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Williams Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy 11th Edition Schlenker Gilbert Test Bank

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Williams Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy 11th Edition Schlenker Gilbert Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323185806

ISBN-10: 0323185800

 

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Williams Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy 11th Edition Schlenker Gilbert Test Bank

ISBN-13: 978-0323185806

ISBN-10: 0323185800

 

 

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Chapter 21: Diseases of the Heart, Blood Vessels, and Lungs

Schlenker & Gilbert: Williams’ Essentials of Nutrition and Diet Therapy, 11th Edition

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. Development of coronary heart disease is related to:
a. weakened coronary vessels.
b. chronic alcohol abuse.
c. lack of amino acids.
d. fibrous plaques in coronary vessels.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 482

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. In the process of atherosclerosis:
a. the blood vessels constrict, reducing blood supply.
b. plaque is deposited on the interior surface of the blood vessels.
c. the blood vessels become too elastic.
d. the heart can no longer circulate adequate blood volume.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 482

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The layer of the artery in which atherosclerotic plaque forms is the:
a. media.
b. intima.
c. adventitia.
d. ectoderm.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 482

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Plaque usually consists mainly of:
a. cholesterol.
b. saturated fat.
c. debris from dead cells.
d. low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   p. 482

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Several types of blood lipoproteins are synthesized in the:
a. liver.
b. spleen.
c. pancreas.
d. adrenal glands.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 485

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The function of lipoproteins in body metabolism is to transport:
a. triglycerides to and from the liver.
b. proteins to and from the cells.
c. lipids to and from the cells.
d. cholesterol to and from adipose tissues.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 485

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The class of lipoproteins that has the highest lipid content is:
a. chylomicrons.
b. very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL).
c. low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
d. intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL).

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 483

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The classes of lipoproteins that carry the most triglyceride by weight are:
a. VLDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL).
b. LDL and HDL.
c. chylomicrons and VLDL.
d. chylomicrons and HDL.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 483

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The class of lipoproteins that is most responsible for atherosclerosis and is considered “bad cholesterol” is:
a. LDL.
b. HDL.
c. VLDL.
d. chylomicrons.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 484

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The type of lipoprotein that is considered to be protective against cardiovascular disease is:
a. chylomicrons.
b. LDL.
c. IDL.
d. HDL.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 487

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The protein component that attaches itself to lipoproteins and has a significant effect on function is:
a. cholesterol.
b. apolipoprotein.
c. lipoprotein lipase.
d. phospholipid.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 487

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. In nutritional management of high serum cholesterol levels, TLC stands for:
a. therapeutic lifestyle changes.
b. therapy to lower cholesterol.
c. training for lifelong care.
d. therapeutic lipid control.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 488

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. In patients with elevated serum LDL cholesterol levels, monounsaturated fat intake should be:
a. less than 10% of energy intake.
b. at least 10% of energy intake.
c. up to 20% of energy intake.
d. less than 30% of energy intake.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 488

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Foods high in monounsaturated fats include:
a. fish and fish oil.
b. turkey.
c. oatmeal.
d. nuts.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 488

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. According to TLC recommendations, a type of fatty acid that should be avoided as much as possible is:
a. trans fatty acids.
b. saturated fatty acids.
c. short-chain fatty acids.
d. polyunsaturated fatty acids.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 488

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Fats high in polyunsaturated fats include:
a. stick margarine.
b. liquid vegetable oils.
c. hydrogenated oils.
d. butter.

 

 

ANS:  B

Butter contains mostly saturated fat; stick margarine and hydrogenated oils contain saturated fats and trans fats. Liquid vegetable oils are high in polyunsaturated fats.

 

DIF:    Hard               REF:   p. 489            MSC:  Type of Question: Application

 

  1. A desirable blood cholesterol level is:
a. less than 200 mg/dL.
b. 200 to 250 mg/dL.
c. 250 to 300 mg/dL.
d. 300 to 325 mg/dL.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 484

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The major principle that guides nutrition planning for clients who have coronary heart disease is:
a. elimination of dietary cholesterol.
b. reduction of saturated fat intake.
c. reduction of unsaturated fat intake.
d. decrease in fiber intake.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 484

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Good sources of soluble dietary fiber include:
a. cereal grains.
b. animal protein.
c. root vegetables.
d. oatmeal.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   p. 502

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Soluble fibers are believed to be beneficial for preventing heart disease because they:
a. expedite gastric emptying.
b. lower LDL cholesterol levels.
c. increase intestinal transit time.
d. quicken glucose absorption.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 502

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Therapeutic dietary options for enhancing lowering of LDL cholesterol include:
a. essential fatty acids.
b. branched-chain amino acids.
c. garlic.
d. plant sterols.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 489

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Drug therapy should be considered for patients with hypercholesterolemia when:
a. blood cholesterol levels are greater than 250 mg/dL.
b. they have multiple risk factors for coronary heart disease.
c. therapeutic lifestyle modifications have been unsuccessful after 3 months.
d. they experience symptoms of heart disease.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 489

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. When blood supply to a tissue or body part is reduced, the result is referred to as:
a. infarction.
b. hypotension.
c. ischemia.
d. cyanosis.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 483

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. A localized area of dead tissue is called a(n):
a. atheroma.
b. infarct.
c. embolus.
d. thrombus.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 483

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. If a patient who has just had a myocardial infarction has hypertension, his or her recommended diet would be:
a. low in sodium.
b. high in fiber.
c. soft texture.
d. low in saturated fat.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 491

