order to decrease the probability of a response.
  4. C) unlearning a learned response because the aspect of the environment that originally caused the learning changes.
  5. D) providing a negative consequence of a behavior in order to decrease the probability of the behavior.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 221

Level: Factual

 

  1. To extinguish the connection between a CS and a UCS, you must:
  2. A) repeatedly present the CS without the UCS.
  3. B) stop presenting the CS.
  4. C) repeatedly present the UCS but not the UCR.
  5. D) prevent the response by using response prevention techniques.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 222

Level: Factual

 

  1. You always ring a bell before feeding your pet pig. Now your pig drools whenever he hears the bell. How can you extinguish this response?
  2. A) Punish the pig for drooling.
  3. B) Stop ringing the bell, wait for a long time, and then ring the bell again.
  4. C) Present some other sound and follow it with food.
  5. D) Present the bell by itself repeatedly.

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 222

Level: Applied

 

  1. A tractor driver learned that every time he pushed a large button in his cab, a horn would sound. Now, whenever he wants the horn to blow, he presses the button. How can you extinguish the driver’s learning?
  2. A) Install a device so that every time he touches the button, the driver will receive a shock.
  3. B) Install a device so that the horn will spontaneously blow on its own now and then.
  4. C) Disconnect the wires so that the horn will not sound when the driver pushes the button.
  5. D) Force the driver to stay away from tractors for a long period of time.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 222

Level: Applied

 

  1. Responses learned through which type of learning are the MOST difficult to extinguish?
  2. A) avoidance conditioning
  3. B) positive reinforcement
  4. C) escape conditioning
  5. D) counterconditioning

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 222

Level: Factual

 

  1. Why are responses learned through avoidance conditioning so difficult to extinguish?
  2. A) They are learned through fixed ratio schedules.
  3. B) The individual doesn’t have the opportunity to see that the situation has changed.
  4. C) The delay of reinforcement is short.
  5. D) People do not like to be punished.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The leader of a cult tells its followers that if they bow down to him, he will prevent Satan from burning them alive. The followers bow down to him, and sure enough, Satan does not burn them, so they keep bowing down to the leader. Why would it be so difficult to convince the followers to stop bowing down to the cult leader?
  2. A) They learned to bow down through a fixed ratio schedule.
  3. B) Every time they bowed down to the cult leader, the reward of not getting burned was quickly administered.
  4. C) If they keep bowing down to the leader, they will never have the opportunity to see that Satan still won’t burn them.
  5. D) People do not like to be burned alive.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. According to the partial reinforcement effect, responses that have been reinforced on which of the following schedules of reinforcement should be the MOST difficult to extinguish?
  2. A) fixed interval
  3. B) continuous
  4. C) fixed ratio
  5. D) variable interval

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. What is spontaneous recovery?
  2. A) a learned decrease in response rate
  3. B) the reappearance of a behavior being extinguished
  4. C) a response to a stimulus that is triggered by its resemblance to the original stimulus
  5. D) the reappearance of a behavior in the absence of a stimulus

Answer: B

Difficulty: E

Page: 223

Level: Factual

 

  1. Gloria trains a kangaroo to jump when it sees a green light by pairing the light with a mild shock to the kangaroo’s footpad. Once the kangaroo has learned the behavior, she extinguishes the jumping in response to the light. A year later, she presents the kangaroo with a green light. What might she see?
  2. A) The kangaroo will jump as a result of spontaneous recovery.
  3. B) The kangaroo will jump because of stimulus generalization.
  4. C) The kangaroo will not jump because the light is not being paired with the foot shock.
  5. D) The kangaroo will not jump because of stimulus discrimination.

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 223

Level: Applied

 

  1. When an unrelated event causes a temporary increase in the strength of an extinguished response, it is called:
  2. A) stimulus discrimination.
  3. B) spontaneous recovery.
  4. C) disinhibition.
  5. D) stimulus generalization.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 223

Level: Factual

 

  1. The connectionist explanation of learning suggests that when a behavior is learned, the stimulus becomes “connected” to:
  2. A) a mental representation of that stimulus.
  3. B) an expectation that prior events associated with the stimulus will occur again.
  4. C) the organism’s perceptual processes.
  5. D) a specific response, which triggers neural connections established between brain regions.

