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Visualizing Nutrition 2nd Edition Grosvenor Smolin Test Bank

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Visualizing Nutrition 2nd Edition Grosvenor Smolin Test Bank

ISBN:

1118013808

ISBN-13:

9781118013809

 

Description

Visualizing Nutrition 2nd Edition Grosvenor Smolin Test Bank

ISBN:

1118013808

ISBN-13:

9781118013809

 

 

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Below you will find some free nursing test bank questions from this test bank:

 

Package Title: Test Bank

Course Title: GVN2e

Chapter Number: 7

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) Which of the following MyPlate food group is the richest source of vitamin D?

 

  1. a) Dairy
  2. b) Fruits
  3. c) Grains
  4. d) Protein

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

2) All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of vitamin B12 except for the _____ group.

 

  1. a) Dairy.
  2. b) Fruits.
  3. c) Protein.
  4. d) All of these are good sources of vitamin B12.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

3) All of the following MyPlate food groups are good sources of folate except for the _____ group.

 

  1. a) Dairy
  2. b) Fruits
  3. c) Grains
  4. d) Vegetables

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

4) Vegetable oils, such as peanut, cotton, and corn oils, are good sources of vitamin E.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

5)The best food sources of vitamin K are found in the MyPlate Protein and Vegetables food groups.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

6) Almost all foods contain some vitamins, and all the food groups contain foods that are good sources of a variety of vitamins.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

7) Not all fortification is mandated by the government.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

8) The amount of a particular vitamin in a food depends on all of the following EXCEPT

 

  1. a) how much of the food is consumed.
  2. b) how the food is cooked.
  3. c) how the food is stored.
  4. d) what is added to the food during processing.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.1 Discuss the dietary sources of vitamins.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

9) Brian’s need for a vitamin is 100 milligrams each day. The bioavailability of this vitamin is 35%. This means that Brian needs to consume _____ milligrams each day for this vitamin to meet his needs.

 

  1. a) 65
  2. b) 100
  3. c) 135
  4. d) 170

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

10) For vitamins X and Y, the daily needs are 140 milligrams. The bioavailability of vitamin X is 45% and for vitamin Y is 20%. Which of the following statements is correct?

 

  1. a) Daily intake for vitamin X is higher than vitamin Y.
  2. b) Daily intake for vitamin Y is higher than vitamin X.
  3. c) Daily intake for vitamin X is the same as vitamin Y.
  4. d) None of these statements are true.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

11) If the diet is chronically low in fat-soluble vitamins, the bioavailability of which vitamins will be impacted most?

 

  1. a) Folate and vitamin B12
  2. b) Thiamin and riboflavin
  3. c) Vitamins A and D
  4. d) Vitamins C and E

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

12) Most of the water-soluble vitamins are bound to blood proteins for transport.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

13) Vitamin A is incorporated into chylomicrons for transport from the intestine.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

14) Which of the following statements is true regarding this organ?

  1. a) It releases bile to aid in the absorption of fat-soluble nutrients.
  2. b) Some niacin is absorbed here.
  3. c) It secretes digestive enzymes that aid in the release of vitamins from the food.
  4. d) The bacteria here synthesize small amounts of vitamin B12.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

15) Which of the following statements is true regarding this structure?

  1. a) Vitamin E would be incorporated into this micelle for transport to the brush border.
  2. b) Niacin would be incorporated into this chylomicron for absorption into the blood capillary.
  3. c) Vitamin A would be incorporated into this chylomicron for transport to the microvilli.
  4. d) None of these statements are true regarding the highlighted structure.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

16) Summarize the absorptive activities of this structure.

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.2 Describe how bioavailability affects vitamin requirements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

Solution: Water-soluble vitamins are absorbed from the small intestine directly into the blood. Many depend on energy-requiring transport systems or must bind to specific molecules in the GI tract to be absorbed.  Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the lower portion of the small intestine.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

17) Coenzymes bind to enzymes to promote their activity.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

18) All the B vitamins are coenzymes.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

19) Which of the following vitamins have a coenzyme form?

