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Psychology From Inquiry 2nd Edition Lilienfeld Lynn Namy Woolf Test Bank

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Psychology From Inquiry 2nd Edition Lilienfeld Lynn Namy Woolf Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205832064

ISBN-10: 0205832067

 

Description

Psychology From Inquiry 2nd Edition Lilienfeld Lynn Namy Woolf Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0205832064

ISBN-10: 0205832067

 

 

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TEST BANK

CHAPTER 10: Human Development: How and Why We Change

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. __________ psychologists study the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that people experience throughout their lives.
  2. A) Evolutionary
  3. B) Cognitive
  4. C) Social
  5. D) Developmental

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 361

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Charmaine is interested in going to graduate school to gain expertise into the way in which people experience physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes over the course of their lives. The type of program that Charmaine should be applying to is __________ psychology.
  2. A) developmental

Correct. This would be the correct field for Charmaine to go explore.

  1. B) child

Incorrect. Child psychology focuses exclusively on the psychological functioning of children. Developmental psychology focuses on the entire life span.

  1. C) social
  2. D) ecological

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 361

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Which of the following types of changes are of interest to a developmental psychologist?
  2. A) Physical changes
  3. B) Physical and cognitive changes

Incorrect. This answer is missing the dimensions of social and emotional changes.

  1. C) Physical, cognitive and social changes
  2. D) Physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes

Correct. All of these areas of development are of interest in this field.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 361

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Which of the following statements is illustrative of the post hoc fallacy?
  2. A) Believing that because most professional athletes lift weights, weightlifting produces professional athletes

Correct. The post hoc fallacy makes the error of believing that if one event precedes another, that the first event causes the other.

  1. B) Believing that because someone is muscular in body type, she is more likely to become a professional athlete
  2. C) Believing that because someone is specially trained, he is more likely to become a professional athlete
  3. D) Believing that because someone has benefited from the best coaching, she will have a good chance of becoming a professional athlete

Incorrect. This is not the best answer to this question.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref:Ref: 361

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Gino went out one evening and got himself a shiny new tattoo of a tribal symbol across his back. The next day, Gino’s girlfriend, Shanae, ended their relationship. Mutual friends of theirs assumed that Shanae ended the relationship because of the new tattoo. These friends have not read your textbook carefully because they have just fallen prey to the _________fallacy.
  2. A) ad libitum
  3. B) post hoc

Correct. The post hoc fallacy makes the error of believing that if one event precedes another, that the first event causes the other.

  1. C) mens rea

Incorrect. This is a term from the legal industry, not developmental psychology.

  1. D) modus operandi

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 361

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. A(n) __________ refers to a group of people who lived during the same time period.
  2. A) cohort
  3. B) constituency
  4. C) peer group
  5. D) age cluster

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Those who are referred to as “Baby Boomers,” are those who were born between
  2. A) the end of World War II and the decades that followed.
  3. B) the end of the Great Depression and the start of World War II.
  4. C) the Vietnam war and the first Iraq
  5. D) the 1960s and the 1970s.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Cross-sectional research studies gather data from many people who are of the same age, and compare them to others who are at a different age, and thus a different level of development. The name for a group of people who are the same age and thus were raised during the same time period is a(n) __________
  2. A) cohort

Correct. A cohort refers to a person’s same-aged peer group.

  1. B) experimental subject group
  2. C) control group

Incorrect. A control group refers to those participants in experimental research who do not receive an independent variable.

  1. D) schema

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Which research method is most suitable for studying factors that influence behavioral change over time?
  2. A) Longitudinal

Correct. Longitudinal research tracks the same group of participants as they age.

  1. B) Cohort
  2. C) Cross-sectional

Incorrect. Cross-sectional research is not particularly effective at tracking behavioral change over time.

  1. D) Correlational

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. __________ studies observe different individuals at different ages at a single point in time to track age

differences.

  1. A) Sectional
  2. B) Cross-sequential
  3. C) Sequential
  4. D) Cross-sectional

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Xiao is gathering research on the number of meals people eat. He gathers data about the number of daily meals eaten by 25 people at each of the following ages – 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 years – over the course of one week, and looks for developmental differences. What type of research design is Xiao using?
  2. A) Continuous
  3. B) Cross-sectional

Correct. Cross-sectional research compares participants of different ages at one moment in time.

  1. C) Sequential
  2. D) Longitudinal

Incorrect. Longitudinal research tracks the same group of participants as they age.

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. When attempting to understand developmental transitions that people face throughout their life span, which of the following research designs would be most informative?
  2. A) Cross-sectional designs
  3. B) Longitudinal designs

Correct. Longitudinal research is the best for tracking age-related changes over time.

  1. C) Correlational research designs
  2. D) Cohort research designs

Incorrect. Longitudinal and cross-sectional research are both cohort research designs.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. Daniel is interested in studying how children’s behavior changes when they grow up in high-risk environments. He enlists 500 children and their parents to take part in his research, and observes these children once a year for 20 years. Despite the fact that this research is very time consuming and expensive, it gives very good information about how the children age over time. This type of research is an example of a __________ study.
  2. A) sequential
  3. B) cross-sectional

Incorrect. Cross-sectional research does not follow the same participants over time.

  1. C) longitudinal

Correct. Longitudinal research tracks the same group of participants as they age.

D). continuous

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. __________ studies collect data from the same individuals over a period of time to track age changes.
  2. A) Cross-sectional
  3. B) Continual
  4. C) Contiguous
  5. D) Longitudinal

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. If you wanted to study developmental effects, which type of research would be the best to conduct?
  2. A) A longitudinal study

Correct. Longitudinal research is the best for tracking developmental effects over time.

  1. B) A cross-sectional study

Incorrect. Cross-sectional research is not effective at tracking age-related changes over time.

  1. C) A quasi-experimental study
  2. D) A naturalistic observation

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 362

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.1 Identify ways to think scientifically about developmental findings

 

  1. The major issue of __________ explores how development is influenced by both genetics and life experiences.
  2. A) continuity/stages
  3. B) nature/nurture
  4. C) plasticity/formidity
  5. D) stability/change

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 363

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development

 

  1. Which of the following is true concerning the nature–nurture debate?
  2. A) Most researchers believe that genes and environment interact to influence human behavior.

Correct. This is a correct statement of the overall results of the naturenurture debate.

  1. B) Most researchers are either pro-nature or pro-nurture when describing the causes of human behavior.
  2. C) People with genetic predispositions for anxiety will eventually express this type of behavior.

Incorrect. The naturenurture debate usually comes down to a combination of factors from both sides of the argument.

  1. D) Gene expression is not substantially influenced by the environment.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 363-364

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development

 

  1. The belief that children will have increased cognitive abilities if their parents play classical music for them during infancy reflects
  2. A) a pro-nurture perspective.

Correct. This position suggests that one’s environment influences their development. Is a pro-nurture perspective.

  1. B) a pro-nature perspective.

Incorrect. When one looks at environmental factors, one is espousing a pro-nurture perspective.

  1. C) a belief that genes set limits on cognitive ability.
  2. D) a belief that cognitive ability is genetically determined.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 363-364

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.2 Clarify how nature and nurture can contribute to development

 

  1. Which of the following is not one of the stages of prenatal development?
  2. A) The zygotic stage
  3. B) The germinal stage
  4. C) The embryonic stage
  5. D) The fetal stage

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 365

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. The correct order of the stages of prenatal development is
  2. A) fetal stage, embryonic stage, zygotic stage
  3. B) germinal stage, embryonic stage, fetal stage.
  4. C) zygotic stage, fetal stage, germinal stage
  5. D) zygotic stage, embryonic stage, germinal stage, fetal stage

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 365

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. Your best friend comes to you, visibly excited. “I just couldn’t wait to tell you the big news. I’m pregnant,” she screams. She is clearly overjoyed by the news, and goes on to tell you, “It is SO amazing. The doctor says I’m about 6 weeks pregnant, and I already feel SO different!” Wanting to show off your new knowledge of developmental psychology and the prenatal stages, you smugly reply, “It is just so great that your child is in the __________ of development because its organs are just starting to develop!”
  2. A) embryonic

Correct. The embryonic stage of prenatal development lasts from approximately the second through the eighth week of pregnancy.

  1. B) fetal
  2. C) zygotic
  3. D) germinal

Incorrect. The germinal stage of prenatal development lasts for the first two weeks of pregnancy.

