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Visual Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Martini Ober Nath Bartholomew Petti Test Bank

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Visual Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Martini Ober Nath Bartholomew Petti Test Bank

  • ISBN-13: 978-0321918949
  • ISBN-10: 0321918940

 

Description

Visual Anatomy and Physiology 2nd Edition Martini Ober Nath Bartholomew Petti Test Bank

  • ISBN-13: 978-0321918949
  • ISBN-10: 0321918940

 

 

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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

Exam

 

Name                                                                           

 

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE.  Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

1) Immunity that results from antibodies that pass the placenta from mother to fetus is called                      1)

                 immunity.

  1. A) innate
  2. B) naturally acquired passive C) naturally acquired active D) passive
  3. E) auto

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

2) The attraction or repulsion of certain cells to chemicals in their environment is called                                 2)

  1. A) B) diapedesis.
  2. C) D) chemotaxis.
  3. E) immune surveil

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

3) The various classes of immunoglobulins are differentiated on the basis of their                                            3) A) light-chain variable segments.

  1. B) heavy-chain constant se C) asymmetry.
  2. D) antigen specif
  3. E) both light-chain variable segments and heavy-chain constant se Answer: B

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

4) Immunity that results from exposure to an antigen in the environment is called                                           4)

immunity.

  1. A) passive
  2. B) naturally acquired active C) natural acquired passive D) auto
  3. E) innate

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

5) Which of the following concerning Class I MHC proteins is false?                                                                   5)

  1. A) display abnormal peptides on the plasma membrane
  2. B) bind complement
  3. C) are found on all nucleated cells
  4. D) allow the body to differentiate its own cells from foreign cells
  5. E) function in antigen presentation

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

6) Lymphocytes are produced and stored in all of the following except                                                               6) A) the spleen.

  1. B) the C) the brain.
  2. D) lymphoid nodu E) lymph node organs.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

Figure 201

 

7) Identify the region labeled “5.”                                                                                                                                   7) A) germinal center

  1. B) medullary sinus
  2. C) deep cortex
  3. D) subscapular space
  4. E) trabecula

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

8) The white pulp of the spleen is populated by                                                                                                         8) A) lymphocytes.

  1. B) trabecula C) veins.
  2. D) fibrous connective tiss E) arteries.

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

9)                  cells provide cell-mediated immunity.                                                                                                   9) A) Cytotoxic T

  1. B) CD8 T
  2. C) Suppressor T D) Memory B
  3. E) CD4 T

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

Figure 201

 

10) Identify the dominant cell type in the area labeled “2.”                                                                                        10) A) T lymphocytes

  1. B) B cells
  2. C) erythrocytes
  3. D) NK cells
  4. E) monocytes

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

11) Immunity that is genetically determined and present at birth is called                  immunity.                       11) A) passive

  1. B) active
  2. C) natural passive
  3. D) innate
  4. E) auto

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

12) Immunoglobulins that are primarily found in glandular secretions such as mucus, saliva, and tears

are

  1. A) B) IgD.                        C) IgE.                        D) IgG.                        E) IgM. Answer:  A

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

12)

 

13) Lymph draining from your right shoulder flows into                                                                                          13)

  1. A) the thoracic B) the right lymphatic duct.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

B)

 

14) During a primary response to antigen exposure, all of the following occur except                                       14) A) the antigen must activate appropriate B cells.

  1. B) B cells may take time to develop into plasma cells and memory cell
  2. C) neutrophils invade the surrounding areas, releasing chemotactic substa D) antibody levels do not peak until 1 to 2 weeks after the initial exposure.
  3. E) the first immunoglobulins to appear in circulation are of the IgM type.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

15) When large numbers of antibodies encounter their antigenic targets, they interact to form a three-dimensional structure known as a(n)

  1. A) major histocompatibility complex. B) antigen-presenting cell.
  2. C) antigen-antibody compl D) immune complex.
  3. E) antigenic determinant site.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

16) The process by which antibodies bind to the antigen on the surface of cells, forming large immune complexes, is called

  1. A) antigen presentat B) agglutination.
  2. C) opsonizat D) neutralization. E) sensitization.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

15)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

16)

 

17) The cells directly responsible for cell-mediated immunity are the _               cells.                                        17)

  1. A) T B) plasma                   C) NK                         D) interferon              E) B

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

18) Immunoglobulins that attach to and sensitize mast cells and basophils are                                                    18) A) IgA.                        B) IgD.                        C) IgE.                        D) IgG.                        E) IgM.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

19) Lymphocyte production involves                                                                                                                              19) A) peripheral lymphoid tissues.

