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# Research In Psychology Methods and Design 6th Edition Goodwin Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0470522783

ISBN-10: 047052278X

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Chapter 7

__Multiple Choice__

- If a between-subjects design uses random assignment, the design will be called a(n)
- nonequivalent groups design
- repeated-measures design
- independent groups design
- matched groups design

- If a between-subjects design uses the subject variable of sex and has just one independent variable, which of the following is true?
- the design is a multilevel design
- the design is a repeated-measures design
- the design is a nonequivalent groups design
- the design will be analyzed with a
*t*test for related samples

- What does every single-factor, two level design have in common with single-factor, multilevel designs?
- one independent variable
- random assignment
*t*test for analysis- continuous dependent variable

- In the study by Kasser and Sheldon, some participants wrote an essay designed to increase “mortality-salience.” The researchers wanted to know if thoughts of one’s death might trigger insecurity. What was the design?
- single-factor, independent groups design
- single-factor, matched groups design
- multilevel, independent groups design
- multilevel, matched groups design

- The study by Kasser and Sheldon, in which subjects wrote essays about death or about listening to music, included
- a matching variable (income)
- a subject variable
- random assignment
- repeated measures

- Random assignment is least likely to be an element in which of the following designs
- an independent groups design
- a matched groups design
- a repeated-measures design with a Latin square
- a nonequivalent groups design

- A study by evaluating the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction in reading compared two groups, one using the computers, the other not using them. The researchers first tested the students for “reading readiness” and insured that the average readiness scores of students in the two group was the same. The design used here was a two-level ___________ design.
- independent groups design
- matched groups design
- nonequivalent groups design
- repeated measures design

- A study by Blagrove examined the effects of sleep deprivation on answering leading questions. Which of the following was true about the study?
- it was a multilevel, independent groups design
- two equivalent groups of sleepers were created through a matching procedure
- they used complete rather than partial counterbalancing
- it was a single-factor, repeated-measures design

- A study by Blagrove examined the effects of sleep deprivation on answering leading questions. The study included all of the following except
- a control group not deprived of sleep
- matching for “self-reported sleep duration”
- nonequivalent groups
- no cognitive consequences of sleep deprivation

- A study by McDonald and Flanagan evaluated the effects of traumatic brain injury, using a single-factor ___________ design.
- independent groups design
- matched groups design
- nonequivalent groups design
- repeated-measures design

- A study by McDonald and Flanagan evaluated the effects of traumatic brain injury. Which of the following is true about their study?
- causal conclusions could be drawn
- random assignment was used, rather than matching
- the study used a multilevel, independent groups design
- the study used a subject variable with two levels

- Lee and Aronson’s “moving room” study used a ________ design.
- multilevel, independent groups design
- single-factor, matched groups design
- single-factor, nonequivalent groups design
- single-factor, repeated-measures design

- In Lee and Aronson’s “moving room” study,
- counterbalancing was needed
- random assignment was used, rather than matching
- a subject variable, “level of perceptual skill,” was used
- a multilevel, repeated-measures design was used

- Which of the following studies used a single-factor, repeated-measures design?
- the study by Blagrove, which evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation
- the study by Blakemore and Cooper, which compared cats living in different visual

environments

- Lee and Aronson’s study comparing the effects of having a room move forward or

backward

- Knepper et al.’s study of social and emotional problem solving in gifted children

- Which of the following studies used a single-factor, independent groups design?
- the study by Blagrove, which evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation
- the study by Kasser and Sheldon, which compared groups writing two kinds of essays
- Lee and Aronson’s study comparing the effects of having a room move forward or

backward

- McDonald and Flanagan’s study of the effects of traumatic brain injury

- Which of the following studies used a single-factor, matched groups design?
- the study by Blagrove, which evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation
- the study by Kasser and Sheldon, which compared groups writing two kinds of essays
- Lee and Aronson’s study comparing the effects of having a room move forward or

backward

- McDonald and Flanagan’s study of the effects of traumatic brain injury

- Which of the following studies used a single-factor, nonequivalent groups design?
- the study by Blagrove, which evaluated the effects of sleep deprivation
- the study by Kasser and Sheldon, which compared groups writing two kinds of essays
- Lee and Aronson’s study comparing the effects of having a room move forward or

backward

- McDonald and Flanagan’s study of the effects of traumatic brain injury

- In Stroop’s most famous experiment, a comparison was made between naming color patches and naming colors when they were printed with color-mismatched names. What was true about his design?
- he used a reverse counterbalancing procedure
- participants were assigned to the two conditions via random assignment
- participants were matched to groups on the basis of their reading skills
- it was a multilevel, repeated-measures design