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 365

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. The heart, lungs, and brain begin to form during the ________ period of prenatal development.
  2. A) fetal
  3. B) zygotic
  4. C) embryonic
  5. D) blastocyst

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 365

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. Any environmental factor that can cause a birth defect is known as a(n) __________.
  2. A) babinski
  3. B) pollutant
  4. C) teratogen
  5. D) mutation

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 366

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. Which of the following is not a known symptom of fetal alcohol syndrome?
  2. A) facial malformations
  3. B) respiratory difficulties
  4. C) mental retardation
  5. D) learning disabilities

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 366

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. The rooting reflex refers to a newborn’s tendency to
  2. A) stand up and attempt to walk when placed on its knees.
  3. B) open the mouth to seek food when touched on the cheek.
  4. C) cry when approached by unfamiliar people.
  5. D) close the eyes when startled by loud noises.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 367

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones

 

  1. Elizabeth is nursing her newborn daughter, and holds the baby up to her breast. As the breast strokes the child’s cheek, the child turns her head toward the breast, finds her mother’s nipple, and begins to feed. This is a demonstration of the __________ reflex.
  2. A) rooting

Correct. When a child’s cheek is stroked and he turns his head in that direction, this demonstrates the routing reflects.

  1. B) suckling

Incorrect. A child’s willingness to suckle on anything that is placed at his lips demonstrates the suckling reflex.

  1. C) Moro
  2. D) grasping

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 367

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones

 

  1. __________ behaviors are defined as bodily motions that are self-initiated and move bones and muscles.
  2. A) Motor
  3. B) Muscular
  4. C) Physical
  5. D) Physiological

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 367

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones

 

  1. Which of the following is true with regard to the order of development of motor skills?
  2. A) Babies develop motor skills based on what they see, so it is largely a function of imitation.
  3. B) Babies develop motor skills in very unique sequences, so there is no “order” of skills that is considered typical.

Incorrect. The sequence, or order, of motor skills that develops tends to be very uniform across different children.

  1. C) Motor development tends to occur in a universal sequence and thus specific skills predictably develop before other skills.

Correct. The progression of motor skills may occur in a predictable order, but the timing of that sequence varies from child to child.

  1. D) Motor development in babies has two predictable paths – one for sighted children and one for blind children.

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 367

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones

 

  1. While the sequence in which motor skills develops is generally universal, the _________ of the development of those skills tends to be different from child to child.
  2. A) order

Incorrect. The sequence, or order, of motor skills that develops tends to be very uniform across different children.

  1. B) timing

Correct. The progression of motor skills may occur in a predictable order, but the timing of that sequence varies from child to child.

  1. C) speed
  2. D) appearance

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 367

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.4 Describe how infants learn to coordinate motion and achieve major motor milestones

 

  1. The research of Michael Hermanussen and colleagues found that physical development is marked by “mini growth spurts” that occur every 30 to 55 days in people as old as ______ years of age.
  2. A) 16
  3. B) 25
  4. C) 40
  5. D) 65

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 368

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. The period of transition from childhood to adulthood that involves many different domains of development is called __________.
  2. A) puberty
  3. B) adolescence
  4. C) preadulthood
  5. D) the teens

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 368

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. Which hormone increases in production during puberty and is generally believed to be responsible for physical growth?
  2. A) Gall bladder bile
  3. B) Estrogen in girls and testosterone in boys
  4. C) Adrenal androgen
  5. D) Serotonin

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 368

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a primary sex characteristic?
  2. A) Changes in vocal tone

Incorrect. Changes in voice certainly differ between boys and girls, but they are not related to reproduction. This makes vocal changes a secondary sex characteristic.

  1. B) Growth of the breasts
  2. C) Growth of the genitals

Correct. Primary sex characteristics refer to those changes that are related to reproduction.

  1. D) Growth of facial hair

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. __________ is to girls as __________ is to boys.
  2. A) Menarche; spermarche

Correct. Menarche refers to the beginning of menstrual cycles, while spermarche refers to the first ejaculation.

  1. B) Spermarche; menarche

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

  1. C) Puberty; adolescence
  2. D) Adolescence; puberty

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. The body’s reproductive organs are an example of
  2. A) adrenal glands.
  3. B) thyroid glands.
  4. C) primary sex characteristics.
  5. D) secondary sex characteristics.

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. During menarche, teenagers experience
  2. A) the start of menstruation.
  3. B) the first ejaculation.
  4. C) voice changes.
  5. D) the end of menstruation.

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. Which is an example of a secondary sex characteristic?
  2. A) Genitals
  3. B) Ovaries
  4. C) Voice change
  5. D) Sperm

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. Puberty is associated with the onset of
  2. A) menopause.
  3. B) menarche.
  4. C) dementia.
  5. D) generativity.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. People typically experience declines in vision, hearing, and smell at about age
  2. A) 30-39.
  3. B) 40-49.
  4. C) 50-59.
  5. D) 60-69.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Kevin is a 65-year-old college professor. Compared to when he was 30, Kevin is now likely to
  2. A) struggle hearing students’ questions during lecture.

Correct. A decline in hearing is a normal physical event as we age.

  1. B) struggle analyzing students’ questions during lecture.

Incorrect. There is no reason to believe that Kevin must lose his analytical abilities, particularly in his area of expertise, as he ages.

  1. C) struggle formulating his thoughts when responding to students’ questions.
  2. D) struggle verbalizing his thoughts when responding to students’ questions.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Menopause refers to
  2. A) the loss of sexual interest occurring in late adulthood.
  3. B) the onset of puberty in early adulthood.
  4. C) the end of the menstruation period in late adulthood.
  5. D) the loss of sexual potency in late adulthood.

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Gail has just turned 53 and is beginning menopause. Gail is likely to begin experiencing
  2. A) a significant loss of appetite.
  3. B) a significant loss of physical energy.
  4. C) depression.

Incorrect. Despite common belief, most women view menopause as a happy event and do not experience the symptoms of depression as a result of menopause.

  1. D) hot flashes.

Correct. Hot flashes are a known symptom that many women experience during menopause.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. The discontinuation of menstrual cycles and the end of a woman’s ability to bear children is known as __________.
  2. A) andropause
  3. B) menopause
  4. C) infertility
  5. D) reproductive halting.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Which of the following physical changes is associated with aging in men?
  2. A) A loss of ability to hear low-pitched sounds.
  3. B) A reduction in a man’s testosterone levels

Correct. A decrease in testosterone production is a known physical change associated with aging in men.

  1. C) A reduction in a man’s interest in his career

Incorrect. There is no research suggesting that men naturally lose career interest as they age.

  1. D) An increase in the speed at which a man gets an erection

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 371

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Jean Piaget is best known for his pioneering work in the area of ________ development.
  2. A) social
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) psychosocial
  5. D) identity

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 372

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. In Piaget’s theory, the term __________ referred to concepts or frameworks around which we develop an understanding of how the world works.
  2. A) schemas
  3. B) operations
  4. C) centrations
  5. D) centrisms

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 372

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. According to Piaget, equilibration involves the processes of
  2. A) assimilation and accommodation.
  3. B) egocentrism and constructivism.
  4. C) maturation and conservation.
  5. D) conservation and scaffolding.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 372

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Sarah has developed a sucking scheme as a way of understanding objects around her. Sarah’s behavior of sucking on a harmonica to make music is an example of
  2. A) accommodation.

Incorrect. There is no evidence that Sarah is adapting her existing cognitive structures around new information in this question.

  1. B) assimilation.

Correct. Sarah is taking a new bit of information and “morphing” it into her existing cognitive structures. This demonstrates assimilation.

  1. C) equilibration.
  2. D) conservation.

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 372

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. “Raindrops keep falling on my head. And just like the guy whose feet are too big for his bed, nothing seems to fit!” These lyrics to a popular song describe a very uncomfortable sleeping arrangement! There are several ways this problem can be solved. If the singer chooses to cut off his feet so that he fits in the existing bed, this would be similar to the Piagetian concept of __________.
  2. A) accommodation

Incorrect. Adjusting the way we think to meet the demands of our environment is how Piaget defined as accommodation.

  1. B) assimilation

Correct. Mentally changing information from our surroundings to adjust to our existing cognitive structures is how Piaget defined assimilation.

  1. C) adaptation
  2. D) schema transformation

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 372-373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. “Raindrops keep falling on my head. And just like the guy whose feet are too big for his bed, nothing seems to fit!” These lyrics to a popular song describe a very uncomfortable sleeping arrangement! There are several ways this problem can be solved. If the singer chooses to go out in the morning and buy a bigger bed, this would be similar to the Piagetian concept of __________.
  2. A) assimilation

Incorrect. Mentally changing information from our surroundings to adjust to our existing cognitive structures is how Piaget defined assimilation.

  1. B) adaptation
  2. C) schema transformation
  3. D) accommodation

Correct. Adjusting the way we think to meet the demands of our environment is how Piaget defined as accommodation.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 372-373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Young Eli, only a bit over 18 months of age, has been fooled by his parents. In order to get him to willingly take a children’s chewable vitamin every day, his parents have taught him that it is a “candy.” Now, whenever Eli sees any product that is small and brightly colored, he says “Candy! YUMMM” and tries to put it into his mouth. Eli’s attempt to make new stimuli consistent with his existing mental structures is an example of __________.
  2. A) centration
  3. B) egocentrism
  4. C) accommodation

Incorrect. Adjusting the way we think to meet the demands of our environment is how Piaget defined as accommodation.