  1. B) bone mar C) thymus tissue.
  2. D) All of the answers are corre E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

20) The lobules of the thymus are divided by partitions called                                                                                 20) A) septa.

  1. B) trabecula C) sutures.
  2. D) fissure E) hilums.

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

21) Which of these statements about lymph flow in a node is false?                                                                       21) A) Lymph first enters the subcapsular space.

  1. B) Lymph flows past dendritic cell
  2. C) Lymph enters in an afferent l
  3. D) The afferent lymphatic enters at the hil E) The efferent lymphatic exits at the hilum.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

Figure 201

 

22) Identify the area where dividing lymphocytes are found.                                                                                   22) A) 5

  1. B) 4
  2. C) 2
  3. D) All of the answers are corre E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

23) The medullary sinus of a lymph node contains

  1. A) cytotoxic T B) medullary C) B
  2. D) helper T E) NK

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

_ lymphocytes and plasma cells.                           23)

 

24) B cells are primarily activated by the activities of                                                                                                  24)

  1. A) plasma cell B) macrophages. C) antibodies.
  2. D) antigens.
  3. E) helper T

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

25) The lymphocytes are most important in                                                                                                                  25) A) eliminating variations in the composition of interstitial fluid.

  1. B) transporting lipids from the digestive trac
  2. C) transporting gases to and away from lymph node D) helping maintain normal blood volume.
  3. E) fighting infecti

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

26) Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include                                                                                    26) A) epidermal layers.

  1. B) epithel
  2. C) sebaceous glands. D) m
  3. E) All of the answers are corre

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

27) Destruction of antigens or cell lysis can be caused by all of the following except                                          27) A) macrophages.

  1. B) antibody ac C) helper T cells.
  2. D) complement syste E) cytotoxic T cells.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

28) Cytotoxic T cells attack target cells by doing what?                                                                                               28) A) secreting free radicals

  1. B) secreting mutant proteins
  2. C) activating genes that trigger apoptosis
  3. D) secreting a strong acid
  4. E) secreting organic solvent

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

29) A substance that provokes an immune response is called a(n)                                                                           29) A) antigen.

  1. B) chemotoxi C) irritant.
  2. D) thymo
  3. E) complemen

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

30) The effects of activating the complement system include all of the following except                                    30) A) stimulation of inflammation.

  1. B) histamine
  2. C) enhanced
  3. D) destruction of target cell plasma membrane E) inhibition of the immune response.

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

31) Fever is the maintenance of body temperature higher than                                                                                 31) A) 37.2°C, or 99°F.

  1. B) 99°F.
  2. C) 32°C. D) 98.6°F.
  3. E) 32°C, or 98.6°F

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

32) Lymphocytes                                                                                                                                                                  32) A) are all actively phagocytic.

  1. B) decrease in number during infecti C) destroy red blood cells.
  2. D) respond to
  3. E) are primarily found in red bone

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

33) In general, lymphocytes                                                                                                                                               33) A) have one nucleus.

  1. B) have relatively long life span
  2. C) spend most of their time in lymphoid tissue. D) All of the answers are corre
  3. E) None of the answers is co

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

34) The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions except the                                                 34) A) left arm and shoulder.

  1. B) pelvic viscera. C) left brea
  2. D) left side of the neck. E) right breas

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

35) The merging of                _ forms the right lymphatic duct.                                                                                   35) A) the thoracic and mediastinal ducts

  1. B) the left jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
  2. C) the right jugular, right subclavian, and right bronchomediastinal trunks
  3. D) superior and inferior lymphatic ducts
  4. E) two great vessels

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

36) The cell that dominates the deep cortical region of a lymph node is the

cell.                                 36)

 

  1. A) B B) nodule                   C) plasma                   D) NK                          E) T Answer:  E

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

37) Lymphatic vessels are located in almost all portions of the body except the                                                   37) A) throat.