 

  1. a) Niacin
  2. b) Vitamin A
  3. c) Vitamin D
  4. d) Vitamin K

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

20) Coenzymes are essential for the proper functioning of numerous hormones involved in metabolism.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.3 Explain the function of coenzymes.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

21) Which of the following is/are antioxidants?

 

  1. a) Vitamin C.
  2. b) Vitamin E.
  3. c) Selenium.
  4. d) All of these nutrients serve as antioxidants.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

22) An antioxidant is a substance that protects against oxidative damage.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

23) Antioxidants act by enhancing the formation of free radicals.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

24) Which of the following vitamins must be included on the food label?

 

  1. a) Niacin and thiamin
  2. b) Riboflavin and iron
  3. c) Vitamins A and C
  4. d) Vitamins A and D

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.1 Describe sources of vitamins in food.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.1.4 Describe the function of antioxidants.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.1 A Vitamin Primer.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

25) Vitamins C and D are directly involved in converting the energy in carbohydrate and fat into ATP.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

26) Because fat-soluble vitamins are not stored in the body to any great extent, deficiency symptoms are quick to appear.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

27) Mary needs to increase her thiamin consumption.  Which of the following contains the most thiamin?

 

  1. a) ¼ c sunflower seeds
  2. b) 3 oz pork chop
  3. c) 3 oz rainbow trout
  4. d) 1 c oatmeal

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

28) Clare reads on the food label that the pizza contains enriched flour.  Which of the following nutrients are added back to the flour in the enrichment process?

 

  1. a) calcium
  2. b) folate
  3. c) thiamin
  4. d) Vitamin C

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

29) The active ______ coenzyme is needed to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA.

  1. a) folate
  2. b) niacin
  3. c) riboflavin
  4. d) thiamin

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

30) Which of the following statements regarding thiamin is true?

 

  1. a) Alcoholics are particularly susceptible to thiamin deficiency because thiamin absorption is decreased due to the effect the alcohol has the GI tract.
  2. b) Beriberi is quite common in the S.
  3. c) Increasing thiamin intake increases the body’s ability to produce ATP.
  4. d) Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a thiamin toxicity.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

31) One of the best sources of riboflavin in the diet is milk.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

32) An adequate consumption of riboflavin is crucial for the conversion of several other vitamins.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

33) Which of the following is NOT a symptom of pellagra?

 

  1. a) dementia
  2. b) dermatitis
  3. c) diabetes
  4. d) diarrhea

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

34) Niacin is synthesized in the body from the amino acid

 

  1. a) alanine.
  2. b) leucine.
  3. c) riboflavin.
  4. d) tryptophan.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

35) Which of the following are good sources of niacin?

 

  1. a) chicken and trout
  2. b) kiwi and apples
  3. c) corn and oatmeal
  4. d) orange juice and spinach

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

36) Niacin supplementation can be toxic.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

37) Raw egg whites contain the protein avidin that binds biotin and prevents its absorption.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

38) The wide distribution of pantothenic acid in foods makes deficiency rare in humans.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

39) Pantothenic acid is needed for the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and amino acids.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.1 Discuss the role of thiamin, riboflavin, and niacin for producing ATP.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

40) Vitamin ___ is important for amino acid synthesis and protein metabolism.

 

  1. a) B2
  2. b) B6
  3. c) C
  4. d) B12

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

41) Which of the following is not a function of vitamin B6?

 

  1. a) Synthesis of hemoglobin
  2. b) Synthesis of the myelin sheath
  3. c) Synthesis of collagen
  4. d) Transamination and deamination

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

42) Based on the content in this visual, identify each of the three labeled parts in A:B:C order.