  1. D) assimilation

Correct. Mentally changing information from our surroundings to adjust to our existing cognitive structures is how Piaget defined assimilation.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 372-373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. During the ________ stage of development, a child will not have developed object permanence.
  2. A) preoperational

Incorrect. Piaget believed that the preoperational child will have mastered the concept of object permanence.

  1. B) sensorimotor

Correct. Piaget believed that one of the limitations of the sensorimotor stage is an absence of object permanence.

  1. C) concrete operational
  2. D) formal operational

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Karla understands her world by grasping, sucking, and physically handling objects in her path. Karla is in Piaget’s ________ stage of development.
  2. A) sensorimotor

Correct. Karla understand her world in terms of what her body tells her. This demonstrates the sensorimotor stage of Piaget’s theory.

  1. B) preoperational

Incorrect. Karla is not yet demonstrating the internal mental events associated with graduating to the preoperational stage of Piaget’s theory.

  1. C) concrete operational
  2. D) formal operational

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. In which of Piaget’s stages of cognitive development is a child most likely to lack the skill of object permanence?
  2. A) The preoperational stage

Incorrect. Piaget believed that the preoperational child will have mastered the concept of object permanence.

  1. B) The formal operational stage
  2. C) The sensorimotor stage

Correct. Piaget believed that one of the limitations of the sensorimotor stage is an absence of object permanence.

  1. D) The concrete operational stage

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Object __________ is a cognitive skill that refers to the fact that an object continues to exist when it is no longer perceived (seen, heard, etc).
  2. A) solidity
  3. B) stability
  4. C) continuity
  5. D) permanence

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. When her older brother hides behind the sofa, Carmen looks behind the sofa to find him. Carmen has developed
  2. A) object permanence.

Correct. Carmen understands that even though she can’t see her brother, he still exists.

  1. B) equilibration.
  2. C) conservation.

Incorrect. Conservation is a limitation of the preoperational stage that focuses on the maintaining of amounts or quantities. The best answer to this question is object permanence.

  1. D) assimilation.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Marko believed that all red go-carts were fast until he drove a very slow one at the fair. Marko’s revised views on red go-carts illustrates
  2. A) accommodation.

Correct. Marko adjusted his cognitive structures around new information. This demonstrates accommodation.

  1. B) assimilation.

Incorrect. Marko’s flexibility with his own cognitive structures demonstrates accommodation, not assimilation.

  1. C) conservation.
  2. D) equilibration.

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. What is the age range bound by the four stages of Piaget’s theory?
  2. A) Birth through adulthood

Correct. Piaget’s four stages start at birth and go all the way through adulthood.

  1. B) Toddlerhood through adolescence
  2. C) Toddlerhood through adulthood
  3. D) Birth through toddlerhood

Incorrect. Piaget said that the formal operations stage extends into adulthood.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 373-374

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which of the following is the correct order of stages in Piaget’s theory of cognitive development?
  2. A) formal operational, concrete operational, preoperational, sensory motor
  3. B) preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational, sensorimotor
  4. C) preoperational, sensorimotor, formal operational, concrete operational
  5. D) sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373-374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget’s theory applies to such topics as
  2. A) predicting cognitive developmental gains in college students.
  3. B) exploring gender differences in cognitive development.

Incorrect. Piaget’s theory did not specifically address gender differences in cognitive development.

  1. C) designing college curricula for adult learners who are returning to school.
  2. D) creating lesson plans for first grade students.

Correct. This would be the most applicable topic for Piaget’s theory.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373-375

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. During which of Piaget’s stages does a child demonstrate the ability to reason about abstract ideas and novel information?
  2. A) Sensorimotor
  3. B) Preoperational
  4. C) Concrete operational
  5. D) Formal operational

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Ken is able to perform mathematical operations only if he can use real objects and familiar examples in working up his answers. Ken is in Piaget’s ________ stage.
  2. A) sensorimotor
  3. B) preoperational
  4. C) concrete operational

Correct. Ken is using mental schemes to complete his answers, but he lacks the ability to consider hypotheticals and abstracts. This places him in the concrete operational stage of Piaget’s theory

  1. D) formal operational

Incorrect. Piaget believed that formal operational thinking is marked by the ability to use abstracts and hypotheticals.

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. According to Piaget, egocentrism and a lack of conservation ability are both qualities that are seen in the ________ stage of development.
  2. A) sensorimotor
  3. B) preoperational

Correct. These are both skills that are deficient in the preoperational stage of Piaget’s theory.

  1. C) concrete operations

Incorrect. Piaget believed that by the time a child gets to the concrete operations stage he or she would have overcome egocentrism and conservation limitations.

  1. D) formal operations

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Asking students to predict how the course of history may have changed if the first president were a woman would likely motivate students in which of Piaget’s stages to answer thoroughly?
  2. A) Sensorimotor
  3. B) Preoperational
  4. C) Concrete operational

Incorrect. The ability to consider something that has not yet existed requires formal operational thinking.

  1. D) Formal operational

Correct. Because there has never been a woman president of the United States, the consideration of such an individual would require abstract thinking. This would denote the formal operational stage of Piaget’s theory.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Alice is sitting at the table with her son Nikko. She takes his tall glass of milk, which is only half full, and pours it into a shorter wider glass. Then she says “Honey, which glass has more milk?” Nikko immediately points to the taller glass, as he is chewing his peanut butter sandwich. Nikko has not yet mastered Piaget’s skill of __________.
  2. A) centration
  3. B) egocentrism

Incorrect. This particular example does not demonstrate anything related to Piaget’s concept of egocentrism.

  1. C) object permanence
  2. D) conservation

Correct. Nikko does not yet understand that changing the appearance of an object does not change its quantity.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. In which stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development do people begin to think logically about abstract concepts?
  2. A) The sensorimotor stage
  3. B) The formal operational stage

Correct. The consideration of abstract concepts requires formal operational thinking, according to Piaget.

  1. C) The concrete operational stage

Incorrect. The inability to consider abstracts is the major limitation of the concrete operational stage, according to Piaget.

  1. D) The preoperational stage

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. According to Piaget, egocentrism involves
  2. A) the perception that others view the world as you do.
  3. B) the perception that others view the world differently than you do.
  4. C) the perception that you might be incorrect in your judgments.
  5. D) the perception that you are better than others.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. What is meant by the term “egocentrism?”
  2. A) A child lacks the ability to consider perspectives other than his or her own.
  3. B) A child is extremely arrogant and feels that he or she is better than others.
  4. C) A child is very selfish and refuses to share his or her possessions with others.
  5. D) A child lacks the motivation do things for him- or herself and expects them to be done by others.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Miss Johnson gave Mark and Tia equal sized lumps of clay. Tia immediately rolled hers into a long shape. Mark cried and complained that Tia had received more clay. Mark’s behavior represents
  2. A) an inability to accommodate.

Incorrect. This particular example is not related to Piaget’s theory of accommodation.

  1. B) an inability to conserve.

Correct. Mark does not understand that the amount of clay has not changed just because its appearance has. This demonstrates an absence of conservation.

  1. C) difficulty with formal operational tasks.
  2. D) an inability to assimilate.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget overestimated the degree to which
  2. A) object permanence takes time to develop in children.

Correct. Research conducted since Piaget’s time has demonstrated that children do have the capacity to develop object permanence earlier than Piaget thought.

  1. B) social factors influence skill development.

Incorrect. The large influence of social factors in cognitive development is part of Vygotsky’s theory, not Piaget’s.

  1. C) cultural factors influence the rate of skill development.
  2. D) prenatal factors influence the rate at which skills emerge.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget’s theory is often criticized because it appears to be biased in favor of children from ________ societies.
  2. A) Asian

Incorrect. Children from Asian backgrounds have not been found to be favored by Piaget’s theory.

  1. B) Westernized

Correct. One major criticism of Piaget’s theory is that it seems to allow Westernized children to do better on tests of cognitive development.

  1. C) primitive
  2. D) European

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget used the term _________ to refer to cases in which a child was more advanced in one cognitive domain than in another. This term has often been used as a criticism of his theory as well.
  2. A) counterparallel mismatch
  3. B) teratogenic drift

Incorrect. This is a made-up term that does not apply to Piaget’s theory.

  1. C) la belle indifference
  2. D) horizontal decalage

Correct. Horizontal decalage is the correct term for Piaget’s explanation for this uneven development of domain-specific abilities.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which of the following is one of the major contributions that Piaget’s theory of development, despite some serious limitations, has made to the field of developmental psychology?
  2. A) Characterizing learning as a passive rather than active process.

Incorrect. In fact, Piaget suggested that learning is an active process.

  1. B) Viewing children as simply small adults, and addressing their developmental processes as such.
  2. C) Considering that the changes in multiple domains of development involve fewer rather than more numerous processes.

