Visual Essentials of Anatomy and Physiology 1st Edition Martini Ober Bartholomew Nath Instructors Manual
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The Urinary System and Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
Introduction to the Chapter
Considering that micturition (the voiding of urine) is one of the most conspicuous functions performed by our bodies, it is perhaps surprising that most students enter class with only a vague notion of how urine is created. The ideas students do have might include numerous misconceptions. Some students might envision a direct link between the digestive and urinary systems, and might not even think of the kidneys in relation to urine until explicitly prompt- ed. In general, the sources of the materials found in urine and the steps leading to the final composition of urine can be quite difficult for students to grasp and put into context with their (often incorrect) preconceptions. Beyond the fact that students should be curious about what their urine is and where it comes from, the instructor can also help students see the critical importance of the kidneys to every other organ and cell in the body. Diminished kidney func- tion can have fast and dramatic effects on the other organ systems. Similarly, nearly every other organ system impacts body fluid volume and composition in some way. In short, stu- dents should come to recognize the kidneys as more than simple instruments of urine move- ment and disposal. This subject matter also touches on a variety of applied issues that impact daily decisions. How do our bodies react to dehydration and an “overdose” of water? Why is kidney failure the main cause of some forms of high blood pressure? How much water should we drink each day? When would it help us to drink water with added supplements or sports drinks? Why does the composition of our body fluids change if we are upset and hyperventi- lating? The following sections include recommendations on incorporating these and some other applied questions into discussions of Chapter 17.
Chapter Learning Outcomes
17.1 Describe the location and structural features of the kidneys.
17.2 Describe the structure of the nephron, cite the functions of each nephron region, and outline the processes involved in forming urine.
17.3 Trace the pathway of blood flow through a kidney, and compare the pattern of blood flow in cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons.
17.4 Discuss filtration, reabsorption, and secretion at each region of the nephron and collect- ing system, and describe the structures and functions of the renal corpuscle.
17.5 Describe how antidiuretic hormone (ADH) influences the volume and concentration of urine.