Answer: D

Difficulty: E

Page: 223

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Research shows that even primitive worms can learn through classical conditioning. One could hardly expect a worm to comprehend the world around it or to do anything as sophisticated as thinking about and anticipating the UCS. Such research would tend to support the ____________ explanation of classical conditioning.
  2. A) common sense
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) connectionist
  5. D) behavioral

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 223

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Connectionist is to cognitive as:
  2. A) neural connections are to intellectual processes.
  3. B) higher learning is to reflexive learning.
  4. C) intellectual processes are to neural connections.
  5. D) reflexive learning is to neural connections.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 225

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Your hand is resting on a wire grid. A light flashes and the grid gives you a painful shock. You quickly learn to move your hand when the light goes on. Some theorists believe that you have learned to move your hand, not because of a learned set of reflexive muscle movements, but because you expect the grid to shock you and you intend to avoid the shock. These theorists would support which explanation of learning?
  2. A) connectionist
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) Pavlovian
  5. D) law of effect

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 225

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Recent research has suggested that which of the following plays an essential role in learning cognitive maps?
  2. A) corpus callosum
  3. B) hippocampus
  4. C) cerebellum
  5. D) thalamus

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 226

Level: Factual

 

  1. You drive approximately the same route to and from school everyday. Yesterday as you drove the route, you came across a roadblock because of an accident several miles ahead of you. Rather than being completely lost, you immediately turned left and followed a route several blocks to the south of the route you normally take. What would be a likely explanation for the fact that the roadblock didn’t throw you completely off?
  2. A) You had developed an association between the muscle movements of driving the car and stimuli on the street.
  3. B) You had developed a mental representation of the approximate location of your school.
  4. C) You had a sudden insight that allowed you to negotiate the detour.
  5. D) Insight learning allowed you to demonstrate that you knew the alternative route.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 226

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Three groups of rats are taught to run a maze. Group 1 rats are never reinforced for reaching the food box. Group 2 rats are always reinforced for reaching the food box. Group 3 rats are not reinforced for the first 10 days, but are reinforced from then on. Group 1 rats never improve their timing. Group 2 rats gradually improve their timing. Group 3 rats do not improve until they are reinforced, at which time their improvement is rapid. Tolman would say that which group(s) of rats are displaying “latent learning?”
  2. A) Group 3
  3. B) Group 2
  4. C) Group 1
  5. D) Group 2 and Group 3

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 226

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Latent learning occurs when an individual learns:
  2. A) to expand upon what was originally learned.
  3. B) by suddenly realizing the existence of previously unseen relationships.
  4. C) without reinforcement.
  5. D) by watching another person get reinforced or punished.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 226

Level: Factual

 

  1. Connectionists would believe that rats learn to run through a maze by:
  2. A) developing associations between stimuli in the maze and particular muscle movements.
  3. B) acquiring knowledge of where food is located.
  4. C) developing associations between memory areas of the brain and kinesthetic receptors in the skin.
  5. D) developing mental representations of the location of the food.

Answer: A

Difficulty: M

Page: 226

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. When Tolman trained rats to run a maze to obtain a food reward, and then blocked the original path, the rats immediately took the shortest route to the food. Tolman interpreted this finding as an indication that the rats had acquired:
  2. A) neural connections between stimuli in the maze and particular muscle movements.
  3. B) a cognitive map of the location of the food.
  4. C) an excellent sense of smell.
  5. D) learning that was not dependent on a food reward.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 226

Level: Factual

 

  1. Tolman believed that rats develop mental representations of mazes they have explored. He called this phenomenon:
  2. A) behavior schema building.
  3. B) insight learning.
  4. C) latent learning.
  5. D) cognitive mapping.