- In Stroop’s most famous experiment, a comparison was made between naming color patches and naming colors when they were printed with color-mismatched names. Describe the design.
- single-factor, two levels, repeated measures
- single-factor, two levels, independent groups
- single-factor, multilevel, repeated measures
- multiple-factor, two levels, independent groups

- A
*t*test for related samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs? - single-factor, independent groups design
- single-factor, matched groups design
- single-factor, nonequivalent groups design
- both alternatives a. and c.

- A
*t*test for independent samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs? - single-factor, independent groups design
- single-factor, matched groups design
- single-factor, nonequivalent groups design
- both alternatives a. and c.

- A
*t*test for related samples is used to compare experimental conditions in which of the following designs? - single-factor, matched groups design
- single-factor, independent groups design
- single-factor, repeated-measures design
- both alternatives a. and c.

- A
*t*test for independent samples is to a*t*test for related samples as ______ is to ______. - an independent groups design; a nonequivalent groups design
- a repeated-measures design; a matched groups design
- nonequivalent groups design; a repeated-measures design
- a matched groups design; a repeated-measures design

- Unlike two-level designs, multilevel designs can
- use counterbalancing
- test more than one independent variable
- uncover nonlinear effects
- reject the null hypothesis

- Bransford and Johnson examined the effects of context on memory by asking participants to read and recall idea units from a paragraph about a man courting a woman. What was true about their study?
- it was a multilevel, independent groups design
- their purpose in using a multilevel design was to discover nonlinear effects
- they found that context improved recall, regardless of whether that context was

introduced before or after participants read the paragraph

- its results are best portrayed with a line graph rather than a bar graph

- What was the reason for using more than two conditions in the Bransford and Johnson study of the effects of context on memory?
- they hoped to discover nonlinear effects
- they hoped to rule out different interpretations about the effects of context
- they hoped to find differences between their five distinct independent variables
- they hoped to show that context was not important for memory

- Bransford and Johnson examined the effects of context on memory by asking subjects to read and recall idea units from a paragraph about a man courting a woman. They used a ___________ design.
- multilevel, independent groups
- multilevel, repeated measures
- multilevel, matched groups
- multilevel, nonequivalent groups

- In Steele, Ball, and Runk’s study of the “Mozart effect,” the researchers used a multilevel, _______ design.
- independent groups
- repeated measures
- matched groups
- nonequivalent groups

- In Steele, Ball, and Runk’s study of the so-called Mozart effect, which of the following was true?
- they used a multilevel, matched-groups design
- they used a complete counterbalancing procedure
- they found that listening to Mozart made it easier to recall digits
- there was no Mozart effect, but a significant practice effect occurred

- In a study on the effects of caffeine on reaction time, one group of participants ingests two cups of coffee before being tested. A second group takes four cups, and a third group takes eight cups. Before the study, participants are asked about the average number of cups they drink per day and that information is used when assigning participants to groups. What is the design?
- multilevel, matched groups
- independent groups, single factor
- repeated measures, multilevel
- multilevel, nonequivalent groups

- A researcher examines three groups of participants, extreme Type A, extreme Type B, and those in the middle. Each group is given a time estimation task (i.e., indicate when a minute has passed). What is the design?
- multilevel, independent groups
- multilevel, repeated measures
- multilevel, matched groups
- multilevel, nonequivalent groups

- For the Bransford and Johnson multilevel, independent groups study of the effect of context on memory, the results had to be presented
- in a bar graph
- in a line graph
- either in a line or a bar graph
- none of the above—only a table could be used in this case

- In a single-factor study with sex on the X-axis, which type of graph should be used?
- a line graph
- a bar graph
- either a line or a bar graph
- none of the above—with discrete variables, tables must be used

- Which of the following is true about how to construct a graph of an experiment’s results?
- if the independent variable is a discrete variable, a bar graph should be used
- if the independent variable is a continuous variable, a line graph or a bar graph could

be used

- both alternatives a. and b.
- none of the above

- Which of the independent variables would lead you to use a bar rather than a line graph?
- political affiliation
- dosage level of a drug
- age
- delay time in giving reinforcement