Correct. Proponents of Piaget’s theory have cited it as a more parsimonious way of looking at cognitive development in children.

  1. D) Recognizing that culture plays no role in development and viewing all children as being essentially identical in their developmental paths.

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget suggested that in some cases two children of the same age may be at different skill levels in a specific domain of cognitive ability. This claim makes it very difficult, if not impossible, to provide an argument against the developmental schedule forwarded by Piaget’s theory. This is a major issue related to the principle of
  2. A) Occam’s Razor.
  3. B) ruling out rival hypotheses.

Incorrect. In this case it is not alternate hypotheses that are the issue; rather, it is the fact that the major theorist has created a situation where any circumstance – in this case any child’s schedule of development – can be explained by his theory. This makes the problem of falsifiability a problem.

  1. C) replicability.
  2. D) falsifiability.

Correct. If a theory has a “failsafe” built into it so that the theory is impervious to counterevidence, it has a problem with falsifiability.

Answer:  D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Conceptual

Text LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which theorist led the case for the influence of social and environmental influences on cognitive development?
  2. A) Urie Bronfrenbrenner
  3. B) Jean Piaget
  4. C) Sigmund Freud
  5. D) Lev Vygotsky

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. According to Vygotsky, cognitive development results from
  2. A) biological maturation.
  3. B) scaffolding.
  4. C) genetics.
  5. D) innate intelligence.

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375-376

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which of the following statements is representative of Vygotsky’s approach to learning?
  2. A) One’s course of genetically fixed and cannot be significantly influenced by social factors.

Incorrect. Vygotsky believed that cognitive development is largely social in nature.

  1. B) One’s course of cognitive development can be significantly influenced by instructional style and scaffolding.

Correct. These are the major tenets of Vygotsky’s approach to learning.

  1. C) All children pass through the same cognitive developmental stages at similar points in time.
  2. D) To prevent frustration, children should be presented with tasks that they can fully complete unaided.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 375-376

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. As compared to Piaget’s theory, Vygotsky’s theory of cognitive development best explains how a child learns to
  2. A) cross a street safely for the first time.

Correct. This would be a skill that we learned by watching others. Vygotsky believed that social interactions form the basis of our cognitive development.

  1. B) speak for the first time.
  2. C) crawl for the first time.

Incorrect. This would not be the best answer to this question.

  1. D) stand upright for the first time.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375-376

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which of the following statements is the best summary of the cognitive development theory of Lev Vygotsky?
  2. A) Children are little scientists who learn by exploring.

Incorrect. Vygotsky was in favor of exploration, but not without guidance and support from parents.

  1. B) Children are in need of strict boundaries from their parents so they can learn what to and what not to do.
  2. C) Cognitive development occurs when children are left to their own devices, with as little influence as possible from outside factors.
  3. D) Cognitive development occurs on a social level before it occurs at the individual level.

Correct. This statement is the basis of Vygotsky’s concept of scaffolding.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 375-376

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Robin is working as a student teacher while she finishes her degree in education. Each day she has a portion of the class time where she is in charge, and the teacher who serves as her mentor observes her, takes notes, and offers her constructive feedback on how to improve her work. This “mentor/apprentice” model of learning is most similar to __________’s theory of cognitive development.
  2. A) Erik Erikson’s
  3. B) Lev Vygotsky’s

Correct. Vygotsky believed in scaffolding, which is the process of providing only as much support as is needed. That is the basis of a mentor/apprentice model of learning.

  1. C) Jean Piaget’s

Incorrect. This social interaction is not a major tenant of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

  1. D) Carl Jung’s

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 375-376

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. The zone of __________ development from the theory of Lev Vygotsky refers to the difference between what a child can do alone and what a child can do together with a more competent person.
  2. A) proximal
  3. B) assistive
  4. C) supplemented
  5. D) distal

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 376

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Piaget suggested that children do not develop object permanence until between 8 and 12 months of age. The research of Renee Baillargeon has found that this skill may develop much earlier. What was the difference that allowed Baillargeon to find such an earlier development of object permanence?
  2. A) Baillargeon substituted monkey infants for human infants, and generalized her findings from the earlier development of object permanence in the monkey infants.

Incorrect. The use of monkeys had nothing to do with Baillargeon’s research.

  1. B) Baillargeon removed a parent from the room so that the child could stop using the parent as a “reference tool” for finding the object

on their own.

  1. C) Baillargeon added the element of “emotional connection” by using objects for which the children she studied had a particular affinity.
  2. D) Baillargeon eliminated the need for a child to have the motor skills necessary to display object permanence and focused instead on the patterns of their gazes.

Correct. By eliminating this need, the age at which object permanence developed dropped by as many as five months.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 376, 378

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. Which is true concerning research related to the “Mozart Effect”?
  2. A) Weak evidence exists supporting the claims that exposure to classical music improves cognitive functioning.
  3. B) Strong evidence exists supporting the claims that exposure to classical music improves cognitive functioning.
  4. C) No evidence exists supporting the claims that exposure to classical music improves cognitive functioning.
  5. D) Currently the market for classical music videos and toys has dropped off.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 377

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. Lyette has recently given birth to her first child. She decides to start playing classical music near the baby’s crib at night so that the child will develop greater intelligence. Which of the following may be an explanation for why such strategies appear to have some impact on the developing child?
  2. A) These strategies are like “vegetables for the brain,” and impact virtually every area of brain growth and development. This is why it is a good idea to play classical music for a child even before (s)he is born.
  3. B) These strategies impact the use of echoic memory, which is distinctly tied to the ability to boost intellectual growth.

Incorrect. This explanation has not been offered in response to the “Mozart effect.”

  1. C) These strategies boost the activity of the temporal lobes, which are responsible for both hearing and intellectual development. Therefore, long-term intelligence improvement is likely to occur.
  2. D) These strategies boost short-term arousal, which may help performance on mentally demanding tasks for a brief period of time; however, there is no evidence that they will impact long-term intelligence.

Correct. This hypothesis has been forwarded as one explanation for the “Mozart effect.”

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 377

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. Research exploring the so-called “Mozart Effect” has resulted in which of the following outcomes?
  2. A) Improvements in intellectual ability were either absent or minimal and temporary.
  3. B) Children forced to listen to this music actually suffered a decrease in intellectual ability due to deficits in alertness.
  4. C) Significant improvements in intellectual ability were found in longitudinal studies.
  5. D) There was such a variety of finding that no one conclusion was supported by a majority of the research.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 377

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. Investigators exploring the so-called “Mozart Effect” have suggested that one very simple explanation for the phenomenon is that listening to classical music, like any other stimulating activity, enhances arousal in children. This “simpler” explanation demonstrates the principle of
  2. A) replicability.
  3. B) falsifiability.

Incorrect. Coming up with an alternate, and in this case, simpler explanation for a phenomenon is not necessarily the same as falsifying other hypotheses.

  1. C) extraordinary claims.
  2. D) Occam’s Razor.

Correct. Occam’s Razor states that when all things are equal, the simplest explanation tends to be the correct explanation.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 377

Skill: Conceptual

Text LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. A child’s ability to understand that others’ perspectives can differ from theirs is called theory of __________.
  2. A) schema
  3. B) disintegration
  4. C) mind
  5. D) egocentrism

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 379

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. In order to explore the idea that babies can distinguish themselves from others, researchers allowed infants to watch a live-action video of part of their own bodies side-by-side with the same body part in another infant. They found that babies preferred to watch the other infant’s body instead of their own. Which body part did the babies watch in this research?
  2. A) Their faces
  3. B) Their legs
  4. C) Their arms
  5. D) Their backsides

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 379

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. At five years old, Sammy is better able to understand his friends’ feelings as compared to when he was three years old. Sammy is acquiring a
  2. A) theory of mind.

Correct. The ability to understand others thoughts and feelings is central to the theory of mind.

  1. B) self-concept.
  2. C) sense of identity.

Incorrect. Identity plays a part in the theory of mind, but it is not the best answer to this question.

  1. D) sense of self-reflection.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 379

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.8 Explain how children acquire knowledge in important cognitive domains

 

  1. The development of the __________ lobes of the cerebrum allows an adolescent to start developing the ability to reason.
  2. A) frontal

Correct. This part of the brain and its development is crucial in the growth of the ability to reason

  1. B) occipital

Incorrect. The occipital lobe is essential for hearing and language skills, but is not directly related to reasoning skills.

  1. C) parietal
  2. D) temporal

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 381

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. Which of the following phenomena casts doubt on the suggestion that undeveloped parts of the brain are solely responsible for the teenage proclivity to act in unreasonable and irrational manners?
  2. A) fMRI readings of impulsive teenagers have been found to be identical to fMRI results in non-impulsive teenagers.

Incorrect. Findings such as this are not discussed in your textbook.

  1. B) Twin studies have not found a high concordance of teenage acting out between monozygotic twins.
  2. C) Impulsive behaviors do not routinely appear in adolescents in non-Westernized countries.