Answer: D

Difficulty: E

Page: 226

Level: Factual

 

  1. The sudden realization of previously unseen relationships is called:
  2. A) vicarious learning.
  3. B) latent learning.
  4. C) insight learning.
  5. D) cognitive mapping.

Answer: C

Difficulty: E

Page: 227

Level: Factual

 

  1. After struggling and struggling to find the solution to a calculus problem, you decide to hang it up for the night. You close your books and move on to some other activity. The next day, you open your book to try once again. Much to your amazement, the answer seems suddenly obvious and you solve the problem within a few minutes. You just demonstrated:
  2. A) vicarious learning.
  3. B) latent learning.
  4. C) insight learning.
  5. D) the ability to use a cognitive map.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 227

Level: Applied

 

  1. When an individual acquires a learning set, they have learned to learn:
  2. A) vicariously.
  3. B) latently.
  4. C) insightfully.
  5. D) cognitively.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 227

Level: Factual

 

  1. To 10-year-old Ethan, geometry seemed completely baffling at first. The idea of angles, parallel sides, and perpendicular sides just didn’t seem to make sense. However, after weeks of practice and experience with drawing figures, Ethan seems to have no problem tackling the toughest of problems. You could say that Ethan has developed:
  2. A) latent learning.
  3. B) a learning set.
  4. C) cognitive maps.
  5. D) connections.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page:229

Level: Applied

 

  1. Insight learning, latent learning, and cognitive maps are all support for the ____________ theory of learning.
  2. A) cognitive
  3. B) modeling
  4. C) biological
  5. D) connectionist

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Which researcher proposed the idea of “modeling” as a viable form of learning?
  2. A) Wolfgang Kohler
  3. B) Edward Tolman
  4. C) B. F. Skinner
  5. D) Albert Bandura

Answer: D

Difficulty: E

Page: 229

Level: Factual

 

  1. Rebecca was playing outside with her cousin, Emma. Suddenly, Emma let out a bloodcurdling scream and yelled, “A bee!” She ran to her mother as fast as she could and her mother snatched her into her arms, comforting and soothing her. The next week, Rebecca was gardening with her mother, saw a bee, and screamed, “A bee!” She ran to her mother and clung to her leg, trying to get her mother to pick her up. Of the following, which BEST accounts for Rebecca’s behavior?
  2. A) classical conditioning
  3. B) insight learning
  4. C) vicarious reinforcement
  5. D) vicarious punishment

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Applied

 

  1. “I’ve never taken drugs, but I don’t need to try them to know they’re bad for you. I’ve seen too many lives ruined.” This statement BEST illustrates:
  2. A) insight learning.
  3. B) vicarious punishment.
  4. C) latent learning.
  5. D) vicarious reinforcement.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Applied

 

  1. What happens during vicarious reinforcement?
  2. A) You experience an event and associate that event with a primary reinforcer.
  3. B) You experience an event that has a mixture of reinforcing and punishing properties.
  4. C) You receive reinforcement but fail to pay attention to it.
  5. D) You watch someone else receive reinforcement for a particular behavior.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Albert Bandura demonstrated that people would be ____________ likely to imitate a model whose behavior is ____________.
  2. A) less; reinforced
  3. B) more; reinforced
  4. C) more; punished
  5. D) less; difficult to model

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Factual

 

  1. Of the following, which phobia would be LEAST likely to develop?
  2. A) a fear of snakes
  3. B) a fear of spiders
  4. C) a fear of books
  5. D) a fear of blood

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The fact that many people demonstrate mild to moderate fears of rodents, snakes, heights, and blood, but few demonstrate mild to moderate fears of newspapers, flowers, paper plates, and socks, lends support to the idea of:
  2. A) vicarious reinforcement.
  3. B) biological preparedness.
  4. C) superstitious behavior.
  5. D) insight learning.

Answer: B

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Generally, phobias are initially learned through classical conditioning but are maintained over time through:
  2. A) negative reinforcement (escape conditioning).
  3. B) punishment.
  4. C) positive reinforcement.
  5. D) negative reinforcement (avoidance conditioning).