  1. B) groi C) CNS.
  2. D) renal arteri E) periphery.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

38) A crime scene investigator found that a biological fluid sample contains a large amount of

IgA-type antibody. This fluid is probably

  1. A) B) blood.
  2. C) interstiti D) tears.
  3. E)

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

38)

 

39) All of the following are true of the secondary response to antigen exposure except that it                          39) A) produces more IgG antibodies.

  1. B) results in much quicker rise in antibody
  2. C) weakens quickly because memory B cells only survive for a year or D) depends on memory B cells.
  3. E) results in much higher antibody titers than in the primary respon

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

40) Cells that help regulate the antibody-mediated immune response are                  cells.                                 40) A) cytotoxic T

  1. B) helper T C) NK
  2. D) B
  3. E) plasma

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

41) A test to measure the antibody level a blood sample is called a(n)                                                                    41) A) major histocompatibility complex.

  1. B) anaphylaxis tes
  2. C) secondary response . D) tite
  3. E) primary respons

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

42) Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following except that they                  42) A) are larger in diameter.

  1. B) are frequently irregular in C) are smaller in diameter.
  2. D) have walls of endothelial cells that overlap like shingle E) have no basement membrane.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

43) Areas of the spleen that contain large aggregations of lymphocytes are known as                                        43) A) adenoids.

  1. B) Peyer’s pa C) lymph nodes.
  2. D) red
  3. E) white pu

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

44) Lymphocytes that destroy foreign cells or virus-infected cells are                  cells.                                        44) A) plasma

  1. B) cytotoxic T C) B
  2. D) helper T
  3. E) suppressor T

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

45) Immunoglobulins that are found on the surface of B cells and may activate antibody production are     45) A) IgA.                        B) IgD.                        C) IgE.                        D) IgG.                        E) IgM.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

46) A sample of John’s blood shows a high level of pyrogens. This would indicate that John                            46) A) is running a fever.

  1. B) has swollen lymph node
  2. C) is producing T D) is feeling achy.
  3. E) has a sore throa

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

47) Stem cells that will form T cells develop in the                                                                                                      47) A) bone marrow.

  1. B) kid C) thymus. D) liver.
  2. E) s Answer: C

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

48) An inflammatory response is triggered when                                                                                                        48) A) T cells release interferon.

  1. B) mast cells release histamine and C) blood flow to an area increases.
  2. D) red blood cells release E) neutrophils phagocytize bacteria.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

49) The largest single collection of lymphoid tissue in the adult body is located in the                                       49) A) liver.

  1. B) s
  2. C) lymph nod D) tonsils.
  3. E)

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

50) Which class of leukocytes is particularly abundant in the red pulp of the spleen?                                         50) A) free and fixed macrophages

  1. B) red blood cells C) B lymphocytes D) neutrophils
  2. E) T lymphocytes

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

51) The primary function of the lymphatic system is                                                                                                  51) A) the production and distribution of plasma proteins.

  1. B) the transport of C) circulation of nutrients.
  2. D) defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threat
  3. E) both the transport of hormones and the production and distribution of plasma prote

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

52) The cells responsible for producing antibody molecules are

cells.                                                   52)

 

  1. A) liver B) NK                          C) thymus                  D) helper T                 E) plasma

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

53) The thymus produces several complementary hormones called                                                                        53) A) desmosomes.

  1. B) C) thymosins.
  2. D) catecholami
  3. E) immunoglobulins.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

54) What is perforin?                                                                                                                                                           54) A) a destructive enzyme secreted by sebaceous glands

  1. B) a toxin expressed by some pathogens that is capable of damaging healthy cells
  2. C) a type of antibody synthesized by B cells
  3. D) a type of interferon
  4. E) a protein produced by NK cells

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

55) Immunoglobulins, formed of five subunits, which are the first antibodies to be produced in response to infection are

  1. A) B) IgD.                        C) IgE.                        D) IgG.                        E) IgM. Answer:  E

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

55)

 

56) The thoracic duct originates from an expanded chamber called the                                                                  56)

  1. A)
  2. B) lymph
  3. C) bronchomediastinal D) azygos.
  4. E) cisterna c

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

57) The role of antigen-presenting cells in immunity is to                                                                                         57) A) activate T cells.