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Congestive heart failure can lead to an imbalance in:
a. pancreatic enzymes.
b. cholesterol.
c. fluids and electrolytes.
d. lipoproteins.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 491

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The stimulus for the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism is:
a. edema.
b. decreased renal blood pressure.
c. pituitary hormones.
d. excess sodium in the extracellular fluid.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Congestive heart failure affects the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism so that:
a. excess fluid is excreted from the body.
b. excess sodium is excreted from the body.
c. fluids are retained by the body.
d. cardiac workload is reduced.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Nutrition therapy for clients who have congestive heart failure focuses on restriction of dietary intake of:
a. potassium.
b. sodium.
c. cholesterol.
d. saturated fat.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism tends to promote the retention of sodium and the excretion of:
a. calcium.
b. creatinine.
c. iron.
d. potassium.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The cause of essential hypertension is:
a. stress.
b. unknown.
c. high sodium intake.
d. chronic coronary heart disease.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. An important feature of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan is:
a. reducing intake of saturated fat, trans fat, and cholesterol.
b. eating a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products.
c. reducing respiratory quotient (RQ) by increasing fat and decreasing carbohydrate.
d. increasing soluble fiber and omega-3 fatty acids.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The upper limit of normal blood pressure in adults is considered to be:
a. 110/70 mm Hg.
b. 120/80 mm Hg.
c. 130/85 mm Hg.
d. 140/90 mm Hg.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 497

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The three types of body systems that maintain normal blood pressure are:
a. muscular, autonomic, and homeostatic systems.
b. emotional, psychological, and chemical systems.
c. neuroendocrine, hormonal, and enzyme systems.
d. cardiac, respiratory, and neural systems.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 496

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. In the United States, the incidence of stroke is highest among:
a. whites.
b. American Indians.
c. Asians.
d. African Americans.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 498

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The diagnosis of prehypertension, stage 1 hypertension, or stage 2 hypertension is based on:
a. sodium intake.
b. systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure.
c. amount of weight gain.
d. cholesterol level.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 497

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Medical nutrition therapy for treatment of hypertension includes:
a. fluid restriction.
b. increased intakes of potassium and calcium.
c. reduced carbohydrate intake.
d. decreased fat and protein intake.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 497

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The main source of dietary sodium is:
a. table salt.
b. processed foods.
c. herbs and other seasonings.
d. drinking water.

 

 

ANS:  B                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 497

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Most strokes are caused by:
a. hemorrhages.
b. edema.
c. blood clots.
d. inactivity.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 498

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often accompanied by:
a. malnutrition.
b. vitamin A deficiency.
c. edema.
d. electrolyte imbalances.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 500

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The factor that guides nutrition therapy for clients with COPD is the:
a. degree of catabolism that has taken place.
b. amount of stress the client is under.
c. RQ of each of the fuel nutrients.
d. age of the client.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 500

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Patients who have experienced stroke may need to eat softened foods and thickened liquids if they have:
a. hypertension.
b. edema.
c. depression.
d. dysphagia.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Easy               REF:   p. 500

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Clients with COPD should have intakes that are higher than is normally recommended for:
a. carbohydrate.
b. fat.
c. protein.
d. calcium.

 

 

ANS:  B

Recommended fat intake for patients with COPD is 30% to 45% of kcal. This is higher than the generally recommended 30% to 35% of kcal for the general population. The higher ratio of fat to carbohydrate helps reduce the RQ and reduce the workload for the lungs.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   pp. 500-501    MSC:  Type of Question: Application

 

  1. The most important factor that contributes to development of peripheral vascular disease is:
a. sodium intake.
b. saturated fat intake.
c. cigarette smoking.
d. alcohol intake.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Hard              REF:   p. 500

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The amount of fluid recommended for clients with pneumonia (who do not need fluid restrictions) is:
a. 1.5 to 2.0 L/day.
b. 2.0 to 2.5 L/day.
c. 2.5 to 3.0 L/day.
d. 3.0 to 3.5 L/day.

 

 

ANS:  D                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 501

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The objective of nutritional management for clients with tuberculosis is to:
a. maintain weight or prevent weight loss.
b. reduce stress on the lungs.
c. reduce edema and high blood pressure.
d. maintain adequate hydration.

 

 

ANS:  A                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 501

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. Elevated blood levels of C-reactive protein indicate:
a. infection.
b. atherosclerosis.
c. inflammation.
d. malnutrition.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 484

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. An example of a meal high in soluble fiber is:
a. split pea soup.
b. vegetable soup.
c. hamburger on a whole grain bun.
d. ravioli made with whole-wheat pasta.

 

 

ANS:  A

Legumes, such as dried peas, are high in soluble fiber. Vegetables and whole grains tend to contain more insoluble fiber.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 502            MSC:  Type of Question: Application

 

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids help decrease risk of heart disease by:
a. increasing HDL cholesterol levels.
b. decreasing blood pressure.
c. decreasing platelet aggregation.
d. increasing polyunsaturated fat intake.

 

 

ANS:  C                    DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 502

MSC:  Type of Question: Knowledge

 

  1. The food that would be lowest in sodium is:
a. frozen green beans.
b. canned green beans.
c. frozen green bean casserole.
d. canned bean salad.

 

 

ANS:  A

Canned, pre-prepared, and processed foods always contain added salt. Frozen green beans are frozen without seasoning and so these would be the lowest in sodium.

 

DIF:    Medium         REF:   p. 497            MSC:  Type of Question: Application