Answer: D

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. You want to condition your cat to stay out of your garbage cans with as few trials as possible. Of the following, which method would best accomplish your goal?
  2. A) Lace some food in the garbage with a nausea-inducing drug.
  3. B) Ring a bell when the cat gets in the garbage.
  4. C) Produce a loud obnoxious noise whenever the cat approaches the garbage.
  5. D) Administer a mild electric shock to the cat when it touches the garbage.

Answer: A

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Taste aversion differs from typical classical conditioning because:
  2. A) it requires multiple pairings of the CS and the UCS.
  3. B) it produces no measurable conditioned response.
  4. C) the association can be learned in a single pairing of the CS and the UCS.
  5. D) the learning can be easily extinguished.

Answer: C

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Farmer Niles needs rain. He sees dark clouds, and then begins shouting at the clouds “to rain.” It starts to rain. After another dry spell, Farmer Niles performs the same sequence of steps and it starts to rain again. Soon, he is convinced that shouting at clouds produces rain. According to Skinner, Farmer Niles has experienced:
  2. A) insight learning.
  3. B) vicarious reinforcement.
  4. C) superstitious behavior.
  5. D) modeling.

Answer: C

Difficulty: H

Page: 229

Level: Applied

 

  1. The development of superstitions suggests that:
  2. A) attempting to manipulate reinforcement often backfires.
  3. B) sometimes irrelevant behaviors are reinforced.
  4. C) punishment can be very reinforcing.
  5. D) partial reinforcement is very resistant to extinction.

Answer: B

Difficulty: M

Page:

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In his research, Skinner discovered superstitious reinforcement while working with:
  2. A) pigeons.
  3. B) schizophrenic patients.
  4. C) depressed individuals.
  5. D) cats.

Answer: A

Difficulty: E

Page: 229

Level: Factual

 

  1. Rhea is an avid basketball fan. Every time her team plays, Rhea wears her “lucky underwear.” Rhea said that she does this because her team won the championship when she last wore her lucky underwear. We could describe this behavior as:
  2. A) bizarre.
  3. B) vicarious reinforcement.
  4. C) vicarious punishment.
  5. D) superstitious.

Answer: D

Difficulty: M

Page: 229

Level: Applied

 

True-False Questions

 

  1. You behave the way you do entirely because of innate biological factors.

Answer: F

Page: 199

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In Pavlov’s original experiments with digestion, he noticed that the dogs began salivating simply when the laboratory attendant walked into the room.

Answer: T

Page: 201

Level: Factual

 

  1. In classical conditioning, Pavlov found that the dogs learned best if the metronome preceded the food by one half of a second.

Answer: T

Page: 201

Level: Factual

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiments, the CS was the food.

Answer: F

Page: 202

Level: Factual

 

  1. Sexual fetishes are primarily learned through operant conditioning.

Answer: F

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The “law of effect” states that the consequences of a behavior lead to changes in the probability of its occurrence.

Answer: T

Page: 209

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. If you are being rewarded after a predetermined time interval, you are on a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement.

Answer: F

Page: 213

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Every Friday you receive a paycheck for work performed the previous week. You are on a variable interval reinforcement schedule.

Answer: F

Page: 213

Level: Applied

 

  1. The complex behaviors that whales display at Sea World have been probably been developed through the process of shaping.

Answer: T

Page: 214

Level: Applied

 

  1. If your behavior causes the removal of an unpleasant stimulus, you have reinforced the behavior through the process of escape conditioning.

Answer: T

Page: 215

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A negative consequence that leads to a reduction in the likelihood of a behavior is referred to as a punishment.

Answer: T

Page: 216

Level: Conceptual

  1. Classical conditioning generally involves involuntary behaviors controlled by the spinal cord or autonomic nervous system.