Correct. This is an accurate finding that does not support a nature-only explanation for these behaviors.

  1. D) The use of medications designed to “calm down” impulsive teenagers has been generally ineffective across most research studies.

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 381

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. Much to her chagrin, Maria wakes up before school one morning with a mammoth pimple on the tip of her nose. She cries endlessly, begging her mother to let her stay home from school. “Mom,” she yells with exasperation, “all of the other kids are going to point and stare and laugh at me!” Being a good parent, Maria’s mother forces her to go to school, where hardly a word is said about the facial blemish. Maria’s certainty that everyone would be staring at her is a demonstration of the __________.
  2. A) personal fable

Correct. The personal fable is a child’s tendency to believe that the whole world is focused on that.

  1. B) post hoc fallacy
  2. C) “stage syndrome”

Incorrect. There is no such thing as the stage syndrome

  1. D) cohort effect

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 381

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. Which of the following skills/abilities show relatively little decline as adults age?
  2. A) Free recall
  3. B) The ability to learn new tasks
  4. C) Recalling information that is pertinent to everyday life
  5. D) The ability to complete complex tasks

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 382

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. One’s accumulated knowledge gained over time is called
  2. A) crystallized intelligence.
  3. B) fluid intelligence.
  4. C) emotional intelligence.
  5. D) formal intelligence.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 382

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. Recent findings associated with aging and cognitive functioning show that older adults outscore younger adults on
  2. A) vocabulary tests.
  3. B) memory tests.
  4. C) visual tests.
  5. D) auditory tests.

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 382

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. William Perry has done research that shows a transition in the way college students think. They go from a staunch need to have a “right” or “wrong” answer to a more flexible and tolerant way of viewing problems as ambiguous and having multiple levels of “rightness.” Perry’s findings have generally persisted in the decades since they were first published. This demonstrates the principle of
  2. A) replicability.

Correct. Perry’s research has “stood the test of time,” which suggests that it has been successfully found by other researchers. This demonstrates replicability.

  1. B) ruling out rival hypotheses.

Incorrect. In this case, other hypotheses have not been offered to counter the theories of William Perry.

  1. C) correlation vs. causation.
  2. D) extraordinary claims.

Answer:  A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 382

Skill: Conceptual

Text LO:  10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. Research exploring infantile temperament has found that there are generally three different temperaments. They are
  2. A) anxious, responsive, and relaxed
  3. B) sensorimotor, preoperational, and operational.
  4. C) secure, insecure, and disorganized.
  5. D) easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 384

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. In an exploration of cultural differences regarding temperament, researchers took four-day-old Chinese-American and European-American babies and did “something” to them. They found stark differences in the babies’ reactions to this event. What was done to the babies?
  2. A) Their parents were removed from sight for 20 minutes.
  3. B) A piece of cloth was placed over their faces
  4. C) They were shown different cartoon characters.
  5. D) They were deprived of their pacifiers.

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 384

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. The emotional bond that a newborn baby shares with his or her caregiver(s) is called __________.
  2. A) maternal love
  3. B) paternality
  4. C) affective link
  5. D) attachment

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 384

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. Some research has found that children from different cultures have a different percentage of kids who have the three temperamental styles. For example, Chinese American babies have been found to generally be calmer then European American infants. One possible explanation for this difference is the presence of different intrauterine exposure to hormones. This demonstrates the principle of
  2. A) extraordinary claims.
  3. B) ruling out rival hypotheses.

Correct. While one explanation is that there are cultural differences in temperament, an alternate hypothesis explores prenatal biological causes.

  1. C) Occam’s Razor.
  2. D) falsifiability.

Incorrect. Nothing in this question speaks specifically to the question of falsifiability in research.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 384

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. The term attachment was first investigated by psychiatrist __________.
  2. A) Mary Ainsworth
  3. B) Jean Piaget
  4. C) Carol Gilligan
  5. D) John Bowlby

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 384

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. A(n) __________ period refers to the optimal time period when the development of a particular skill must take place.
  2. A) maturation
  3. B) initiation
  4. C) critical
  5. D) fast-mapping

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Researcher Konrad Lorenz explored the concept of __________ by being the first moving thing a clutch of newly hatched goslings saw. The result, as he predicted, was that the young animals followed him around religiously, clearly demonstrating their belief that he was their mother.
  2. A) imprinting

Correct. Konrad Lorenz achieved notoriety for his study of imprinting.

  1. B) sensory primacy
  2. C) neonatality

Incorrect. Imprinting is the correct answer to this question, and while it is related to the newborn, neonatality is not the right answer.

  1. D) the higher species-lower species schism.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. __________ is a process of early attachment in which the first thing a newborn sees is considered its mother.
  2. A) Primacing
  3. B) Familiarity
  4. C) Imprinting
  5. D) Plasticity

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. “Human beings do not demonstrate __________,” said Professor Spiegelman. “Otherwise most newborns would think that the physician who was handing the childbirth was its mother or father!”
  2. A) plasticity
  3. B) reflexes
  4. C) instincts

Incorrect. It might be instinctive for an infant to cling to its parent, but this example debunks the idea that human beings engage in imprinting at birth.

  1. D) imprinting

Correct. Professor Spiegelman’s example effectively demonstrates that there is no such thing as imprinting in human beings.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. A zookeeper finds that a flock of geese follow her wherever she moves because she is the first object that they see after hatching. What is this situation an example of?
  2. A) Trust
  3. B) Imprinting

Correct. This demonstrates imprinting in the truest sense of the term.

  1. C) Contact comfort

Incorrect. Contact comfort was studied by Harry Harlow with monkeys. This question demonstrates the concept of imprinting.

  1. D) Insecure attachment

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of imprinting?
  2. A) A young child’s behavior is influenced by peer pressure.
  3. B) A young child imitates the behaviors of older siblings.
  4. C) Young geese demonstrate an attachment to a round ball.

Correct. If the round ball is the first thing that the geese see after they are born, the geese will attach to the ball and believe that it is their mother.

  1. D) Young geese scatter away in fear when a ball approaches them.

Incorrect. This example does not demonstrate imprinting.

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Harlow’s study of infant rhesus monkeys showed that
  2. A) surrogate mothers who were cold to the touch but provided food and water produced the strongest attachment responses.
  3. B) surrogate mothers who were soft to the touch but did not provide food and water produced the strongest attachment responses.
  4. C) early imprinting led to the strongest attachments of monkeys to their surrogate mothers.
  5. D) surrogate mothers who were inconsistent in providing food and water produced the weakest attachment responses.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 385-386

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which of the following theories of attachment was effectively discredited by the work of Harry Harlow?
  2. A) Babies become attached to adults who are pleasant to touch.
  3. B) Babies become attached to adults who provide them with nourishment.

Correct. This is the explanation of attachment that the Harlow’s monkeys experiment debunked.

  1. C) Babies become attached to adults who smile at them.

Incorrect. Harlow’s work did not involve adults smiling at babies.

  1. D) Babies become attached to adults who talk in quiet voices.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 385-386

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. What kind of animals did Harry Harlow and his colleagues use to discredit the most commonly accepted theory of attachment of the time?
  2. A) Geese
  3. B) Monkeys
  4. C) Pigeons
  5. D) Rats

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 386

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. At about ___ months of age, children demonstrate that their attachment to their primary caregiver(s) is peaking.
  2. A) 4

B). 6

  1. C) 8
  2. D) 12

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 386

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which psychologist investigated the different types of attachment through the use of the “strange situation” experiment?
  2. A) John Bowlby
  3. B) Konrad Lorenz
  4. C) Harry Harlow
  5. D) Mary Ainsworth

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 386

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Psychologist Mary Ainsworth developed the __________ test in order to assess the different types of attachment that might exist between a child and his or her primary caregiver.
  2. A) separation-reunification

Incorrect. Separation and reunification was part of Ainsworth’s work, but her project was called the strange situation test.

  1. B) separation
  2. C) strange situation

Correct. The strange situation experiment of Mary Ainsworth was used to identify patterns of attachment.

  1. D) attachment schema

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 386

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. The majority of children who were studied by Mary Ainsworth had were labeled as having which of the following attachment styles?
  2. A) Secure
  3. B) Insecure-anxious
  4. C) Insecure- avoidant
  5. D) Disorganized

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Young Pemba is being observed as he plays in a room with his mother. Pemba frequently goes to the toys in the room, but occasionally looks back at his mother to make sure she is there. After a quick smile is exchanged between mother and child, Pemba goes back to the task of building with the toys. When Pemba’s mother leaves the room, he becomes moderately upset, but is easily soothed when she returns. Which type of attachment does Pemba seem to have with his mother?
  2. A) Loving
  3. B) Secure

Correct. Pemba is demonstrating all of the qualities of a securely attached child.

  1. C) Interdependent

Incorrect. There is no attachment style referred to as interdependent.