  1. B) process ant
  2. C) display antigen fragm
  3. D) All of the answers are corre E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

58)                  are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.                                       58) A) Tonsils

  1. B) Lymph nodes
  2. C) Immune complexes
  3. D) Spleens
  4. E) Peyer’s patches

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

59) In passive immunity, the                                                                                                                                             59) A) body is deliberately exposed to an antigen.

  1. B) body receives antibodies produced by other hum C) immune system attacks normal body cells.
  2. D) body receives antibodies produced by an
  3. E) body receives antibodies produced by other humans or the body receives antibodies produced by an ani

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

60) Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are                                                                           60) A) allergies.

  1. B) the result of str
  2. C) autoimmune disea D) signs of a weak system.
  3. E) immunodeficiency dis

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

61) T is to                   as B is to                  .                                                                                                                          61) A) thymus-dependent; bone marrow-derived

  1. B) non-thymus-dependent;bottom
  2. C) top; bottom
  3. D) thyroid; bowel
  4. E) None of the answers is co

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

62) Histamine increases blood flow and vascular permeability. This would account for all of the following changes that occur during inflammation except

  1. A) swelling of the inflamed tis B) heat of the inflamed tissue.
  2. C) chemotaxis of
  3. D) redness of the inflamed tiss
  4. E) movement of defense proteins and cells into the interstitial spac

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

62)

 

63) Class II MHC molecules are found only on which of the following?                                                                63)

  1. A) lymphocytes and antigen-presenting cells
  2. B) granulocytes and microphages
  3. C) red blood cells
  4. D) liver cells and macrophages in the spleen
  5. E) all body cells with a nucleus

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

64) The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes the disease known as AIDS, selectively

infects                  cells.

  1. A) plasma
  2. B) cytotoxic T C) helper T
  3. D) B
  4. E) suppressor T

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

64)

 

65) Which of the following is not a method in which antibodies work with features of innate immunity to destroy a pathogen?

  1. A) stimulating interferon production
  2. B) phagocyte attraction
  3. C) agglutination
  4. D) neutralization
  5. E) complement activation

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

65)

 

66) Plasma contains                  special complement proteins that form the complement system.                       66)

  1. A) 1-3
  2. B) 18-25
  3. C) 5
  4. D) fewer than 10
  5. E) more than 30

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

67)                  are clusters of lymphoid nodules deep to the epithelial lining of the small intestine.                  67) A) Lymph glands

  1. B) Tonsils
  2. C) Peyer’s patches
  3. D) Immune complexes
  4. E) Adenoids

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

68) The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the                  cells.                                                     68) A) NK

  1. B) B
  2. C) suppressor T D) helper T
  3. E) plasma

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

69) Each of the following is a physical barrier to infection except                                                                            69) A) complement.

  1. B) epitheliu
  2. C) basement membran D) secretions.
  3. E) body ha

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

70) Autoantibodies are                                                                                                                                                       70) A) the first step in immunological competence.

  1. B) produced by activated T cel
  2. C) important in tissue rejection reactions.
  3. D) directed against the body’s own antigen E) produced during an allergic reaction.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

71) The first line of cellular defense against pathogens are the                                                                                 71) A) T cells.

  1. B) B c
  2. C) plasma cell D) NK cells.
  3. E) pha

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

72) All of the following are true of the thymus gland except that it                                                                         72) A) produces T cells.

  1. B) lies in the anterior mediastinum.
  2. C) reaches its greatest relative size before pubert D) involutes after puberty.
  3. E) activates B

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

73)                  will develop when the immune response mistakenly targets normal body cells and tissues.

  1. A) Immunosuppression
  2. B) Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
  3. C) Anaphylaxis
  4. D) Autoimmune disorders
  5. E) Allergies

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

74) B cells prepare for activation by presenting an antigen bound to Class II MHC proteins in a process called

  1. A)
  2. B) differentiation. C) opsonizat D) sensitization.
  3. E) customizati

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

75) Antibodies may bind to superficial sites on bacteria or other toxins, making the toxin incapable of attaching itself to a cell. This mechanism is known as

  1. A) B) neutralization. C) opsonization. D) agglutination. E) costimulation.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

73)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

74)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

75)

 

76) The lymphatic system is composed of all of the following except                                                                      76) A) lymph nodes.