  1. a) cysteine: homocysteine: methionine
  2. b) homocysteine: cysteine: methionine
  3. c) methionine: homocysteine: cysteine
  4. d) methionine: cysteine: homocysteine

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

43) High levels of homocysteine in the blood increases cardiovascular risk.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

44) Vitamin B6 is needed for transamination and deamination reactions, and to remove the acid group from amino acids, as illustrated in the figure provided. What is the significance of each of these types of reactions?

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.2 Explain why vitamin B6 is so important for protein metabolism.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Solution: a transamination reactions – synthesize nonessential amino acids by transferring an amino group to a carbon compound, b deamination reactions – remove the amino group from amino acids so that the remaining carbon compound can be used to provide energy or synthesize glucose, c remove acid group – B6 removes the acid group from amino acids so that the remaining molecule can be used to synthesize neurotransmitters.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

45) The best food sources for folate and for vitamin B12 are fresh fruits and vegetables.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

46) Vitamin B12 deficiency is particularly problematic because

 

  1. a) it causes irreversible brain damage.
  2. b) it causes microcytic anemia.
  3. c) it prevents folate from being converted to one of its active forms.
  4. d) its UL is set too high.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

47) Low maternal folate intake increases the risk of birth defects called neural tube defects.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

48) Folate coenzymes are needed for the

 

  1. a) synthesis of collagen.
  2. b) synthesis of RNA.
  3. c) metabolism of some vitamins.
  4. d) synthesis of DNA and metabolism of some amino acids.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

49) Folate deficiency can lead to macrocytic or megablastic anemia.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

50) Which of the following populations is not at increased risk of folate deficiency?

 

  1. a) The elderly
  2. b) Non-smoking teenage males
  3. c) Pregnant women
  4. d) Alcoholics

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

51) Megaloblastic anemia is a reduction in the blood’s capacity to carry oxygen that is characterized by abnormally large immature and mature red blood cells.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

52) The Intrinsic Factor is necessary for the absorption of which B vitamin?

 

  1. a) Folate
  2. b) Niacin
  3. c) Riboflavin
  4. d) Vitamin B12

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

53) Based on the information depicted in this visual, describe how a deficiency or toxicity of either folate or vitamin B12 can affect the functionality of the other.

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Solution: Vitamin B12 deficiency prevents folate from being converted into one of its active forms, so vitamin B12 deficiency causes folate to also be deficient.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

54) Which of the following statements regarding vitamin B12 is false?

 

  1. a) Vitamin B12 is synthesized by the microflora in the large intestine.
  2. b) Vitamin B12 is absorbed in the duodenum section of the small intestine.
  3. c) Vitamin B12 needs the Intrinsic Factor to be absorbed.
  4. d) The body stores and reuses vitamin B12 more efficiently than it does most other water-soluble vitamins.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

55) Which of the following MyPlate food groups is the richest in vitamin B12?

 

  1. a) Fruits
  2. b) Grains
  3. c) Protein
  4. d) Vegetables

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.3 Compare the functions of folate and vitamin B12.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

56) When Vitamin C intake is below 10 mg per day, the symptoms of _______ begin to appear.

 

  1. a) beriberi
  2. b) pellagra
  3. c) rickets
  4. d) scurvy

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

57) A family member has been taking Vitamin C supplements, but is now wondering if he should continue to spend money on these supplements. What have you learned about Vitamin C that might help them with an evidence-based decision?

 

  1. a) Excessive supplementation can cause dementia.
  2. b) Vitamin C is known to prevent the common cold.
  3. c) Excessive supplementation can interfere with drugs prescribed to prevent blood clotting.
  4. d) Excessive supplementation can cause diarrhea and can interfere with drugs prescribed to slow blood clotting.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

58) The symptoms of vitamin C deficiency include gums that swell and bleed. Why does this occur?

 

  1. a) The lack of vitamin C allows bacteria in the mouth to irritate the gums.
  2. b) The lack of vitamin C decreases the pH of the mouth.
  3. c) There is reduced collagen synthesis.
  4. d) There is increased plaque formation around the gums.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

59) Collagen is a __________. Vitamin C is necessary to form ___________ that hold adjacent collagen strands together and give the protein_________.