  1. D) Developmental

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which of the following children is most likely to have a temper tantrum when her father leaves the room?
  2. A) Ilsa, who has an insecure-anxious attachment to her father

Correct. An insecure-anxious child often has a tantrum when their attachment figure leaves their presence.

  1. B) Nola, who has a secure attachment to her father

Incorrect. A securely attached child will be distressed when their attachment figure leaves the room, but are not likely to have a temper tantrum.

  1. C) Denia, who has a disorganized attachment to her father
  2. D) Lakesha, who has an insecure-avoidant attachment to her father

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which one of the following children would most likely be described as “independent?”
  2. A) James, who has an insecure-avoidant attachment to his mother

Correct. The insecure-avoidant attachment style appears very independent, and some have suggested that this style is marked by a problematic lack of attachment.

  1. B) Jesse, who has an insecure-anxious attachment to his mother
  2. C) Jerome, who has a secure attachment to his mother.

Incorrect. A securely attached child will appear to be interdependent, not independent.

  1. D) Jeremiah, who has a disorganized attachment to his mother.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. On your lunch break you decide to try a new restaurant that you’ve been hearing about. Once you are seated, a family with a young infant who looks to be about one year old sits next to you. As you smile at the child, thinking how adorable she is, she breaks into tears, screams, and reaches for her father. You should:
  2. A) take offense that the parents have not taught the child manners yet.
  3. B) smile and order your lunch, because stranger anxiety is very normal at this age.

Correct. At about eight months of age is normal for stranger anxiety to appear.

  1. C) worry that you look very scary to children and go get a haircut and a fashion consult.
  2. D) change tables, because children who act like this are usually suffering from a stomach virus, and the kid could start vomiting on you any minute.

Incorrect. While this would be a very upsetting outcome, there is no reason to believe it will happen based on this question.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Researchers studying infant stress levels using the “Strange Situation” method have found that
  2. A) most infants are upset with the mom when she departs and remain upset at her when she returns.
  3. B) most infants are upset with the mom when she departs but are happy when she returns.
  4. C) most infants are not upset with the mom when she departs because they know she will return shortly.
  5. D) most infants are happy with the mom when she departs and they remain happy with her when she returns.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 386-387

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Which of the following represents cross-cultural differences in attachment study research?
  2. A) More infants from Japan fall into the insecure-anxious category as compared to S. infants.
  3. B) More infants from Japan fall into the insecure-avoidant category as compared to S. infants.
  4. C) More infants from the United States display disorganized attachments as compared to infants from Japan.
  5. D) Infants from Japan are more likely to react to their mom’s departure with indifference as compared to S. infants.

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 387

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Children involved in “Strange Situation” research change attachment styles frequently in follow-up studies, meaning that this method of measuring attachment style lacks
  2. A) reliability.

Correct. A lack of consistency in research findings suggests a deficit of reliability.

  1. B) validity.
  2. C) integrity.
  3. D) honesty.

Incorrect. There is no reason to believe that the researchers exploring the strange situation tests were dishonest.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 387

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Some children who were observed did not demonstrate one consistent attachment style, but instead seemed unable to decide how they should react to their mother and to new circumstances. Researchers have labeled this the __________ attachment style.
  2. A) secure
  3. B) disorganized

Correct. The disorganized attachment pattern was identified after Ainsworth’s work was completed.

  1. C) insecure-anxious
  2. D) insecure-avoidant

Incorrect. Inconsistency in attachment style is known as  disorganized attachment.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 387

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Some researchers have unintentionally fallen prey to the ________ bias when evaluating the work of Mary Ainsworth and assuming that the strange situation experiment is equivalent with attachment.
  2. A) post-hoc
  3. B) multiple confound
  4. C) double-blind

Incorrect.  A double-blind experiment occurs when both the researcher and the participants are kept uninformed as to which participant group each individual has been assigned.

  1. D) mono-operation

Correct. The assumption that one incident indicates an overall pattern is called the mono-operation bias.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 387

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. When the work of Mary Ainsworth and the “strange situation” experiment are examined in cultures beyond the United States of America, there is often criticism that this type of investigation is not appropriate for assessing the attachment of children in other cultures. Which of the following does your textbook state is one such argument against this type of research in other cultures?
  2. A) In Somalia, the scarcity of resources necessitates that children be kept very close to their parents at all times. Therefore, a test that calls for separation is not valid.
  3. B) In Finland, only boys are to be separated from their parents to foster independence, while girls are taught to be very dependent. Therefore, a test that calls for separation is not valid.

Incorrect. This is not a criticism of the strange situation tests mentioned in your textbook.

  1. C) In Iran, infants are expected to be very dependent on their parents, and are praised for such behaviors. Therefore a test that calls for separation is not valid.
  2. D) Japanese infants are rarely separated from their mothers, so the use of a test that calls for separation is not valid.

Correct. This is a cultural phenomenon that makes the strange situation experiment problematic for testing children from different parts of the world.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 387

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with caregivers

 

  1. Authoritarian parents are ________ disciplinarians and they are ________ with punishment.
  2. A) strict; quick
  3. B) lenient; slow
  4. C) strict; slow
  5. D) lenient; quick

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 388

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. The Carmichaels do not believe in punishing their children; instead, they shape their children’s behaviors by praising them and showering them with affection. This parenting style most closely resembles
  2. A) authoritarian parenting.

Incorrect. Authoritarian parents use a high amount of discipline and structure to raise their children.

  1. B) permissive parenting.

Correct. The lack of structure that the Carmichaels provide for their children is consistent with Baumrind’s permissive parenting.

  1. C) uninvolved parenting.
  2. D) authoritative parenting.

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 388

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Which of the following parenting styles is associated with the most favorable outcomes for children?
  2. A) Uninvolved
  3. B) Permissive
  4. C) Authoritarian
  5. D) Authoritative

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 388

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Elementary school teachers from China would likely employ a(n)________ style of teaching.
  2. A) authoritarian

Correct. A focus on structure and discipline would be central to elementary school teachers from this culture.

  1. B) authoritative
  2. C) permissive

Incorrect. The structure and discipline the teachers in this culture use is consistent with authoritarian teaching.

  1. D) uninvolved

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 389

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Which of the following is true regarding parenting research?
  2. A) Children tend to select mothers over fathers as playmates.
  3. B) Children of single fathers do just as well on measures of well-being as do children of single mothers.
  4. C) Fathers spend more time with their babies on average than do mothers.
  5. D) Fathers display similar levels of affection toward their babies as do mothers.

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 389-390

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. As noted in your textbook, some researchers believe that the higher numbers of single-parent families is a key reason for the increased rates of violent crime in the USA compared to 40 or 50 years ago. On the other hand, it is true that there are many differences between single-parent and two-parent families, any one or combination of which may explain these increases in violent crime. This is an issue that addresses the principle of
  2. A) extraordinary claims.

Incorrect. The assertions of these researchers are not necessary extraordinary; rather, they are simply making the assumption that correlation equals cause. This assumption is inaccurate.

  1. B) replicability.
  2. C) correlation vs. causation.

Correct. It is important to be careful when making assumptions that two correlated events necessarily indicate causality between them. In this case, such claims are not necessarily accurate.

  1. D) Occam’s Razor.

Answer: C

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 390

Skill: Conceptual

Text LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Research investigating the causes of gender differences in behavior suggests that
  2. A) during infancy there are not gender differences between the toy preferences of boys and girls.
  3. B) no gender differences have been found between the toy preferences of boy and girl monkeys.
  4. C) females exposed to excessive levels of testosterone during birth tend to dislike rough-and-tumble play.
  5. D) females exposed to excessive levels of testosterone during birth tend to enjoy rough-and-tumble play.

Answer: D

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 392

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Theorist __________ believed that every stage of life has a crisis in need of resolution.
  2. A) Carl Jung
  3. B) Erik Erikson

Correct. Erikson believed that the life and compass is eight different stages, each of which has a crisis to be resolved.

  1. C) Lev Vygotsky
  2. D) Jean Piaget

Incorrect. Piaget’s theory only involved four stages, and he did not focus on the resolution of crises.

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. The very first developmental crisis that human beings experience, according to the theory of Erik Erikson, is
  2. A) trust vs. mistrust.

Correct. This is the crisis that marks the infancy stage of the first year of life.

  1. B) autonomy vs. shame and doubt.

Incorrect. The first crisis that we encountered during infancy is trust vs. mistrust.

  1. C) initiative vs. guilt.
  2. D) intimacy vs. isolation.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Brenda’s parents are political conservatives, while she identifies more with liberal political views. When asked her political orientation, Brenda seems uncertain and does not respond. Brenda is dealing with the ________ crisis.
  2. A) industry versus inferiority
  3. B) autonomy versus shame and doubt
  4. C) ego integrity versus despair

Incorrect. This is the eighth stage of Erikson’s theory, and we do not encountered until we are at the end of our life.