  1. B) lymphatic vessels. C) the venae ca
  2. D)
  3. E) the splee

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

77) The process by which the surface of a microorganism is covered with antibodies and complement,

rendering it more likely to be phagocytized, is called

  1. A) sens
  2. B) antigen presentat C) agglutination.
  3. D) opsonizat E) neutralization.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

78) If the thymus shrank and stopped functioning properly, we would expect to see an immediate decrease in the number of

  1. A) neutrop
  2. B) B C) T cells.
  3. D) NK ce
  4. E) NK cells and T

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

77)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

78)

 

79) Characteristics of specific defenses include                                                                                                             79) A) tolerance.

  1. B) specif C) memory. D) versatility.
  2. E) All of the answers are corre Answer: E

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

80) Lymph nodes range in diameter from                                                                                                                      80) A) 1 nm to 10 nm.

  1. B) 1 cm to 1
  2. C) 1 inch to 2 inche D) 1 cm to 25 cm.
  3. E) 1 mm to 25 m

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

81) When an antigen is bound to a Class II MHC protein, it can activate a(n) _               cell.                              81) A) CD4 T

  1. B) NK
  2. C) suppressor T D) cytotoxic T
  3. E) plasma

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

82) All of the following are true of the primary response to antigen exposure except that                                 82) A) circulating antibodies undergo a gradual, sustained rise.

  1. B) it peaks 1 to 2 weeks after the initial e C) it is delayed by the memory cell stage.
  2. D) it requires B cell differentiation into plasma
  3. E) it depends on antigen triggering the appropriate B cel

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

83) Nonspecific defenses include                                                                                                                                     83) A) inflammation.

  1. B)
  2. C) phagocytic D) physical barriers.
  3. E) All of the answers are corre

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

84) Leslie has a bad sore throat, and the lymph glands in her neck are swollen. This would indicate that     84) A) the lymph gland is actively producing phagocytes.

  1. B) the affected lymph glands contain an increased number of lymphocyt C) the lymph gland has increased its secretion of thymosin.
  2. D) lymph is not flowing through these lymph E) the focus of the infection is the lymph glands.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

85) Suppressor T cells act to                                                                                                                                              85) A) inhibit T and B cell activities.

  1. B) limit antigen proliferati
  2. C) produce antibodies involved in autoi D) suppress antigens.
  3. E) erase memory T

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

86) Helper T cells do all of the following except                                                                                                           86) A) enhance antibody-mediated immunity.

  1. B) enhance cell-mediatedimmuni
  2. C) activate sensitized B cells by costimulation.
  3. D) secrete cytokines to stimulate production of plasma E) destroy target cells using perforins.

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

87) The body’s nonspecific defenses include all of the following except                                                                 87) A) inflammation.

  1. B) the sk
  2. C) interf
  3. D) B and T cell E) complement.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

88) Immunoglobulins that are most abundant and are responsible for resistance against many viruses,

bacteria, and bacterial toxins are

  1. A) B) IgD.                        C) IgE.                        D) IgG.                        E) IgM. Answer:  D

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

88)

 

89)                  are connective tissues dominated by lymphocytes.                                                                              89)

  1. A) Dendritic cells
  2. B) Palatine tonsils
  3. C) Lymphoid tissues
  4. D) Afferent lymphatics
  5. E) None of the answers is co

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

90) Lymph nodes do all of the following except                                                                                                           90) A) detect pathogens.

  1. B) monitor the contents of C) produce antibodies.
  2. D) remove debris and pathogens from the lymph. E) remove excess nutrients from the lym

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

91)                  exists when the immune system does not respond to a particular antigen.                                    91) A) Specificity

  1. B) Versatility
  2. C) Allergy
  3. D) Hypersensitivity
  4. E) Tolerance

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

Figure 201

 

92) Identify the structure labeled “1.”                                                                                                                              92) A) venule

  1. B) afferent lymphatic
  2. C) trabecula
  3. D) lymphatic nodule
  4. E) efferent lymphatic

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

93) The binding of an antigen to an antibody can result in                                                                                        93) A) complement activation and opsonization.