 

  1. a) mineral, muscle, strength
  2. b) protein, muscle, structure
  3. c) protein, bonds, strength
  4. d) vitamin, muscle, structure

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

60) Vitamin C is best known for its role in the synthesis and maintenance of collagen. What is collagen? How does vitamin C’s role in collagen related to the symptoms of scurvy?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.2 Discuss the functions of water-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.2.4 Relate the role of vitamin C in the body to symptoms of scurvy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.2 The Water-Soluble Vitamins.

Solution: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body, and can be thought of as the glue that holds the body together. It forms the basis of all connective tissue, the framework for bones and teeth, and is the main component of scars that bind a wound together. Scurvy is a vitamin C deficiency disease that is characterized by        bleeding gums, tooth loss, joint pain, and bleeding into the skin and mucous          membrane. These symptoms occur because collagen is not being synthesized.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

61) Cells that are deficient in vitamin A become hard and dry because they produce _______, a protein.

 

  1. a) retinal
  2. b) opsin
  3. c) keratin
  4. d) xerophthin

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

62) The process whereby immature cells change in structure and function to become specialized is called

 

  1. a) cell differentiation.
  2. b) gene expression.
  3. c) night blindness.
  4. d) rhodopsin.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

63) Vitamin A deficiency can result in permanent blindness, as illustrated in this picture. Discuss blindness from vitamin A deficiency occurs in the context of vitamin A’s role in tissue formation. Use the following terms in your answer: epithelial tissue, mucus, differentiation, keratin, and a definition of xerophthalmia.

Photo credit: ISM/Phototake

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

Solution: Vitamin A is necessary for the maintenance of epithelial tissues that line the eyes. The lining of the eye normally contains cells that secrete mucus, which lubricate the eye. When these cells die, immature cells differentiate to become new mucus-secreting cells that replace the dead ones. Without vitamin A, the immature cells cannot differentiate normally, and instead of forming mucus-secreting cells, they become cells that produce a hard protein called keratin. This results in the surface of the eye becoming dry and cloudy called xerophthalmia. As xerophthalmia        progresses, the drying of the cornea results in ulceration and infection, causing irreversible damage to the eye that results in permanent blindness.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

64) Preformed vitamin A includes beta-carotene.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

65) Which of the following statements regarding vitamin A is FALSE?

 

  1. a) Protein and zinc status are important for healthy vitamin A status.
  2. b) Beta-carotene is the most potent vitamin A precursor.
  3. c) Pepsin is necessary to release the vitamin A from protein-based sources.
  4. d) Worldwide, vitamin A deficiency is rare.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

66) This visual represents a toxicity of ______ leading the toxicity disease _______.

Photo credit: A Mazzone and A. Dal Canton, The New England Journal of Medicine, 2002; 347-222-223

  1. a) beta-carotene, hypercarotenemia
  2. b) niacin, pellagra
  3. c) vitamin A, xerophthalmia
  4. d) vitamin D, rickets

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.1 Explain the role of vitamin A in keeping eyes healthy.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

67) Vitamin D deficiency can result in bone deformation in children, as illustrated in this picture. What is the name of the vitamin D deficiency when it occurs in children? What are the physical characteristics? What is the name of the vitamin D deficiency when it occurs in adults? What are the physical characteristics? Why are the physical characteristics different for children as compared to adults?

Photo credit: Rafiqur Rahman/REUTERS/Landov

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

Solution: Rickets is the vitamin D deficiency disease in children, which is characterized by poor bone development (bones are soft), causing short stature and bone deformities. Bowed legs occur because the bones are too weak to support the body. Osteomalacia is the vitamin D deficiency disease in adults. Osteomalacia does not cause bone deformities because adults are no longer growing, but rather bones are weakened because not enough calcium is available to form the mineral deposits needed to maintain healthy bone. Insufficient bone mineralization leads to fractures of the weight-bearing bones (hips, spine) in adults.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

68) Vitamin D deficiency disease in children is called

 

  1. a) osteopenia.
  2. b) osteoporosis.
  3. c) osteomalacia.
  4. d) rickets.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

69) Active ________ is required to maintain normal blood calcium and phosphorus levels.