  1. D) identity versus role confusion

Correct. Erikson believed that part of adolescence is forming a stable sense of self. Until this happens, we experience identity crisis.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. According to Erikson, struggling the failure to resolve an early stage of development leads to which outcome?
  2. A) It increases the likelihood that a future crisis will be successfully resolved.

Correct. Erikson believed that each stage has to be resolved in order for us to successfully move onto the next stage.

  1. B) Unsuccessful resolution of a crisis has no effect on whether a future crisis will be successfully resolved.

Incorrect. Erikson believed that each stage is tied to the other stages of development across the lifespan.

  1. C) In most cases psychosocial crises go unresolved with no detrimental effects on social development.
  2. D) In most cases psychosocial crises are unsuccessfully resolved leading to detrimental effects on social development.

Answer: A

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 394

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. __________ adulthood is a period during a person’s early 20s in which they still depend on their parents for financial and emotional support.
  2. A) Early
  3. B) Emerging
  4. C) Transitional
  5. D) Adolescent

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 394

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. According to Piaget, one’s level of moral development is linked to one’s level of ________.
  2. A) intelligence
  3. B) social development

Incorrect. Piaget did not focus on social development as a requisite for moral development.

  1. C) emotional development
  2. D) cognitive development

Correct. This is the intersection between Piaget’s theory and that of Kohlberg.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 394

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Kohlberg’s belief that the development of moral judgment is intricately related to the development of cognitive skills built on the work of __________.
  2. A) Gilligan

Incorrect. In fact, the work of Carol Gilligan came after that of Lawrence Kohlberg, and she proposed a different model of moral development that criticized Kohlberg’s work.

  1. B) Erikson
  2. C) Piaget

Correct. There was great intersection between the theories of these two individuals.

  1. D) Freud

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. According to Kohlberg, behavior motivated by the avoidance of punishment represents ________ morality.
  2. A) preconventional
  3. B) conventional
  4. C) postconventional
  5. D) formal conventional

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Karla can speed on a certain stretch of the interstate without being ticketed, yet she decides not to speed because it is unlawful. Karla’s reasoning reflects ________ reasoning.
  2. A) preconventional

Incorrect. If Karla were specifically focused on not speeding so that she would not get a ticket, this would demonstrate preconventional morality.

  1. B) conventional

Correct. This would be an assessment of morality that is consistent with the conventional stage of Kohlberg’s theory.

  1. C) postconventional
  2. D) formal conventional

Answer: B

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Regarding Heinz’s dilemma, as discussed in your textbook, a person who decides not to steal the drug for fear of being imprisoned is reasoning at the ________ stage.
  2. A) preconventional

Correct. Decisions made it to avoid punishment demonstrate preconventional morality.

  1. B) conventional

Incorrect. The decision to act in a manner that either avoids punishment or gains reward demonstrates preconventional morality, not conventional morality.

  1. C) postconventional
  2. D) formal conventional

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Joseph refuses to vote in major elections because he believes that most political candidates seeking office are motivated by personal gain and not to create positive social change. Joseph’s reasoning reflects
  2. A) preconventional moral reasoning.
  3. B) conventional moral reasoning.
  4. C) postconventional moral reasoning.

Correct. Joseph is acting in a manner that he believes represents higher, universal ethical standards. This demonstrates postconventional moral reasoning.

  1. D) formal conventional moral reasoning.

Incorrect. In Kohlberg’s theory of moral development, there’s no such thing as formal conventional moral reasoning.

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Johnny has never been harassed by the school bully, but most of his friends have. Johnny’s decision to stand up to the bully to protect his friends represents a type of ________ morality.
  2. A) preconventional

Incorrect. If Johnny was operating a preconventional level, he would avoid the bully to avoid the punishment of getting beat up.

  1. B) conventional
  2. C) postconventional

Correct. The decision to stand up to a bully and protect friends represents universal ethical standards. This demonstrates postconventional morality.

  1. D) formal conventional

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Karen has the impulse to shoplift, but when she begins thinking about how others would be disappointed with her actions, she resists. Karen’s thinking illustrates ________ reasoning.
  2. A) preconventional
  3. B) conventional

Correct. Karen’s decision is a good one, but because it still focuses on external determinants of behavior, it demonstrates conventional moral reasoning.

  1. C) postconventional

Incorrect. If Kerry decided not to shoplift based solely on internal decision-making, this would demonstrate postconventional morality.

  1. D) formal conventional

Answer: B

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. The highest levels of moral reasoning, called __________ morality, are based on internal principles that transcend society.
  2. A) conventional

Incorrect. In conventional moral reasoning, decisions about right or wrong are based on a combination of internal and external principles.

  1. B) postconventional

Correct. These are the qualities that denote postconventional moral reasoning.

  1. C) preconventional
  2. D) retroconventional

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Young Jamal is asked whether it is right for a police officer to give a speeding ticket to a man who is driving his daughter to the hospital after a serious injury that left her with several broken bones. Which of the following answers would demonstrate the postconventional level of moral reasoning in Jamal?
  2. A) “He broke the rules. He should get a ticket, but should have to pay less than someone who was speeding for no good reason.”
  3. B) “Everyone speeds and he has a good reason, so he shouldn’t get a ticket.”
  4. C) “Speeding is breaking the rules, and when you break the rules you deserve to be punished.”

Incorrect. Seeing right and wrong as being strictly tied to rules demonstrates preconventional moral reasoning.

  1. D) “The man was trying to get his daughter to help, and he wasn’t hurting anyone. As long as he doesn’t normally speed, he should be let off with a warning.”

Correct. Jamaal is demonstrating an internal application of universal ethical principles. This demonstrates postconventional moral reasoning.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. According to theory assumptions, which of the following is true concerning Kohlberg and Piaget?
  2. A) Levels of moral development are unrelated to levels of cognitive development.
  3. B) Reaching the postconventional stage requires functioning at Piaget’s preoperational stage.
  4. C) Reaching the postconventional stage requires functioning at Piaget’s formal operations stage.

Correct. The abstract reasoning of Piaget’s formal operations stage is necessary to reach the postconventional stage of Kohlberg’s theory.

  1. D) Like Piaget’s stage theory, Kohlberg’s theory is comprised of four distinctly separate stages.

Incorrect. In fact Kohlberg’s theory have three different levels that are sometimes divided into six different stages.

Answer: C

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 395-396

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Responses to moral dilemmas are only moderately correlated with actual behavior. Which of the following may be seen to increase the strength of correlations between hypothetical responses and actual behavior?
  2. A) Posing dilemmas focused on abstract situations not likely to be faced by respondents
  3. B) Posing dilemmas focused on life-or-death decisions that will lead to more honest responding

Incorrect. Using very uncommon life or death Samari owes would not be a good predictor of true outcomes.

  1. C) Posing dilemmas focused on lighthearted subjects that will put respondents more at ease
  2. D) Posing dilemmas focused on realistic situations that are likely to be faced on a regular basis

Correct. One criticism of Kohlberg’s work is that the moral dilemmas he gave the participants were not realistic enough to generate true responses that would translate into real life circumstances.

Answer: D

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 396

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Lawrence Kohlberg’s theory of moral development has been criticized for its lack of correlation with moral behavior. It has been argued that when scores on Kohlberg’s system correlate with behavior they provide evidence for his theory, but when they do not correlate with behavior they does not provide evidence against his theory. This is a problem of which of the six principles of scientific thinking?
  2. A) Correlation vs. causation

Incorrect. There is no issue of correlation and causation implied in this question.

  1. B) Falsifiability

Correct. In order for a theory to withstand critical evaluation, it must be capable of being proven wrong. In this case, there is no avenue to disprove Kohlberg’s theory.

  1. C) Ruling out rival hypotheses
  2. D) Replicability

Answer: B

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 396

Skill: Conceptual

Text LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity develop during adolescence and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Empty-nest researchers have found that
  2. A) women who do not define themselves strictly as parents have an easier time adjusting after their children leave home.
  3. B) most empty-nesters are men who experience a period of depression after their children leave home.
  4. C) women are less likely than men to experience depression after their children leave home.
  5. D) women are more likely than men to experience depression after their children leave home.

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 398

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. The __________ represents a period of anxiety and emotional disturbance related to the aging process and it sometimes results in futile attempts to regain one’s youth.
  2. A) empty nest syndrome
  3. B) primary aging hypothesis
  4. C) climacteric
  5. D) midlife crisis

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 398

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. “Man, I cannot believe how smart David is! He is so much more intelligent than other kids his age, and he also seems to have a good head on his shoulders when it comes to making decisions. He is polite, doesn’t get into trouble, and seems to naturally make good decisions. It is hard to believe he is only 13 years old!” David’s __________ age appears to be well ahead of his __________ age.
  2. A) chronological; mental
  3. B) mental; social
  4. C) social; chronological

Correct. In this particular case David’s social age is well ahead of his chronological age.

  1. D) chronological; social

Incorrect. This is the opposite of the correct answer.