  1. B) agglutination or precipitatio C) neutralization of the antigen. D) All of the answers are correct.
  2. E) None of the answers is co Answer: D

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

94) Lymphatic vessels commonly occur in association with                                                                                      94) A) sensory nerve endings.

  1. B) blood C) adipose tissue.
  2. D) hyaline
  3. E) both hyaline cartilage and adipose tiss

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

95) An allergen circulating in the bloodstream affects mast cells throughout the body, dropping blood

pressure to dangerously low levels. This response is termed

  1. A) asthm
  2. B) anaphylactic C) hypersensitivity.
  3. D) allergic rhini E) allergy.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

95)

 

96) In opsonization,                                                                                                                                                             96)

  1. A) antigens bind to antibodies to become antigen-antibody complexe B) antibodies tie many antigens together.
  2. C) a pathogen is coated by proteins to facilitate its destruction by neutrophils and macrophage D) MHC II glycoproteins display a fragment of an alien cell.
  3. E) the cell wall of a pathogen is breached, leading to death of the cell.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

97)                  cells enable the immune system to respond quickly and robustly if the same antigen is encountered a second time.

  1. A) Plasma
  2. B) Suppressor
  3. C) Memory
  4. D) IgM
  5. E) Dendritic

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

98) Interferons are released by some macrophages and lymphocytes, but also by cells carrying what pathogen?

  1. A) viruses B) bacteria C) parasites
  2. D) spirochetes
  3. E) prions

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

97)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

98)

 

Figure 201

 

99) Identify the structures labeled “4.”                                                                                                                             99) A) lymphatic vessels

  1. B) dendritic cells
  2. C) medullae D) trabeculae E) venules

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

100) An antibody binds to an antigen at a specific area called the                                                                              100) A) antigen binding site.

  1. B) antigenic determinant site. C) hapte
  2. D) antigen-antibody compl E) constant segment.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

101) After puberty, the thymus gradually shrinks and becomes more fibrous, in a process called                     101) A) necrosis.

  1. B) atrop
  2. C) involutio
  3. D) diminishmen E) conversion.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

102) Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way?                                                                           102) A) They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not.

  1. B) They are found in the digestive tract and lymphoid tissues are found in the thora C) They contain T lymphocytes and lymphoid tissues do not.
  2. D) They cannot produce antibodies, whereas lymphoid tissues E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

103) Defense of the body against a particular pathogen is provided by                                                                    103) A) skin defenses.

  1. B) specific immunit
  2. C) nonspecific immunity. D) feve
  3. E) immunological surveillance.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

104) The site on an antibody that is specifically tailored to fit a specific antigen is called the                               104) A) light chain.

  1. B)
  2. C) variable segm D) constant segment. E) heavy chain.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

105) In response to tissue damage and infection, circulating proteins called pyrogens                                          105) A) cause inflammation.

  1. B) produce a
  2. C) activate antibodie D) opsonize pathogens. E) activate complement.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

106) Adaptive immunity is the result of the actions of                                                                                                  106) A) interferons.

  1. B) antigen-antibody complexe C) NK cells.
  2. D) mast ce
  3. E) T and B cell

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

Figure 201

 

107) Identify the structure labeled “3.”                                                                                                                              107) A) outer cortex

  1. B) efferent lymphatic
  2. C) medulla
  3. D) hilum
  4. E) afferent lymphatic

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

108) T cells release cytokines to stimulate the activation of                                                                                          108) A) APCs.

  1. B) plasma cell C) antibodies.
  2. D) B c
  3. E) immunoglobulins.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

109) Before specific defenses are activated, most antigens must                                                                                 109) A) infect cells.

  1. B) depolarize the lymp
  2. C) bind to the DNA of the lymphocyt D) be processed by a phagocyte.
  3. E) either infect cells or be processed by a

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

110) Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the                                                                   110) A) cisterna chyli.

  1. B) thoracic C) dural sinus.
  2. D) right lymphatic E) hepatic portal vein.

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

111) The movement of phagocytes through the capillary wall is called                                                                    111) A) phagocytosis.

  1. B) C) diapedesis. D) involution. E) chemotaxis.

Answer:  C Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

112) The cells responsible for antibody-mediated immunity are the _               cells.                                             112) A) cytotoxic T

  1. B) suppressor T C) NK
  2. D) B
  3. E) helper T

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

113) The classic pathway of complement activation begins when the complement protein binds to                  113) A) a plasma protein.