 

  1. a) Vitamin A
  2. b) Vitamin E
  3. c) Vitamin C
  4. d) Vitamin D

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

70) Based on the visual, what effect does active vitamin D have at the small intestine level?

  1. a) Active vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium and phosphorus.
  2. b) Active vitamin D stimulates calcium retention.
  3. c) Inactive vitamin D is activated.
  4. d) Inactive vitamin D releases calcium and phosphorus into the blood.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

71) When vitamin D is deficient, calcium absorption is greatly affected.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

72) The parathyroid hormone is released to decrease blood calcium levels.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

73) If you spend too much time in the sun, your body can reach toxic levels of vitamin D.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.2 Relate the functions of vitamin D to the symptoms that occur when it is deficient in the body.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

74) Vitamin E protects membranes in red blood cells, white blood cells, nerve cells, and lung cells. Why are these cells in particular in need of high amounts of vitamin E?

 

  1. a) All of these cells are important in fighting infections
  2. b) Oxygen concentrations in these cells are high
  3. c) These cells have an especially high energy need
  4. d) Lipid concentrations in these cells are high

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

75) In its role as an antioxidant, _____ guards cell membranes, body proteins, DNA, and cholesterol, and thus helps prevent heart disease, cancer, macular degeneration, and other chronic diseases.

 

  1. a) thiamin
  2. b) vitamin D
  3. c) Vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin K

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

76) Premature infants are at a higher risk of vitamin E deficiency than full-term babies.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.3 Describe the function of vitamin E.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

77) With a severe deficiency of _______, even a bruise or small scratch could cause you to bleed to death.

 

  1. a) Vitamin D
  2. b) Vitamin K
  3. c) Vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin A

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

78) _______is the major symptom of Vitamin K deficiency.

 

  1. a) Abnormal blood coagulation
  2. b) Anemia
  3. c) Night blindness
  4. d) Rickets

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

79) Vitamin K is used more rapidly than other fat-soluble vitamins, so a constant supply is necessary.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

80) To ensure normal blood clotting, newborn babies are typically given a vitamin K injection.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.3 Discuss the functions of fat-soluble vitamins, classifying deficiency and toxicity symptoms.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.3.4 Discuss how vitamins K is involved in blood clotting.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.3 The Fat-Soluble Vitamins.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

81) Of the following dieters, who would benefit the most from taking a multivitamin/multimineral supplement?

 

  1. a) Robert, who has switched from whole milk to skim milk
  2. b) Robyn, who is on a diet that provides 1800 calories per day
  3. c) Andrew, who is taking the diet supplement Alli with meals
  4. d) Shaundra, who is on a diet that provides 1200 calories per day

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

82) The best way to ensure that you meet your nutrient needs without taking a dietary supplement is to

 

  1. a) choose foods that are convenient and tasty.
  2. b) choose low-nutrient-dense foods daily.
  3. c) eat a very low calorie, high fiber diet.
  4. d) eat a variety of foods daily.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

83) Supplements of which of the following nutrients may be needed by older adults?

 

  1. a) Iron and folic acid
  2. b) Fluoride and vitamin D
  3. c) Vitamin C and vitamin E
  4. d) Vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

84) Women of childbearing age should consume _____ daily from fortified foods or supplements.

 

  1. a) Folic acid
  2. b) Vitamin D
  3. c) Iron
  4. d) Calcium

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

85) Which of the following is not a good reason why some people may need to take supplements to meet certain nutrient needs?

 

  1. a) excess nutrient losses.
  2. b) increased nutrient needs.
  3. c) low nutrient intakes.
  4. d) to be free from worry about their food choices.