- How should a multilevel, independent groups design be analyzed if there are three groups (A, B, C) in the study?
- use 3
*t*tests (A & B, A & C, B & C) - find the two groups farthest apart and compare them with a
*t*test - complete a 3-factor analysis of variance
- complete a 1-factor analysis of variance

- When analyzing a multilevel design, multiple
*t*tests - are OK, providing you complete no more than five of them
- increase the probability of making a Type II error
- increase the probability of making a Type I error
- should be completed first, then an ANOVA to verify the results

- For the designs in this chapter, post hoc testing occurs when
- a 1-factor ANOVA yields a significant effect
- a 1-factor ANOVA has failed to yield a significant effect
- multiple
*t*tests have been completed, and at least one has rejected the null hypothesis - multiple
*t*tests have been completed, but none have rejected the null hypothesis

- In research that evaluates some new form of psychotherapy, the usual comparison is between
- the new therapy and no therapy
- the new therapy and a placebo therapy
- the new therapy and an already existing therapy
- those who have never been in therapy before, and those who have lots of therapy

experience

- The use of control groups has been criticized on ethical grounds because
- those in control groups seldom have the opportunity to give informed consent
- control group participants aren’t debriefed
- control group participants could be missing an effective therapy
- those in control groups, because they are still waiting for therapy, are more likely to

have their privacy violated

- A well-known example of a study that produced a nonlinear effect was the memory study by Ebbinghaus that produced his forgetting curve. Which of the following is true about his study?
- the independent variable was the amount of time between studying and recalling
- it was a single-factor, two level, repeated-measures design
- it was a multilevel, matched groups design
- the independent variable was a “savings” score

- Of the studies described in the chapter, which most clearly illustrates the ability of a multilevel design to produce a nonlinear effect?
- the Bransford and Johnson study on the effects of context on memory
- the Mozart effect study
- the study with the moving room
- the Ebbinghaus forgetting study

- Which of the following is true about the Ebbinghaus forgetting study?
- because he was the only subject, it had to be a repeated-measures design
- with the passage of time, there was a steady, straight-line decline in recall
- a graph of the study has a “savings” score on the X-axis
- it’s an example of a study which should be illustrated with a bar graph

- If counterbalancing is used in a single-factor study, you can be sure that
- repeated measures are involved
- some type of confound exists
- it is a multilevel design, not a two-level design
- matching is also involved

- If a line graph has been used to portray the results of a single-factor study, you can be sure that
- the dependent variable is a discrete variable
- it is a multilevel design, not a two-level design
- there is a continuous variable on the X-axis
- a nonlinear effect will occur

- If matching is used in a single-factor study, you can be sure that
- repeated measures are involved
- some type of confound exists
- it is a multilevel design, not a two-level design
- the independent variable is tested between subjects

- If sex is the independent variable in a single-factor design, you can be sure that
- it is a two-level design, not a multilevel design
- repeated measures are involved
- the results will be portrayed in a line graph
- a
*t*test for dependent samples will be used

- If a
*t*test for related samples has been completed in a single factor study, you can be sure that - the independent variable has more than two levels
- the independent variable is a subject variable
- the independent variable only has two levels
- a Type I error is more likely than a Type II error

- If a 1-factor ANOVA has been completed in a study with one independent variable, you can be sure that
- multiple
*t*tests have already been completed first - the design involves repeated measures
- post hoc testing will occur if the ANOVA is significant
- the independent variable has at least five levels

- In research evaluating the effectiveness of a drug, participants in a placebo control group
- are given the drug, but they don’t think it is the drug
- are not given the drug, but think they are being given the drug
- both alternatives a. and b. are examples of placebo controls
- none of the above

- Which of the following empirical questions is most likely to be answered with a study using a placebo control?
- Is psychoanalysis effective for agoraphobia?
- Can memory be improved with training?
- Are men less likely to ask directions than women?
- Will alcohol slow down reaction time?

- Which of the following empirical questions is most likely to be answered with a study using a waiting list control?
- Is psychoanalysis effective for agoraphobia?
- Can memory be improved with training?
- Are men less likely to ask directions than women?
- Will alcohol slow down reaction time?