  1. B) an antibody attached to an antig C) the plasma membrane of bacteria. D) the cell wall of bacteria.
  2. E) a cell surface Answer: B

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

114) Which of the following statements regarding lymph is false?                                                                            114) A) Lymphatic vessels have valves to direct fluid flow.

  1. B) Lacteals are prominent lymphatic vessels in the cardiopulmonary sys C) Lymphatic capillaries have little or no basement membrane.
  2. D) Lymph derives from interstitial fluid.
  3. E) Lymphatic capillaries have larger diameters than that of blood capillari

Answer:  B Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

115) Infection with the HIV virus occurs through                                                                                                          115) A) intimate contact with an infected person’s body fluids.

  1. B) sharing clothes with an infected individual. C) airborne droplets from coughs and D) eating contaminated food.
  2. E) casual contact with an infected individu Answer: A

Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

116) Inflammation produces localized                                                                                                                              116) A) heat.

  1. B) p
  2. C) D) swelling.
  3. E) All of the answers are corre

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

117) In an experimental situation, a rabbit is exposed to a viral antigen to which it makes antibodies.

These antibodies are then purified and injected into a human with the same viral disease. This is an

example of

  1. A) innate immuni
  2. B) active immunization. C) natural immuni
  3. D) passive E) alloimmunity.

Answer:  D Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

117)

 

118) Various types of macrophages are derived from                                                                                                   118)

  1. A) eosinophil B) basophils.
  2. C) D) neutrophils. E) monocytes.

Answer:  E Explanation:      A)

  1. B) C) D) E)

 

ESSAY.  Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

 

119) List and briefly describe the components of the lymphatic system.

Answer:  The lymphatic system consists of (1) lymph, a fluid that resembles plasma but contains a much lower concentration of suspended proteins; (2) a network of lymphatic vessels, often called lymphatics, which begin in peripheral tissues and end at connections to veins; (3) an array of lymphoid tissues and lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus scattered throughout the body; and (4) lymphocytes and smaller numbers of phagocytes and other cells such as dendritic cells. The lymphatic system is organized to provide specific defenses against a wide array of biological hazards and diseases.

 

120) List and briefly describe the four general properties of immunity.

Answer:  (1) Specificity: The immune response is triggered by a specific antigen and defends against only that antigen. (2) Versatility: The immune system can differentiate among hundreds of millions of antigens that it might encounter during a normal lifetime. (3) Memory: The immune response following the second exposure to a particular antigen is stronger and lasts longer than before. (4) Tolerance: Some antigens, such as those on your own cells, do not elicit an immune response.

 

121) Explain how an NK cell would destroy a cancer cell. Identify the portion of the NK cell that plays a key role in this abnormal-cell destruction.

Answer:  Step 1: A cell may have unusual components in its plasma membrane and the NK cell recognizes that cell as abnormal. This recognition activates the NK cell, which then adheres to its target cell. Step 2: The Golgi apparatus moves around the nucleus until the maturing face points directly toward the abnormal cell. A flood of secretory vesicles is then produced at the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles, which contain proteins called perforins, travel through the cytoplasm toward the cell surface. Step 3: The perforins are released

at the cell surface by exocytosis and diffuse across the narrow gap separating the NK cell from its target.

Step 4: As a result of the pores made by perforin molecules, the target cell can no longer maintain its internal environment, and it quickly disintegrates.

 

122) What is MALT? What role does it play in the body’s defenses?

Answer:  MALT is an acronym for mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue. It consists of aggregated lymphoid nodules deep to the mucosa (gut lining) of the digestive system. Examples include Peyer’s patches in the small intestine and the vermiform appendix that is attached where the small intestine joins the large intestine. These lymphocytes are positioned to detect and neutralize pathogens to enter the body across the digestive mucosa. Beside these specific defenses, there is also mucus and other protective secretions.

 

123) You are a researcher interested in studying the cytoskeleton. How can you use antibodies to locate actin- and tubulin-containing structures?