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

86) Dietary supplements provide energy, protein, minerals, and phytochemicals in addition to vitamins.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

87) There are no known risks to taking dietary supplements.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

88) Smokers have higher vitamin C needs than nonsmokers.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

89) Before taking medicinal herbs one should consult with a medical doctor to be sure there are no known food and drug interactions.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

90) Dietary supplements have regulations that are _____strict as compared to drugs.

 

  1. a) Less
  2. b) Equally
  3. c) More

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

91) The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act accomplished which of the following?

 

  1. a) Defined the term dietary supplement AND established safety standards for manufacturing practices.
  2. b) Defined the term dietary supplement AND created standards for labeling products.
  3. c) Defined the term dietary supplement AND established safety standards for manufacturing practices AND created standards for labeling products.
  4. d) Established safety standards for manufacturing practices AND created standards for labeling products.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

Question Type: True/False

 

 

92) The FDA approves the safety and effectiveness of supplements before they are marketed.

 

Answer: False

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

93) Herbs may decrease the effectiveness of some medications.

 

Answer: True

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.2 Explain how the safety of dietary supplements is monitored.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

94) When reading the label of dietary supplements you should examine all of the following before considering their use, EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) the expiration date.
  2. b) nutrients that are at or under 100 % of the Daily Value.
  3. c) nutrients that exceed 100% of the Daily Value and exceed the UL.
  4. d) toxic levels of nutrients.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.3 Evaluate the safety of a dietary supplement using a Supplement Facts Panel.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

95) A friend of yours shows you this Supplement Facts panel from a supplement marketed to reduce appetite and therefore promote weight loss.  Which of the following statements is NOT one that you should share with your friend regarding the efficacy of this supplement?

  1. a) This product isn’t recommended as it contains more than 100% of the DV for vitamin B6 and panthothenic acid.
  2. b) I don’t recommend you use the product as it contains a number of ingredients that are not vitamins and minerals and therefore have no Daily Value or UL amounts.
  3. c) The FDA monitors the label, so it should be safe to take.
  4. d) I don’t recommend you take it because losing weight is all about lessening the number of kcalories you eat while increasing the number kcalories you burn.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.3 Evaluate the safety of a dietary supplement using a Supplement Facts Panel.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

96) Advocates of herbal supplements feel that the wide availability allows people more control of their own health care.  What are some limitations of this availability?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

Solution: Answers will vary, but include a discussion on the safety and labeling of the supplements, the interactions with other herbs and prescription medications, and cost of not seeking or following the advice of a physician.

 

 

97) Hippocrates recommended garlic, which is shown in this picture, for treating pneumonia and other infections. Although it is recognized now that garlic is not effective in treating these conditions, what health promoting property has recently been demonstrated for garlic? Who should avoid garlic supplements?

Photo credit: Abraham Nowitz/NG Image Collection

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

Solution: Recent research has shown that garlic may lower blood cholesterol. Therefore, those with heart disease or at heart disease risk may benefit from taking garlic supplements. Supplements could be harmful for people undergoing treatment for HIV infection, and could lead to bleeding in those taking the blood-thinning drug warfarin (Coumadin).

 

 

98) Herbal supplements are popular as a “natural” remedy for a variety of illnesses. Your family is planning a trip to Walt Disney World and your aunt gets motion sickness on airplanes.  She read that ginger helps to alleviate motion sickness.  Based on your increased knowledge about herbal supplements, would you recommend that your aunt take the ginger?  Why or why not?

 

Answer:

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 7.4 Explain the benefits and risks of vitamin, mineral, and herbal dietary supplements.

Learning Objective 2: LO 7.4.1 List some population groups that may benefit from vitamin and mineral supplements.

Section Reference 1: Section 7.4 Meeting Needs with Dietary Supplements.

Solution: Answers will vary, but could include the side effects of taking ginger (gas, bloating, heartburn, and nausea); that herbal supplements as with all dietary supplements are not regulated by the government; and that the research is limited on the effectiveness of ginger in the alleviation of motion sickness.