Answer: T

Page: 218

Level: Factual

 

  1. Avoidance responses are distinguished very slowly when using a technique known as “response prevention.”

Answer: F

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. When an unrelated event causes an extinguished response to reappear, it is called spontaneous recovery.

Answer: F

Page: 223

Level: Factual

 

  1. Connectionists believe that learning is the result of establishing a rapid neural pathway between two parts of the brain.

Answer: T

Page: 227

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A theorist who believes that learning is a cognitive event would say that you flinch when a light comes on because you anticipate that a shock will follow.

Answer: T

Page: 227

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A learning set enables individuals to learn insightfully.

Answer: T

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Edward Tolman developed the theories of insight learning, cognitive maps, and modeling.

Answer: F

Page: 225

Level: Factual

 

  1. Bandura’s experiments with the Bobo doll demonstrated the concept of insight learning.

Answer: F

Page: 229

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In a taste aversion, the food that makes you ill is the unconditioned stimulus.

Answer: F

Page: 231

Level: Applied

 

Fill-in-the-Blank Questions

 

  1. In Pavlov’s classic experiments, the laboratory attendant became a ____________.

Answer: conditioned stimulus

Page: 201

Level: Applied

 

  1. A(n) ____________ stimulus is a stimulus that elicits a response with no prior learning.

Answer: unconditioned

Page:204

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Secondary reinforcers are ____________ through classical conditioning.

Answer: learned

Page: 211

Level: Factual

 

  1. If you are being rewarded only after a specified number of responses, you are being reinforced on a ____________ schedule.

Answer: fixed ratio

Page: 212

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Madelyn always wanted to teach her hamster to dance. The learning technique that would be most helpful is

____________.

Answer: shaping

Page: 214

Level: Applied

 

  1. Your microwave buzzes an annoying buzz until you turn it off. The principle of ____________ conditioning states that the next time you are cooking, you will be likely to turn of the microwave much sooner.

Answer: escape

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. You have a tremendous fear of centipedes. In the winter, you never go down in your basement because the likelihood of encountering a centipede increases. You are reinforcing your fear through the process of ____________ conditioning.

Answer: avoidance

Page: 215

Level: Applied

 

  1. The ____________ refers to the unwitting reinforcement of the behavior you are attempting to punish when criticism is used as punishment.

Answer: criticism trap

Page: 216

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. In using punishment, it is important to punish ____________ not people.

Answer: behaviors

Page: 216

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. If you learn to react differently when your smoke detector goes off versus when your carbon monoxide detector goes off, you have learned ____________.

Answer: stimulus discrimination

Page: 219

Level: Applied

 

  1. Your 2-year-old son calls all animals with four legs “doggies.” Your child is using ____________.

Answer: stimulus generalization

Page: 219

Level: Applied

  1. You have successfully conditioned your dog to come running to the sound of the can opener after repeated associations with his evening meal. In order to extinguish this behavior, you will need to stop pairing the ____________ with his dog food.

Answer: can opener

Page: 222

Level: Applied

 

  1. Avoidance responses can be extinguished rapidly using a technique called ____________.

Answer: response prevention

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Responses learned through variable ratio and variable interval schedules of reinforcement are more difficult to extinguish than are responses learned through continuous reinforcement in a phenomenon known as ____________.

Answer: partial reinforcement effect

Page: 222

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A(n) ____________ is an inferred mental representation of a physical space.

Answer: cognitive map

Page: 225

Level: Factual

 

  1. Rats who were not reinforced in the initial trials of an experiment showed rapid improvement in performance when rewards were later introduced. This observation is used to help explain ____________.

Answer: latent learning

Page: 226

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The sudden realization of previously unseen relationships is called ____________ learning.

Answer: insight

Page: 226

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. The fact that we develop phobias to stimuli that have some intrinsic association with danger supports the idea of ____________ preparedness.

Answer: biological

Page: 230

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. Research has suggested that the loss of appetite associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be caused by a(n) __________.

Answer: learned taste aversion

Page: 231

Level: Factual

 

  1. If you accidentally associate a random behavior with an event that follows the behavior, you may develop a ____________.