Answer:  Since those cytoskeletal components are proteins, it is possible to immunize an animal with foreign proteins isolated from tissues. For example, a rabbit could be immunized with the actin and tubulin purified from tissues of the chicken, a very distant relative of the rabbit. Those antibodies could be purified from the rabbit’s blood and then linked to fluorescent tags. When the cells are exposed to the anti-actin and anti-tubulin antibodies, they will stick to those molecules in the cell. If different colored dyes were used to tag the antibodies, it would be possible to localize those cytoskeletal proteins in the same cell.

 

Answer Key

Testname: C20

 

 

 

1) B

2) D

3) B

4) B

5) B

6) C

7) A

8) A

9) B

10) B

11) D

12) A

13) B

14) C

15) D

16) B

17) A

18) C

19) D

20) A

21) D

22) A

23) C

24) E

25) E

26) E

27) C

28) C

29) A

30) E

31) A

32) D

33) D

34) E

35) C

36) E

37) C

38) D

39) C

40) B

41) D

42) C

43) E

44) B

45) B

46) A

47) C

48) B

49) B

50) A

 

Answer Key

Testname: C20

 

 

 

51) D

52) E

53) C

54) E

55) E

56) E

57) D

58) A

59) E

60) A

61) A

62) C

63) A

64) C

65) A

66) E

67) C

68) A

69) A

70) D

71) E

72) E

73) D

74) D

75) B

76) C

77) D

78) C

79) E

80) E

81) A

82) C

83) E

84) B

85) A

86) E

87) D

88) D

89) C

90) E

91) E

92) E

93) D

94) B

95) B

96) C

97) C

98) A

99) D

100) B

 

Answer Key

Testname: C20

 

 

 

101) C

102) A

103) B

104) C

105) B

106) E

107) E

108) D

109) E

110) B

111) C

112) D

113) B

114) B

115) A

116) E

117) D

118) E

119) The lymphatic system consists of (1) lymph, a fluid that resembles plasma but contains a much lower concentration of suspended proteins; (2) a network of lymphatic vessels, often called lymphatics, which begin in peripheral tissues and end at connections to veins; (3) an array of lymphoid tissues and lymphoid organs such as lymph nodes, spleen, and thymus scattered throughout the body; and (4) lymphocytes and smaller numbers of phagocytes and other cells such as dendritic cells. The lymphatic system is organized to provide specific defenses against a wide array of biological hazards and diseases.

120) (1) Specificity: The immune response is triggered by a specific antigen and defends against only that antigen. (2) Versatility: The immune system can differentiate among hundreds of millions of antigens that it might encounter during a normal lifetime. (3) Memory: The immune response following the second exposure to a particular antigen is stronger and lasts longer than before. (4) Tolerance: Some antigens, such as those on your own cells, do not elicit an immune response.

121) Step 1: A cell may have unusual components in its plasma membrane and the NK cell recognizes that cell as abnormal.

This recognition activates the NK cell, which then adheres to its target cell. Step 2: The Golgi apparatus moves around

the nucleus until the maturing face points directly toward the abnormal cell. A flood of secretory vesicles is then produced at the Golgi apparatus. These vesicles, which contain proteins called perforins, travel through the cytoplasm toward the cell surface. Step 3: The perforins are released at the cell surface by exocytosis and diffuse across the narrow gap separating the NK cell from its target. Step 4: As a result of the pores made by perforin molecules, the target cell

can no longer maintain its internal environment, and it quickly disintegrates.

122) MALT is an acronym for mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue. It consists of aggregated lymphoid nodules deep to the mucosa (gut lining) of the digestive system. Examples include Peyer’s patches in the small intestine and the vermiform appendix that is attached where the small intestine joins the large intestine. These lymphocytes are positioned to detect and neutralize pathogens to enter the body across the digestive mucosa. Beside these specific defenses, there is also mucus and other protective secretions.

123) Since those cytoskeletal components are proteins, it is possible to immunize an animal with foreign proteins isolated from tissues. For example, a rabbit could be immunized with the actin and tubulin purified from tissues of the chicken, a very distant relative of the rabbit. Those antibodies could be purified from the rabbit’s blood and then linked to fluorescent tags. When the cells are exposed to the anti-actin and anti-tubulin antibodies, they will stick to those molecules in the cell. If different colored dyes were used to tag the antibodies, it would be possible to localize those cytoskeletal proteins in the same cell.