- Which of the following studies would be most likely to use a waiting list control group?
- a study evaluating the how waiting for the doctor produces frustration
- a study testing the effects of different dosage levels of a new drug
- a study evaluating the effectiveness of a new therapy for depression
- a study comparing environments that differ in terms of how crowded they are

- In the research example that evaluated the effects of subliminal self-help tapes on weight loss, which of the following was true?
- the study used both a placebo control and a waiting list control
- the study was a good example of the failure to use a proper control group
- the tapes worked—participants using them lost weight, while those in the placebo group

actually gained some weight

- participants in the yoked control group listened to non-subliminal tapes

- In a yoked control group,
- the exact sequence of events for each member of the group is planned ahead of time
- what happens to subjects depends on what happens to members of the experimental

group

- participants in the experimental and control groups are always interacting with each

other in some fashion

- subjects in the control group try to outperform those in the experimental group

- In the study on the effectiveness of EMDR, how were participants in the yoked control group treated?
- they moved their eyes randomly, instead of following the therapist’s lead
- they were not given any form of therapy
- the length of their “therapy” sessions matched those in the experimental group
- they were matched in terms of how severe their problem was

__ __

__Answers—Multiple Choice__

- C 29. D
- C 30. A
- A 31. D
- A 32. A
- C 33. B
- D 34. C
- B 35. A
- B 36. D
- C 37. C
- C 38. A
- D 39. C
- D 40. C
- A 41. A
- C 42. D
- B 43. A
- A 44. A
- D 45. C
- A 46. D
- A 47. A
- B 48. C
- D 49. C
- D 50. B
- C 51. D
- C 52. A
- A 53. C
- B 54. A
- A 55. B
- B 56. C

__ __

__Fill-in the Blanks__

- A single-factor experiment that assigns participants to groups via random assignment is called a(n) _____________ design.
- In a single-factor experiment with more than two levels of the independent variable, the proper inferential statistical analysis is ________.
- A single-factor experiment in which all participants experience each of the levels of the independent variable is called a(n) _____________ design.
- A study that compares sleep-deprived with non-sleep-deprived participants, but, at the start of the study, insures that groups are equal in terms a self-reported sleep patterns, will be using a(n) __________ design.
- The behavior of a subject in a treatment group determines what happens to a subject in a(n) ________ control group.
- In studies evaluating the influence of a drug, those in the experimental group are often compared with those in a(n) _______ control group.
- Multilevel designs enable the researcher to discover ______ effects.
- A graph comparing males and females on reaction time would be a bar graph because sex is a(n) _________ variable.
- Studies with two levels of a repeated-measures independent variable would have the data analyzed by using a(n) _______________.
- If the results are portrayed in the form of a line graph, then the independent variable on the X-axis is most likely to be a __________ rather than a discrete variable.

__ __

__Answers—Fill-in the Blanks__

- independent groups
- 1-factor ANOVA
- repeated-measures
- matched groups
- yoked
- placebo
- nonlinear
- discrete
*t*test for related samples- continuous

__ __

__ __

__Short Essay Questions__

__ __

- In what ways are independent groups designs and matched groups designs (a) similar, and (b) distinct?
- What are the defining features of the three main designs that involve between-subjects factors?
- Create some data for a study of the effects of caffeine on reaction time that would lead to this conclusion: Caffeine increases reaction time, but a placebo effect also exists. Explain the data.
- Describe the logic of the yoked control group, using the EMDR study as an example.
- In the research example that looked at whether sleepy participants would be more open to leading questions than alert participants, what was the matching variable and why was it chosen?
- When portraying the results of a study graphically, what are the guidelines that help determine whether to use a bar graph or a line graph?
- What are the proper statistical analyses for the four varieties of designs that feature a single independent variable with two levels?
- In the Bransford and Johnson study of the effects of context on memory, what purpose was served by each of the following comparison groups: two repetitions, partial context, and context after?

__ __

__Comprehensive Essay Questions__

__ __

- Compared with designs that have just two levels, multilevel designs provide two advantages. Use the famous Ebbinghaus study to illustrate one of those advantages and the Bransford and Johnson study of the effects of context on memory to illustrate the second.
- From an ethical standpoint, describe the arguments for and against the use of control groups in, for example, a study that evaluated the effects of giving nursing home patients some additional control over their lives (e.g., giving them a plant to care for).
- Use the study that evaluated the effectiveness of subliminal tapes to illustrate the use of two different kinds of control groups in the same study.