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 399

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. The maturity level a person develops based upon his or her life experiences describes that individual’s __________ age.
  2. A) social
  3. B) cognitive
  4. C) chronological
  5. D) affective

Answer: A

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 399

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. In several of his movies, actor Adam Sandler has achieved fame by playing buffoons whose __________ ages were clearly far behind their __________ ages.
  2. A) social; chronological

Correct. Sandler’s immature behavior demonstrates a social age that is behind the chronological age of his characters.

  1. B) adolescent; adult

Incorrect. Adolescent age and adult age are not two of the four types of age is discussed in this chapter.

  1. C) mental; social
  2. D) chronological; mental

Answer: A

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 399

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. There is a famous collection of movies about a trio of kids who are in the same “year” at school. You may have heard of them, but just in case you haven’t, they are the Harry Potter films. Of the three characters, Hermione is very level-headed, dislikes breaking the rules, and always tries to act responsibly. Ronald, on the other hand, tends to be a bit of a slacker, is irresponsible, and is often more interested in having fun than he is taking care of his obligations. Hermione’s ____ age appears to be much higher than Ron’s.
  2. A) chronological

Incorrect. Chronological age is simply a measure of how much time has passed since an individual’s birth.

  1. B) cognitive
  2. C) psychological

Correct. The ability to deal with stresses and ever-changing environment, and our mental attitude an ability to learn demonstrates psychological age.

  1. D) developmental

Answer: C

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 399

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

  1. An individual’s ability to handle their given roles in society is called their ________ age, and it may be a better indicator of that person’s readiness to retire from work then chronological age.
  2. A) biological
  3. B) social
  4. C) psychological

Incorrect. Psychological age is certainly a part of this question, but the best answer is functional age.

  1. D) functional

Correct. Research shows that forcing people to retire at 65 when they still have the good work years left in them is unhealthy for their psychological functioning.

Answer: D

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 399

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.13 Identify developmental changes during major life transitions in adults

 

 

Fill-in-the-Blank

 

  1. Environmental factors that can exert a negative impact on prenatal development are called ________.

Answer: teratogens

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 366

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.3 Track the trajectory of prenatal development and identify barriers to normal development

 

  1. The period of transition between childhood and young adulthood is called ________.

Answer: adolescence

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 368

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. The reproductive organs and genitals that distinguish the sexes are called ________.

Answer: primary sex characteristics

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. ________ is the start of menstruation.

Answer: Menarche

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 369

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.5 Describe physical maturation during childhood and adolescence

 

  1. The termination of menstruation signaling the end of a woman’s reproductive potential is termed ________.

Answer: menopause

Diff: 1    Page Ref: 370

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.6 Explain which aspects of physical ability decline during aging

 

  1. Piaget’s ________ developmental theory focuses on ways in which children learn, think, reason, and remember.

Answer: cognitive

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 372

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. During Piaget’s ________ stage of development, infants learn about objects by physically handling them.

Answer: sensorimotor

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. During Piaget’s ________ stage, a child believes that objects do not exist if you cannot see them.

Answer: sensorimotor

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 373

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. The inability to see events from others’ perspectives during Piaget’s preoperational stage is called ________.

Answer: egocentrism

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. If a 5-year-old is unable to see others’ perspectives and thinks that everyone experiences things as she does, she is demonstrating ________.

Answer: egocentrism

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Conceptual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. A 9-year-old who is unable to multiply and divide is delayed in reaching Piaget’s ________.

Answer: concrete operational stage

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. A teenager is most likely functioning in Piaget’s ________.

Answer: formal operational stage

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. During Piaget’s ________ stage of development, children begin to gain proficiency with mathematical functions including division and multiplication.

Answer: concrete operational

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. According to Vygotsky, the provision of assistance to those who cannot perform activities alone is called ________.

Answer: scaffolding

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 375

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

  1. The type of intelligence that involves our accumulated knowledge over time is called ________ intelligence.

Answer: crystallized

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 382

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.9 Describe how attitudes toward knowledge change during adolescence

 

  1. A baby cheetah follows a zookeeper’s every move because the zookeeper was the first person observed by the cheetah after birth. This behavior is called ________.

Answer: imprinting

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 385

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. The most common type of attachment formed between infants and primary caregivers is the ________ attachment.

Answer: secure

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 386

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.10 Describe how and when children establish emotional bonds with their caregivers

 

  1. The ________ style of parenting is associated with strict discipline, punishment, and limited displays of affection.

Answer: authoritarian

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 388

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. The ________ style of parenting is associated with the best social and emotional outcomes for children and the lowest levels of behavior problems

Answer: authoritative

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 388

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.11 Explain the environmental and genetic influences on social behavior and social style in children

 

  1. Erikson’s ________ developmental theory focuses on social and emotional changes experienced by people throughout their lifespan

Answer: identity

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

  1. The major crisis facing adolescents, according to Erikson, involves the crisis of ________ versus ________.

Answer: identity; role confusion

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

  1. During old age, Erikson suggests that the crisis of ________ versus ________ is faced.

Answer: ego integrity; despair

Diff: 3    Page Ref: 393

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Kohlberg’s ________ developmental theory focuses on how people reason about right and wrong behaviors.

Answer: moral

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

  1. The belief that you should not steal because you could go to jail represents reasoning associated with Kohlberg’s ________ level.

Answer: preconventional

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

  1. Believing that you should smoke cigarettes because others would think you are “cool” represents Kohlberg’s ________ level of reasoning.

Answer: conventional

Diff: 2    Page Ref: 395

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

 

Essay

 

1)  Using specific examples, differentiate between the thinking patterns of a 6-year-old student and a 9-year-old student, according to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development.

Answer: Information related to 6-year-olds should involve difficulty with conservation tasks, reversing operations, and some issues with logical thinking because intuitive thinking is more prevalent. A 9-year-old can conserve amounts through physical transformation and reason more logically and less intuitively about information.

Page Ref: 372-374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

2)  Discuss three beneficial uses and three limitations of Piaget’s theory.

Answer: Benefits include providing a standard assessment of general ability, establishing age-related benchmarks for when certain skills may emerge, assisting teachers in curriculum development, and allowing for age appropriate instruction. Limits include decreased focus on environmental influences affecting learning, tasks can be learned earlier than Piaget suggests, uneven development occurs because one can be in one stage on one task and in a different stage on a different task, and does not fully address those with developmental delays.

Page Ref: 372-374

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

3)  Describe the major developmental crises facing students during Erikson’s identity vs. identity confusion stages. Provide examples of how parents and teachers might help teenagers to positively resolve these crises.

Answer: Identity vs. identify confusion crisis involves an active search to figure out one’s interests, talents, wants,

needs, and beliefs. After exposure to new experiences, behaviors, and ideas one settles on a stable identity.

Active exploration is necessary for development of one’s identity so parental influence over behavior subsides. Teachers and parents can assist by pointing children toward extracurricular interests, discussing current events, asking about future plans, discussing vocational /occupational interests, and administering career interest inventories.

Page Ref: 393-394

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

4)  Regarding Kohlberg’s theory, use specific examples to differentiate between a conventional moral reasoner and a postconventional moral reasoner.

Answer: A conventional moral reasoner is described as one who conforms to majority opinions or follows social norms when reasoning about right and wrong actions. A conventional moral reasoner may hold certain political beliefs because most of the person’s peers hold those beliefs. A postconventional moral reasoner uses utilitarian ethics to reason about right and wrong actions. For postconventional reasoners, acts that produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people are moral acts, even if they produce disfavor from others or involve acting against self-interest. A postconventional reasoner will not likely conform or change political attitudes due to majority influence, they tend to have internal principles of right and wrong that may not adhere to social norms.

Page Ref: 395-396

Skill: Factual

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood

 

 

 

Critical Thinking

 

1)  What tasks could be presented to students to assess whether they have entered Piaget’s formal operations stage of development?

Answer: Tasks dealing with abstract thinking, deductive reasoning, or theory development would tap into formal operational development. For example, tasks involving the completion of calculus problems, term papers focusing on philosophical debates, or the development of original research projects are formal operational tasks.

Page Ref: 372-374

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.7 Understand major theories of how children’s thinking develops

 

2)  Correlations between Kohlberg’s dilemmas and real-world moral behavior are relatively low because responses to hypothetical dilemmas are often incongruent with a person’s behaviors. Does this suggest that Kohlberg’s theory is not a valid measure of moral development?

Answer: Kohlberg’s theory is a measure of how people reason about moral problems but it is not a measure that predicts the behaviors that people will present in real-world situations. In this way, it could be considered both a valid and invalid measure of moral development depending on how the term “moral development” is defined. If moral development is defined as a type of reasoning about right and wrong his theory could be a valid measure. If moral development is defined as a style of behavior one presents in real contexts, his theory may not be a valid measure.

Page Ref: 395-396

Skill: Applied

TEXT LO: 10.12 Determine how morality and identity developed during adolescents and emerging adulthood