Answer: superstitious behavior

Page: 231

Level: Conceptual

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. While playing in the backyard one day, the neighbor’s dog wandered over. Your playmate, who has a tremendous fear of dogs, let out a bloodcurdling scream, yanked you cruelly by the arm, and dragged you into the house. You no longer want to go outside to play because you are afraid of the “neighbor’s dog.” In this example, discuss the conditioning process that has taken place and identify each of the elements in the process.

Answer: In this example, classical conditioning of a phobia has occurred. The UCS was my playmate’s scream (possibly paired with the pain of being dragged into the house). The scream caused me to have an immediate fear response (the UCR). The dog was a previously neutral stimulus that became coupled to the scream. The dog has become a CS, which is associated with the backyard. The CR is my fear of dogs (and secondarily, the backyard).

Page:204

Level: Applied

 

  1. Explain the suggestion that “phobias are initially classically conditioned but are maintained over time through avoidance conditioning.” Use an example to illustrate.

Answer: (NOTE: Student answers will vary.) Assume that I have a fear of mice. As a small child, I was playing on the kitchen floor when I saw a mouse scurry by. Curious, I started to approach it. At the same time, my mother saw the mouse and began to scream and jump on a kitchen chair. Her behavior frightened me and I started to cry. In this example of classical conditioning, my mother’s scream was the UCS, which caused a fear response in me (the UCR). I associated her scream with the mouse (the CS). The CR is my fear of mice. To maintain the phobia, I now go out of my way to avoid mice. By modifying my behavior to avoid this stimulus (the mouse), I continue to negatively reinforce my staying away from mice, because I never see that mice are not associated with my mother’s scream.

Page: 215

Level: Conceptual

 

  1. A parent wants to reinforce her child for brushing her teeth all by herself. Describe the four types of reinforcement schedules, other than continuous reinforcement, that the parent could use, and give an example of how the parent could use each.

Answer: (NOTE: Student examples will vary.) There are four reinforcement schedules. In a fixed interval schedule, a person is rewarded after a set interval of time. For example, the parent would reinforce the child the first time she brushes her teeth every three days. In a variable interval schedule, a person is reinforced after a variable time interval. For example, the parent would reinforce the child the first time she brushes her teeth by herself after 4 days, then 8 days later, and then 2 days after that. With a fixed ratio schedule, reinforcement follows a set number of behavioral responses. For example, the parent reinforces the child after every five times of brushing her teeth by herself. With a variable ratio schedule, reinforcement follows a varying number of responses. For example, the parent would reinforce the child after brushing her teeth by herself two times, then after another 7 times, then after another 4 times, and so on.

Page: 210–218

Level: Applied

 

  1. You are carrying a heavy load of books in your arms. As you get to the car, you struggle to get your keys from your pocket to unlock the car and drop the books on your foot. The result is a broken toe. Soon after, you buy yourself a backpack. In this example, explain what type of conditioning occurred when you dropped the book. Next, explain what type of conditioning is occurring when you use your backpack.

Answer: When the books fell on my foot, I was punished. A behavior (carrying too many books) was followed by an aversive stimulus (a broken toe). When I use my backpack I am reinforcing behavior through negative reinforcement-avoidance conditioning. I anticipate that carrying too many books will cause me pain, so I do a behavior (using a backpack) to avoid the negative stimulus (another broken toe).

Page: 215–216

Level: Applied

 

  1. Write about two practical applications of taste aversions. You may use examples from your text or develop your own examples.

Answer: (NOTE: Student answers will vary.) Two examples of practical applications are cited in the text. In chemotherapy patients, patients are encouraged not to eat prior to a treatment in order to avoid the development of aversions. In the West, Garcia and colleagues developed an environmentally and animal-friendly way to control the loss of sheep to ranchers from the coyote population. By lacing some mutton with nausea-inducing drugs, coyotes developed taste aversions to sheep. This procedure substantially reduced herd loss for ranchers.

Page:231

Level: Applied